Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

diffusion Related Publications

14 On the Efficiency and Robustness of Commingle Wiener and Lévy Driven Processes for Vasciek Model

Authors: Rasaki O. Olanrewaju

Abstract:

The driven processes of Wiener and Lévy are known self-standing Gaussian-Markov processes for fitting non-linear dynamical Vasciek model. In this paper, a coincidental Gaussian density stationarity condition and autocorrelation function of the two driven processes were established. This led to the conflation of Wiener and Lévy processes so as to investigate the efficiency of estimates incorporated into the one-dimensional Vasciek model that was estimated via the Maximum Likelihood (ML) technique. The conditional laws of drift, diffusion and stationarity process was ascertained for the individual Wiener and Lévy processes as well as the commingle of the two processes for a fixed effect and Autoregressive like Vasciek model when subjected to financial series; exchange rate of Naira-CFA Franc. In addition, the model performance error of the sub-merged driven process was miniature compared to the self-standing driven process of Wiener and Lévy.

Keywords: Wiener process, diffusion, drift, Lévy process, Vasciek model, Gaussian density stationary

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13 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, carbonization, diffusion, porous silicon, electrochemical etching

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12 Modeling and Analysis of the Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Gas-Crossover in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: A. H. Abdol Rahim, Alhassan Salami Tijani

Abstract:

Hydrogen produced by means of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEME) is one of the most promising methods due to clean and renewable energy source. In the process, some energy loss due to mass transfer through a PEM is caused by diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and the pressure difference between the cathode channel and anode channel. In PEME, water molecules and ionic particles transferred between the electrodes from anode to cathode, Extensive mixing of the hydrogen and oxygen at anode channel due to gases cross-over must be avoided. In recent times the consciousness of safety issue in high pressure PEME where the oxygen mix with hydrogen at anode channel could create, explosive conditions have generated a lot of concern. In this paper, the steady state and simulation analysis of gases crossover in PEME on the temperature and pressure effect are presented. The simulations have been analysis in MATLAB based on the well-known Fick’s Law of molecular diffusion. The simulation results indicated that as temperature increases, there is a significant decrease in operating voltage.

Keywords: diffusion, steady state, gases cross-over

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11 Gas-Solid Nitrocarburizing of Steels: Kinetic Modeling and Experimental Validation

Authors: L. Torchane

Abstract:

The study is devoted to define the optimal conditions for the nitriding of pure iron at atmospheric pressure by using NH3- Ar-C3H8 gas mixtures. After studying the mechanisms of phase formation and mass transfer at the gas-solid interface, a mathematical model is developed in order to predict the nitrogen transfer rate in the solid, the ε-carbonitride layer growth rate and the nitrogen and carbon concentration profiles. In order to validate the model and to show its possibilities, it is compared with thermogravimetric experiments, analyses and metallurgical observations (X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis). Results obtained allow us to demonstrate the sound correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.

Keywords: kinetic model, diffusion, layer growth kinetic, gaseous nitrocarburizing

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10 Social Movements and the Diffusion of Tactics and Repertoires: Activists' Network in Anti-globalism Movement

Authors: Kyoko Tominaga

Abstract:

Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs), Social Enterprises and other actors play an important role in political decisions in governments at the international levels. Especially, such organizations’ and activists’ network in civil society is quite important to effect to the global politics. To solve the complex social problems in global era, diverse actors should corporate each other. Moreover, network of protesters is also contributes to diffuse tactics, information and other resources of social movements.

Based on the findings from the study of International Trade Fairs (ITFs), the author analyzes the network of activists in anti-globalism movement. This research focuses the transition of 54 activists’ whole network in the “protest event” against 2008 G8 summit in Japan. Their network is examined at the three periods: Before protest event phase, during protest event phase and after event phase. A mixed method is used in this study: the author shows the hypothesis from social network analysis and evaluates that with interview data analysis. This analysis gives the two results. Firstly, the more protesters participate to the various events during the protest event, the more they build the network. After that, active protesters keep their network as well. From interview data, we can understand that the active protesters can build their network and diffuse the information because they communicate with other participants and understand that diverse issues are related. This paper comes to same conclusion with previous researches: protest events activate the network among the political activists. However, some participants succeed to build their network, others do not. “Networked” activists are participated in the various events for short period of time and encourage the diffusion of information and tactics of social movements.

Keywords: Social Movement, Global justice movement, Tactics, diffusion

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9 Use of Recycled PVB as a Protection against Carbonation

Authors: Michael Tupý, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

The paper is focused on testing of the poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) layer which had the function of a CO2 insulating protection against concrete and mortar carbonation. The barrier efficiency of PVB was verified by the measurement of diffusion characteristics. Two different types of PVB were tested; original extruded PVB sheet and PVB sheet made from PVB dispersion which was obtained from recycled windshields. The work deals with the testing CO2 diffusion when polymer sheets were exposed to a CO2 atmosphere (10% v/v CO2) with 0% RH. The excellent barrier capability against CO2 permeability of original and also recycled types of PVB layers was observed. This application of PVB waste can bring advantageous use in civil engineering and significant environmental contribution.

Keywords: mortar, diffusion, windshield, poly(vinyl butyral), carbonatation, polymer waste

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8 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: Phase Formation, diffusion, binary systems, interfacial reaction, compound layers, growth kinetics

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7 Mathematical Modeling of the AMCs Cross-Contamination Removal in the FOUPs: Finite Element Formulation and Application in FOUP’s Decontamination

Authors: N. Santatriniaina, J. Deseure, T.Q. Nguyen, H. Fontaine, C. Beitia, L. Rakotomanana

Abstract:

Nowadays, with the increasing of the wafer's size and the decreasing of critical size of integrated circuit manufacturing in modern high-tech, microelectronics industry needs a maximum attention to challenge the contamination control. The move to 300 [mm] is accompanied by the use of Front Opening Unified Pods for wafer and his storage. In these pods an airborne cross contamination may occur between wafers and the pods. A predictive approach using modeling and computational methods is very powerful method to understand and qualify the AMCs cross contamination processes. This work investigates the required numerical tools which are employed in order to study the AMCs cross-contamination transfer phenomena between wafers and FOUPs. Numerical optimization and finite element formulation in transient analysis were established. Analytical solution of one dimensional problem was developed and the calibration process of physical constants was performed. The least square distance between the model (analytical 1D solution) and the experimental data are minimized. The behavior of the AMCs intransient analysis was determined. The model framework preserves the classical forms of the diffusion and convection-diffusion equations and yields to consistent form of the Fick's law. The adsorption process and the surface roughness effect were also traduced as a boundary condition using the switch condition Dirichlet to Neumann and the interface condition. The methodology is applied, first using the optimization methods with analytical solution to define physical constants, and second using finite element method including adsorption kinetic and the switch of Dirichlet to Neumann condition.

Keywords: Optimization, Numerical Analysis, Adsorption, AMCs, FOUP, cross-contamination, diffusion, wafers, Dirichlet to Neumann, Fick’s law, finite elements methods

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6 Solving Differential's Equation of Carrier Load on Semiconductor

Authors: Vahid Fayaz, Morteza Amirabadi, Fereshteh Felegary, Hossien Hossienkhani

Abstract:

The most suitable Semiconductor detector, Cadmium Zinc Teloraid , has unique properties because of high Atomic number and wide Brand Gap . It has been tried in this project with different processes such as Lead , Diffusion , Produce and Recombination , effect of Trapping and injection carrier of CdZnTe , to get hole and then present a complete answer of it . Then we should investigate the movement of carrier ( Electron – Hole ) by using above answer.

Keywords: diffusion, trapping, Semiconcuctor detector, Recommbination

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5 Mathematical Modelling of Transport Phenomena in Radioactive Waste-Cement-Bentonite Matrix

Authors: Ilija Plecas, Uranija Kozmidis-Luburic, Radojica Pesic

Abstract:

The leaching rate of 137Cs from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source an equation for diffusion coupled to a firstorder equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Keywords: cement, radioactive waste, Disposal, Composite, bentonite, diffusion

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4 Species Spreading due to Environmental Hostility, Dispersal Adaptation and Allee Effects

Authors: Sanjeeva Balasuriya

Abstract:

A phenomenological model for species spreading which incorporates the Allee effect, a species- maximum attainable growth rate, collective dispersal rate and dispersal adaptability is presented. This builds on a well-established reaction-diffusion model for spatial spreading of invading organisms. The model is phrased in terms of the “hostility" (which quantifies the Allee threshold in relation to environmental sustainability) and dispersal adaptability (which measures how a species is able to adapt its migratory response to environmental conditions). The species- invading/retreating speed and the sharpness of the invading boundary are explicitly characterised in terms of the fundamental parameters, and analysed in detail.

Keywords: Dispersal, diffusion, allee effect, migration speed, invasion

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3 Numerical Solution of the Equations of Salt Diffusion into the Potato Tissues

Authors: Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi, Frazaneh Hashemi, Ramin Mostafazadeh

Abstract:

Fick's second law equations for unsteady state diffusion of salt into the potato tissues were solved numerically. The set of equations resulted from implicit modeling were solved using Thomas method to find the salt concentration profiles in solid phase. The needed effective diffusivity and equilibrium distribution coefficient were determined experimentally. Cylindrical samples of potato were infused with aqueous NaCl solutions of 1-3% concentrations, and variations in salt concentrations of brine were determined over time. Solute concentrations profiles of samples were determined by measuring salt uptake of potato slices. For the studied conditions, equilibrium distribution coefficients were found to be dependent on salt concentrations, whereas the effective diffusivity was slightly affected by brine concentration.

Keywords: Modeling, potato, diffusion, brine, diffusivity

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2 A Diffusion Least-Mean Square Algorithm for Distributed Estimation over Sensor Networks

Authors: Amir Rastegarnia, Mohammad Ali Tinati, Azam Khalili

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the issue of distributed adaptive estimation over sensor networks. To deal with more realistic scenario, different variance for observation noise is assumed for sensors in the network. To solve the problem of different variance of observation noise, the proposed method is divided into two phases: I) Estimating each sensor-s observation noise variance and II) using the estimated variances to obtain the desired parameter. Our proposed algorithm is based on a diffusion least mean square (LMS) implementation with linear combiner model. In the proposed algorithm, the step-size parameter the coefficients of linear combiner are adjusted according to estimated observation noise variances. As the simulation results show, the proposed algorithm considerably improves the diffusion LMS algorithm given in literature.

Keywords: Sensor Network, Distributed Estimation, diffusion, adaptive filter

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1 Diffusion of Mobile Entertainment in Malaysia: Drivers and Barriers

Authors: C. C. Wong, P. L. Hiew

Abstract:

This research aims to examine the key success factors for the diffusion of mobile entertainment services in Malaysia. The drivers and barriers observed in this research include perceived benefit; concerns pertaining to pricing, product and technological standardization, privacy and security; as well as influences from peers and community. An analysis of a Malaysian survey of 384 respondents between 18 to 25 years shows that subscribers placed greater importance on perceived benefit of mobile entertainment services compared to other factors. Results of the survey also show that there are strong positive correlations between all the factors, with pricing issue–perceived benefit showing the strongest relationship. This paper aims to provide an extensive study on the drivers and barriers that could be used to derive architecture for entertainment service provision to serve as a guide for telcos to outline suitable approaches in order to encourage mass market adoption of mobile entertainment services in Malaysia.

Keywords: barriers, Drivers, diffusion, correlations, Mobile Entertainment

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