Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Diagnosis Related Publications

15 Performing Diagnosis in Building with Partially Valid Heterogeneous Tests

Authors: Mahendra Pratap Singh, Houda Najeh, Stéphane Ploix, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim, Antoine Caucheteux

Abstract:

Building system is highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and human misbehaviors. Energy efficiency and user comfort are directly targeted due to abnormalities in building operation. The available fault diagnosis tools and methodologies particularly rely on rules or pure model-based approaches. It is assumed that model or rule-based test could be applied to any situation without taking into account actual testing contexts. Contextual tests with validity domain could reduce a lot of the design of detection tests. The main objective of this paper is to consider fault validity when validate the test model considering the non-modeled events such as occupancy, weather conditions, door and window openings and the integration of the knowledge of the expert on the state of the system. The concept of heterogeneous tests is combined with test validity to generate fault diagnoses. A combination of rules, range and model-based tests known as heterogeneous tests are proposed to reduce the modeling complexity. Calculation of logical diagnoses coming from artificial intelligence provides a global explanation consistent with the test result. An application example shows the efficiency of the proposed technique: an office setting at Grenoble Institute of Technology.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Validity, fault detection and isolation, building system, heterogeneous tests, sensor fault, sensor grids

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14 Automatic Thresholding for Data Gap Detection for a Set of Sensors in Instrumented Buildings

Authors: Mahendra Pratap Singh, Houda Najeh, Stéphane Ploix, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract:

Building systems are highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and failures. In fact, various faults, failures and human behaviors could affect the building performance. This paper tackles the detection of unreliable sensors in buildings. Different literature surveys on diagnosis techniques for sensor grids in buildings have been published but all of them treat only bias and outliers. Occurences of data gaps have also not been given an adequate span of attention in the academia. The proposed methodology comprises the automatic thresholding for data gap detection for a set of heterogeneous sensors in instrumented buildings. Sensor measurements are considered to be regular time series. However, in reality, sensor values are not uniformly sampled. So, the issue to solve is from which delay each sensor become faulty? The use of time series is required for detection of abnormalities on the delays. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on measurements obtained from a real power plant: an office at Grenoble Institute of technology equipped by 30 sensors.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Time series, delay, outliers, building system, data gap

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13 Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: Diagnosis, cortisol, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis, neurological disease

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12 Noninvasive Disease Diagnosis through Breath Analysis Using DNA-Functionalized SWNT Sensor Array

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Ming L. Wang

Abstract:

Noninvasive diagnostics of diseases via breath analysis has attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest for many years and become more and more promising with the rapid advancements in nanotechnology and biotechnology. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, which are mainly blood borne, particularly provide highly valuable information about individuals’ physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Additionally, breath analysis is noninvasive, real-time, painless, and agreeable to patients. We have developed a wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for the detection of a number of physiological indicators in breath. Seven DNA sequences were used to functionalize SWNT sensors to detect trace amount of methanol, benzene, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, acetone, and ethanol, which are indicators of heavy smoking, excessive drinking, and diseases such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes. Our test results indicated that DNA functionalized SWNT sensors exhibit great selectivity, sensitivity, and repeatability; and different molecules can be distinguished through pattern recognition enabled by this sensor array. Furthermore, the experimental sensing results are consistent with the Molecular Dynamics simulated ssDNAmolecular target interaction rankings. Thus, the DNA-SWNT sensor array has great potential to be applied in chemical or biomolecular detection for the noninvasive diagnostics of diseases and personal health monitoring.

Keywords: Diagnosis, breath analysis, DNA-SWNT sensor array, noninvasive

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11 Motor Gear Fault Diagnosis by Current, Noise and Vibration on AC Machine Considering Environment

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Ki-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Cho

Abstract:

Lots of motors have been being used in industry. Therefore many researchers have studied about the failure diagnosis of motors. In this paper, the effect of measuring environment for diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and abnormal gear. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. For bad and good environment, the diagnosis results are compared. From these, it is shown that the bad measuring environment may not be able to detect exactly the motor gear fault. Therefore it is emphasized that the measuring environment should be carefully prepared.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Vibration, Noise, FFT, motor fault, measuring environment, q-axis current

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10 Patients’ Perceptions of Receiving a Diagnosis of a Hematological Malignancy, Following the SPIKES Protocol

Authors: L. Dixon, D. Gavani

Abstract:

Objective: Sharing devastating news with patients is often considered the most difficult task of doctors. This study aimed to explore patients’ perceptions of receiving bad news including which features improve the experience and which areas need refining. Methods: A questionnaire was written based on the steps of the SPIKES model for breaking bad new. 20 patients receiving treatment for a hematological malignancy completed the questionnaire. Results: Overall, the results are promising as most patients praised their consultation. ‘Poor’ was more commonly rated by women and participants aged 45-64. The main differences between the ‘excellent’ and ‘poor’ consultations include the doctor’s sensitivity and checking the patients’ understanding. Only 35% of patients were asked their existing knowledge and 85% of consultations failed to discuss the impact of the diagnosis on daily life. Conclusion: This study agreed with the consensus of existing literature. The commended aspects include consultation set-up and information given. Areas patients felt needed improvement include doctors determining the patient’s existing knowledge and checking new information has been understood. Doctors should also explore how the diagnosis will affect the patient’s life. With a poorer prognosis, doctors should work on conveying appropriate hope. The study was limited by a small sample size and potential recall bias.

Keywords: Communication, Diagnosis, Hematology, patients

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9 High Accuracy ESPRIT-TLS Technique for Wind Turbine Fault Discrimination

Authors: Saad Chakkor, Mostafa Baghouri, Abderrahmane Hajraoui

Abstract:

ESPRIT-TLS method appears a good choice for high resolution fault detection in induction machines. It has a very high effectiveness in the frequency and amplitude identification. Contrariwise, it presents a high computation complexity which affects its implementation in real time fault diagnosis. To avoid this problem, a Fast-ESPRIT algorithm that combined the IIR band-pass filtering technique, the decimation technique and the original ESPRIT-TLS method was employed to enhance extracting accurately frequencies and their magnitudes from the wind stator current with less computation cost. The proposed algorithm has been applied to verify the wind turbine machine need in the implementation of an online, fast, and proactive condition monitoring. This type of remote and periodic maintenance provides an acceptable machine lifetime, minimize its downtimes and maximize its productivity. The developed technique has evaluated by computer simulations under many fault scenarios. Study results prove the performance of Fast- ESPRIT offering rapid and high resolution harmonics recognizing with minimum computation time and less memory cost.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Spectral estimation, real time, Decimation, ESPRIT-TLS, Wind Turbine Faults, Band-Pass Filtering

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8 Novel Nanomagnetic Beads Based - Latex Agglutination Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Haematobium

Authors: Ibrahim Aly, Rabab Zalat, Bahaa EL Deen W. El Aswad, Ismail M. Moharm, Basam M. Masoud, Tarek Diab

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay (NMB-LAT) as a simple test for diagnosis of S. haematobium as well as standardize the novel nanomagnetic beads based –ELISA (NMB-ELISA). According to urine examination this study included 85 S. haematobium infected patients, 30 other parasites infected patients and 25 negative control samples. The sensitivity of novel NMB-LAT was 82.4% versus 96.5% and 88.2% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. The specificity of NMB-LAT was 83.6% versus 96.3% and 87.3% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. In conclusion, the novel NMB-ELISA is a valuable applicable diagnostic technique for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. The novel NMB-ELISA assay is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. Trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of NMB-ELISA assay.

Keywords: Diagnosis, nanomagnetic beads, sandwich ELISA, Latex agglutination

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7 Intelligent Condition Monitoring Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Robots

Authors: A. P. Anvar, T. Dowling, T. Putland, A. M. Anvar, S.Grainger

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of Intelligent Techniques to the various duties of Intelligent Condition Monitoring Systems (ICMS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Robots. These Systems are intended to support these Intelligent Robots in the event of a Fault occurrence. Neural Networks are used for Diagnosis, whilst Fuzzy Logic is intended for Prognosis and Remedy. The ultimate goals of ICMS are to save large losses in financial cost, time and data.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Robots, Diagnosis, Fuzzy Logic, UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Intelligent Techniques, prognosis, fault, remedy, Condition Monitoring Systems, ICMS

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6 A Methodology for Quality Problems Diagnosis in SMEs

Authors: Humberto N. Teixeira, Isabel S. Lopes, Sérgio D. Sousa

Abstract:

This article proposes a new methodology to be used by SMEs (Small and Medium enterprises) to characterize their performance in quality, highlighting weaknesses and area for improvement. The methodology aims to identify the principal causes of quality problems and help to prioritize improvement initiatives. This is a self-assessment methodology that intends to be easy to implement by companies with low maturity level in quality. The methodology is organized in six different steps which includes gathering information about predetermined processes and subprocesses of quality management, defined based on the well-known Juran-s trilogy for quality management (Quality planning, quality control and quality improvement) and, predetermined results categories, defined based on quality concept. A set of tools for data collecting and analysis, such as interviews, flowcharts, process analysis diagrams and Failure Mode and effects Analysis (FMEA) are used. The article also presents the conclusions obtained in the application of the methodology in two cases studies.

Keywords: Quality management, Diagnosis, SMEs, Self-Assessment, continuous improvement

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5 Differentiation of Cancerous Prostate tissue from Non-Cancerous Prostate tissue by using Elastic Light Single-Scattering Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study

Authors: T. Denkçeken, M. Canpolat, Đ. Bassorgun, S. Yücel, M.A. Çiftçioğlu, M. Baykara Murat Canpolat, Tuba Denkçeken, Đbrahim Bassorgun, Selçuk Yücel, M. Akif Çiftçioğlu, Mehmet Baykara

Abstract:

Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy system with a single optical fiber probe was employed to differentiate cancerous prostate tissue from non-cancerous prostate tissue ex-vivo just after radical prostatectomy. First, ELSSS spectra were acquired from cancerous prostate tissue to define its spectral features. Then, spectra were acquired from normal prostate tissue to define difference in spectral features between the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Of the total 66 tissue samples were evaluated from nine patients by ELSSS system. Comparing of histopathology results and ELSSS measurements revealed that sign of the spectral slopes of cancerous prostate tissue is negative and non-cancerous tissue is positive in the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm. Based on the correlation between histopathology results and sign of the spectral slopes, ELSSS system differentiates cancerous prostate tissue from non- cancerous with a sensitivity of 0.95 and a specificity of 0.94.

Keywords: Diagnosis, prostatectomy, spectrum analysis, prostatic neoplasm

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4 A Data Warehouse System to Help Assist Breast Cancer Screening in Diagnosis, Education and Research

Authors: Souad DEMIGHA

Abstract:

Early detection of breast cancer is considered as a major public health issue. Breast cancer screening is not generalized to the entire population due to a lack of resources, staff and appropriate tools. Systematic screening can result in a volume of data which can not be managed by present computer architecture, either in terms of storage capabilities or in terms of exploitation tools. We propose in this paper to design and develop a data warehouse system in radiology-senology (DWRS). The aim of such a system is on one hand, to support this important volume of information providing from multiple sources of data and images and for the other hand, to help assist breast cancer screening in diagnosis, education and research.

Keywords: Education, Diagnosis, Research, data warehouse, breast cancer screening

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3 Fault Detection of Broken Rotor Bars Using Stator Current Spectrum for the Direct Torque Control Induction Motor

Authors: Ridha Kechida, Arezki Menacer, Abdelhamid Benakcha

Abstract:

The numerous qualities of squirrel cage induction machines enhance their use in industry. However, various faults can occur, such as stator short-circuits and rotor failures. In this paper, we use a technique based on the spectral analysis of stator current in order to detect the fault in the machine: broken rotor bars. Thus, the number effect of the breaks has been highlighted. The effect is highlighted by considering the machine controlled by the Direct Torque Control (DTC). The key to fault detection is the development of a simplified dynamic model of a squirrel cage induction motor taking account the broken bars fault and the stator current spectrum analysis (FFT).

Keywords: Diagnosis, Induction Motor, DTC, Rotor faults, statorcurrent spectrum

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2 On-line Testing of Software Components for Diagnosis of Embedded Systems

Authors: Thi-Quynh Bui, Oum-El-Kheir Aktouf

Abstract:

This paper studies the dependability of componentbased applications, especially embedded ones, from the diagnosis point of view. The principle of the diagnosis technique is to implement inter-component tests in order to detect and locate the faulty components without redundancy. The proposed approach for diagnosing faulty components consists of two main aspects. The first one concerns the execution of the inter-component tests which requires integrating test functionality within a component. This is the subject of this paper. The second one is the diagnosis process itself which consists of the analysis of inter-component test results to determine the fault-state of the whole system. Advantage of this diagnosis method when compared to classical redundancy faulttolerant techniques are application autonomy, cost-effectiveness and better usage of system resources. Such advantage is very important for many systems and especially for embedded ones.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Fault tolerance, dependability, middlewares, embeddedsystems, inter-component testing

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1 Intelligent System for Breast Cancer Prognosis using Multiwavelet Packets and Neural Network

Authors: Sepehr M.H.Jamarani, M.H.Moradi, H.Behnam, G.A.Rezai Rad

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for early breast cancer diagnostic by employing combination of artificial neural networks (ANN) and multiwaveletpacket based subband image decomposition. The microcalcifications correspond to high-frequency components of the image spectrum, detection of microcalcifications is achieved by decomposing the mammograms into different frequency subbands,, reconstructing the mammograms from the subbands containing only high frequencies. For this approach we employed different types of multiwaveletpacket. We used the result as an input of neural network for classification. The proposed methodology is tested using the Nijmegen and the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) mammographic databases and images collected from local hospitals. Results are presented as the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) performance and are quantified by the area under the ROC curve.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Diagnosis, Breast Cancer, multiwavelet packet, microcalcification

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