Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Desalination Related Publications

20 Eco-friendly and Cleaner Process for Isolation of Essential Oil Using Photovoltaic Energy: Experimental and Theoretical Study

Authors: Sbita Lassaâd, Hanen Nafaa, Maissa Farhat, Sina Ouriemi

Abstract:

The use of renewable energies is growing significantly worldwide. Faced with the increasing demand for electrical energy, mainly for the needs of remote, deserted and mountainous regions, numerous applications use photovoltaic energy. In this sense, the proposed study concerns a mathematical modeling and an experimental validation for the recovery of essential oil by a steam distillation system using photovoltaic energy. In this paper, we proceed to a modeling of the solar system that includes a photovoltaic (PV) generator with an electronic power converter allowing a continuation of the optimum operating point. The results obtained are promising and are validated practically.

Keywords: Desalination, Photovoltaic Energy, DC-DC converter, solar generator, Boiling in tubes, maximum power point tracking command

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19 A Performance Analysis Study of an Active Solar Still Integrating Fin at the Basin Plate

Authors: M. Bakhouya, O. Ansari, H. Hafs, A. Bah, M. Asbik, M. Malha

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important and vulnerable natural resources due to human activities and climate change. Water-level continues declining year after year and it is primarily caused by sustained, extensive, and traditional usage methods. Improving water utilization becomes an urgent issue in order satisfy the increasing population needs. Desalination of seawater or brackish water could help in increasing water potential. However, a cost-effective desalination process is required. The most appropriate method for performing this desalination is solar-driven distillation, given its simplicity, low cost and especially the availability of the solar energy source. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of coupling integrated basin plate by fins with preheating by solar collector on the performance of solar still. The energy balance equations for the various elements of the solar still are introduced. A numerical example is used to show the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Desalination, fins, Solar Collector, active solar still, Brackisch water

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18 Performance Assessment of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser during ‘Hot Standby’ Operation

Authors: M. J. Baum, B. Gibbes, A. Grinham, S. Albert, D. Gale, P. Fisher

Abstract:

Alongside the rapid expansion of Seawater Reverse Osmosis technologies there is a concurrent increase in the production of hypersaline brine by-products. To minimize environmental impact, these by-products are commonly disposed into open-coastal environments via submerged diffuser systems as inclined dense jet outfalls. Despite the widespread implementation of this process, diffuser designs are typically based on small-scale laboratory experiments under idealistic quiescent conditions. Studies concerning diffuser performance in the field are limited. A set of experiments were conducted to assess the near field characteristics of brine disposal at the Gold Coast Desalination Plant offshore multiport diffuser. The aim of the field experiments was to determine the trajectory and dilution characteristics of the plume under various discharge configurations with production ranging 66 – 100% of plant operative capacity. The field monitoring system employed an unprecedented static array of temperature and electrical conductivity sensors in a three-dimensional grid surrounding a single diffuser port. Complimenting these measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers were also deployed to record current variability over the depth of the water column and wave characteristics. Recorded data suggested the open-coastal environment was highly active over the experimental duration with ambient velocities ranging 0.0 – 0.5 m∙s-1, with considerable variability over the depth of the water column observed. Variations in background electrical conductivity corresponding to salinity fluctuations of ± 1.7 g∙kg-1 were also observed. Increases in salinity were detected during plant operation and appeared to be most pronounced 10 – 30 m from the diffuser, consistent with trajectory predictions described by existing literature. Plume trajectories and respective dilutions extrapolated from salinity data are compared with empirical scaling arguments. Discharge properties were found to adequately correlate with modelling projections. Temporal and spatial variation of background processes and their subsequent influence upon discharge outcomes are discussed with a view to incorporating the influence of waves and ambient currents in the design of brine outfalls into the future.

Keywords: Desalination, Brine disposal, Field Study, negatively buoyant discharge, inclined dense jets

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17 A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Younes Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Design, Desalination, Condensation, desiccant wheel

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16 Simulation and Analysis of Control System for a Solar Desalination System

Authors: R. Kumaravelan, R. Prakash, B. Meenakshipriya

Abstract:

Fresh water is one of the resources which is getting depleted day by day. A wise method to address this issue is by the application of renewable energy-sun irradiation and by means of decentralized, cheap, energetically self-sufficient, robust and simple to operate plants, distillates can be obtained from sea, river or even sewage. Solar desalination is a technique used to desalinate water using solar energy. The present work deals with the comprehensive design and simulation of solar tracking system using LabVIEW, temperature and mass flow rate control of the solar desalination plant using LabVIEW and also analysis of single phase inverter circuit with LC filters for solar pumping system in MATLAB. The main objective of this work is to improve the performance of solar desalination system using automatic tracking system, output control using temperature and mass flow rate control system and also to reduce the harmonic distortion in the solar pumping system by means of LC filters. The simulation of single phase inverter was carried out using MATLAB and the output waveforms were analyzed. Simulations were performed for optimum output temperature control, which in turn controls the mass flow rate of water in the thermal collectors. Solar tracking system was accomplished using LABVIEW and was tested successfully. The thermal collectors are tracked in accordance with the sun’s irradiance levels, thereby increasing the efficiency of the thermal collectors.

Keywords: Desalination, Reverse osmosis, MATLAB, labview, PWM inverter, Electro dialysis

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15 Thermodynamic Evaluation of Coupling APR1400 with a Thermal Desalination Plant

Authors: M. Gomaa Abdoelatef, Robert M. Field, Lee, Yong-Kwan

Abstract:

Growing human population has placed increased demands on water supplies and spurred a heightened interest in desalination infrastructure. Key elements of the economics of desalination projects are thermal and electrical inputs. With growing concerns over use of fossil fuels to (indirectly) supply these inputs, coupling of desalination with nuclear power production represents a significant opportunity. Individually, nuclear and desalination technologies have a long history and are relatively mature. For desalination, Reverse Osmosis (RO) has the lowest energy inputs. However, the economically driven output quality of the water produced using RO, which uses only electrical inputs, is lower than the output water quality from thermal desalination plants. Therefore, modern desalination projects consider that RO should be coupled with thermal desalination technologies (MSF, MED, or MED-TVC) with attendant steam inputs to permit blending to produce various qualities of water. A large nuclear facility is well positioned to dispatch large quantities of both electrical and thermal power. This paper considers the supply of thermal energy to a large desalination facility to examine heat balance impact on the nuclear steam cycle. The APR1400 nuclear plant is selected as prototypical from both a capacity and turbine cycle heat balance perspective to examine steam supply and the impact on electrical output. Extraction points and quantities of steam are considered parametrically along with various types of thermal desalination technologies to form the basis for further evaluations of economically optimal approaches to the interface of nuclear power production with desalination projects. In our study, the thermodynamic evaluation will be executed by DE-TOP, an IAEA sponsored program. DE-TOP has capabilities to analyze power generation systems coupled to desalination plants through various steam extraction positions, taking into consideration the isolation loop between the nuclear and the thermal desalination facilities (i.e., for radiological isolation).

Keywords: Desalination, Cogeneration, MED, MED-TVC, MSF, DE-TOP, IAEA, APR1400

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14 Effect of Evaporator Temperature on the Performance of Water Desalination/Refrigeration Adsorption System Using AQSOA-ZO2

Authors: Peter G. Youssef, Saad M. Mahmoud, Raya K. Al-Dadah

Abstract:

Many water desalination technologies have been developed but in general they are energy intensive and have high cost and adverse environmental impact. Recently, adsorption technology for water desalination has been investigated showing the potential of using low temperature waste heat (50-85oC) thus reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This work mathematically compares the performance of an adsorption cycle that produces two useful effects namely, fresh water and cooling using two different adsorbents, silica-gel and an advanced zeolite material AQSOA-ZO2, produced by Mitsubishi plastics. It was found that at low chilled water temperatures, typically below 20oC, the AQSOA-Z02 is more efficient than silica-gel as the cycle can produce 5.8 m3 of fresh water per day and 50.1 Rton of cooling per tonne of AQSOA-ZO2. Above 20oC silica-gel is still better as the cycle production reaches 8.4 m3 per day and 62.4 Rton per tonne of silica-gel. These results show the potential of using the AQSOA-Z02 at low chilled water temperature for water desalination and cooling applications.

Keywords: Desalination, Refrigeration, Adsorption, Seawater

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13 Indirect Solar Desalination: Value Engineering and Cost Benefit Analysis

Authors: Grace Rachid, Mutasem El-Fadel, Mahmoud Al-Hindi, Ibrahim Jamali, Daniel Abdel Nour

Abstract:

This study examines the feasibility of indirect solar desalination in oil producing countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It relies on value engineering (VE) and costbenefit with sensitivity analyses to identify optimal coupling configurations of desalination and solar energy technologies. A comparative return on investment was assessed as a function of water costs for varied plant capacities (25,000 to 75,000 m3/day), project lifetimes (15 to 25 years), and discount rates (5 to 15%) taking into consideration water and energy subsidies, land cost as well as environmental externalities in the form of carbon credit related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. The results showed reverse osmosis (RO) coupled with photovoltaic technologies (PVs) as the most promising configuration, robust across different prices for Brent oil, discount rates, as well as different project lifetimes. Environmental externalities and subsidies analysis revealed that a 16% reduction in existing subsidy on water tariffs would ensure economic viability. Additionally, while land costs affect investment attractiveness, the viability of RO coupled with PV remains possible for a land purchase cost <$ 80/m2 or a lease rate <$1/m2/yr. Beyond those rates, further subsidy lifting is required.

Keywords: Solar energy, Desalination, Value Engineering, carbon credit, CBA, subsidies

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12 A Case Study on Management of Coal Seam Gas By-Product Water

Authors: Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, Mohammad G. Rasul, Mojibul Sajjad

Abstract:

The rate of natural gas dissociation from the Coal Matrix depends on depressurization of reservoir through removing of the cleat water from the coal seam. These waters are similar to brine and aged of very long years. For improving the connectivity through fracking /fracturing, high pressure liquids are pumped off inside the coal body. A significant quantity of accumulated water, a combined mixture of cleat water and fracking fluids (back flow water) is pumped out through gas well. In Queensland, Australia Coal Seam Gas (CSG) industry is in booming state and estimated of 30,000 wells would be active for CSG production forecasting life span of 30 years. Integrated water management along with water softening programs is practiced for subsequent treatment and later on discharge to nearby surface water catchment. Water treatment is an important part of the CSG industry. A case study on a CSG site and review on the test results are discussed for assessing the Standards & Practices for management of CSG by-product water and their subsequent disposal activities. This study was directed toward (i) water management and softening process in Spring Gully CSG field, (ii) Comparative analysis on experimental study and standards and (iii) Disposal of the treated water. This study also aimed for alternative usages and their impact on vegetation, living species as well as long term effects.

Keywords: Desalination, Reverse osmosis, coal seam gas (CSG), cleat water, hydro-fracking

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11 An Investigation into the Potential of Industrial Low Grade Heat in Membrane Distillation for Freshwater Production

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Ahmad Kayvani Fard

Abstract:

Membrane distillation is an emerging technology which has been used to produce freshwater and purify different types of aqueous mixtures. Qatar is an arid country where almost 100% of its freshwater demand is supplied through the energy-intensive thermal desalination process. The country’s need for water has reached an all-time high which stipulates finding an alternative way to augment freshwater without adding any drastic affect to the environment. The objective of this paper was to investigate the potential of using the industrial low grade waste heat to produce freshwater using membrane distillation. The main part of this work was conducting a heat audit on selected Qatari chemical industries to estimate the amounts of freshwater produced if such industrial waste heat were to be recovered. By the end of this work, the main objective was met and the heat audit conducted on the Qatari chemical industries enabled us to estimate both the amounts of waste heat which can be potentially recovered in addition to the amounts of freshwater which can be produced if such waste heat were to be recovered.

By the end, the heat audit showed that around 605 Mega Watts of waste heat can be recovered from the studied Qatari chemical industries which resulted in a total daily production of 5078.7 cubic meter of freshwater.

This water can be used in a wide variety of applications such as human consumption or industry. The amount of produced freshwater may look small when compared to that produced through thermal desalination plants; however, one must bear in mind that this water comes from waste and can be used to supply water for small cities or remote areas which are not connected to the water grid. The idea of producing freshwater from the two widely-available wastes (thermal rejected brine and waste heat) seems promising as less environmental and economic impacts will be associated with freshwater production which may in the near future augment the conventional way of producing freshwater currently being thermal desalination. This work has shown that low grade waste heat in the chemical industries in Qatar and perhaps the rest of the world can contribute to additional production of freshwater using membrane distillation without significantly adding to the environmental impact.

Keywords: Environment, Desalination, Membrane distillation, Heat recovery

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10 Combination of Electrodialysis and Electrodeionization for Treatment of Condensate from Ammonium Nitrate Production

Authors: Lubomir Machuca, Vit Fara

Abstract:

Ammonium nitrate (AN) is produced by the reaction of ammonia and nitric acid, and a waste condensate is obtained. The condensate contains pure AN in concentration up to 10g/L. The salt content in the condensate is too high to discharge immediately into the river thus it must be treated. This study is concerned with the treatment of condensates from an industrial AN production by combination of electrodialysis (ED) and electrodeionization (EDI). The condensate concentration was in range 1.9–2.5g/L of AN. A pilot ED module with 25 membrane pairs following by a laboratory EDI module with 10 membrane pairs operated continuously during 800 hours. Results confirmed that the combination of ED and EDI is suitable for the condensate treatment.

Keywords: Desalination, electrodialysis, electrodeionization, fertilizer industry

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9 Efficiency of Membrane Distillation to Produce Fresh Water

Authors: Sabri Mrayed, David Maccioni, Greg Leslie

Abstract:

Seawater desalination has been accepted as one of the most effective solutions to the growing problem of a diminishing clean drinking water supply. Currently two desalination technologies dominate the market – the thermally driven multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and the membrane based reverse osmosis (RO). However, in recent years membrane distillation (MD) has emerged as a potential alternative to the established means of desalination. This research project intended to determine the viability of MD as an alternative process to MSF and RO for seawater desalination. Specifically the project involves conducting thermodynamic analysis of the process based on the second law of thermodynamics to determine the efficiency of the MD. Data was obtained from experiments carried out on a laboratory rig. To determine exergy values required for the exergy analysis, two separate models were built in Engineering Equation Solver – the ’Minimum Separation Work Model’ and the ‘Stream Exergy Model’. The efficiency of MD process was found to be 17.3 % and the energy consumption was determined to be 4.5 kWh to produce one cubic meter of fresh water. The results indicate MD has potential as a technique for seawater desalination compared to RO and MSF. However it was shown that this was only the case if an alternate energy source such as green or waste energy was available to provide the thermal energy input to the process. If the process was required to power itself, it was shown to be highly inefficient and in no way thermodynamically viable as a commercial desalination process.

Keywords: Desalination, Exergy, Membrane distillation, second law efficiency

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8 Exergy Analysis of a Solar Humidification- Dehumidification Desalination Unit

Authors: Mohammed A. Elhaj, Jamal S. Yassin

Abstract:

This paper presents the exergy analysis of a desalination unit using humidification-dehumidification process. Here, this unit is considered as a thermal system with three main components, which are the heating unit by using a solar collector, the evaporator or the humidifier, and the condenser or the dehumidifier. In these components the exergy is a measure of the quality or grade of energy and it can be destroyed in them. According to the second law of thermodynamics this destroyed part is due to irreversibilities which must be determined to obtain the exergetic efficiency of the system. In the current paper a computer program has been developed using visual basic to determine the exergy destruction and the exergetic efficiencies of the components of the desalination unit at variable operation conditions such as feed water temperature, outlet air temperature, air to feed water mass ratio and salinity, in addition to cooling water mass flow rate and inlet temperature, as well as quantity of solar irradiance. The results obtained indicate that the exergy efficiency of the humidifier increases by increasing the mass ratio and decreasing the outlet air temperature. In the other hand the exergy efficiency of the condenser increases with the increase of this ratio and also with the increase of the outlet air temperature.

Keywords: Desalination, Solar, Exergy analysis, condenser, humidifier

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7 Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Multi-Stage Distillation

Authors: A. Diaf, H. Aburideh, Z.Tigrine, D. Tassalit, F.Alaoui

Abstract:

The tray/multi-tray distillation process is a topic that has been investigated to great detail over the last decade by many teams such as Jubran et al. [1], Adhikari et al. [2], Mowla et al. [3], Shatat et al. [4] and Fath [5] to name a few. A significant amount of work and effort was spent focusing on modeling and/simulation of specific distillation hardware designs. In this work, we have focused our efforts on investigating and gathering experimental data on several engineering and design variables to quantify their influence on the yield of the multi-tray distillation process. Our goals are to generate experimental performance data to bridge some existing gaps in the design, engineering, optimization and theoretical modeling aspects of the multi-tray distillation process.

Keywords: Distillation, Desalination, Multi-Stage still, Solar Energy

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6 Energy Consumption in Forward Osmosis Desalination Compared to other Desalination Techniques

Authors: Ali Shoeb Moon, Moonyong Lee

Abstract:

The draw solute separation process in Forward Osmosis desalination was simulated in Aspen Plus chemical process modeling software, to estimate the energy consumption and compare it with other desalination processes, mainly the Reverse Osmosis process which is currently most prevalent. The electrolytic chemistry for the system was retrieved using the Elec – NRTL property method in the Aspen Plus database. Electrical equivalent of energy required in the Forward Osmosis desalination technique was estimated and compared with the prevalent desalination techniques.

Keywords: Energy, separation, Desalination, Forward osmosis

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5 Engineering Study and Equipment Design: Effects of Temperature and design variables on Yield of a Multi-Stage Distillator

Authors: H. Aburideh, Z.Tigrine, F.Alaoui, A.Diaf, D.Tassalit, B .Abbad

Abstract:

The distillation process in the general sense is a relatively simple technique from the standpoints of its principles. When dedicating distillation to water treatment and specifically producing fresh water from sea, ocean and/ briny waters it is interesting to notice that distillation has no limitations or domains of applicability regarding the nature or the type of the feedstock water. This is not the case however for other techniques that are technologically quite complex, necessitate bigger capital investments and are limited in their usability. In a previous paper we have explored some of the effects of temperature on yield. In this paper, we continue building onto that knowledge base and focus on the effects of several additional engineering and design variables on productivity.

Keywords: Distillation, Desalination, Multi-Stage still, Solar Energy

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4 Techno-Economics Study to Select Optimum Desalination Plant for Asalouyeh Combined Cycle Power Plant in Iran

Authors: Z. Gomar, H. Heidary, M. Davoudi

Abstract:

This research deals with techno economic analysis to select the most economic desalination method for Asalouyeh combined cycle power plant . Due to lack of fresh water, desalination of sea water is necessary to provide required DM water of Power Plant. The most common desalination methods are RO, MSF, MED, and MED–TVC. In this research, methods of RO, MED, and MED– TVC have been compared. Simulation results show that recovery of heat of exhaust gas of main stack is optimum case for providing DM water required for injected steam of MED desalination. This subject is very important because of improving thermal efficiency of power plant using extra heat recovery. Also, it has been shown that by adding 3 rows of finned tube to de-aerator evaporator, which is very simple and low cost, required steam for generating 5200 m3/day of desalinated water is obtainable.

Keywords: Desalination, MED, combined cycle power plant, thermodynamic simulation

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3 Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Desalination of Ground Water by using Flat Sheet Membrane

Authors: Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar, Saroj B. Parjane, M.G. Sane, Mahendra Guddad

Abstract:

The possibility of producing drinking water from brackish ground water using Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process was studied. It is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. The process simply consists of a flat sheet hydrophobic micro porous PTFE membrane and diaphragm vacuum pump without a condenser for the water recovery or trap. In this work, VMD performance was investigated for aqueous NaCl solution and natural ground water. The influence of operational parameters such as feed flow rate (30 to 55 l/h), feed temperature (313 to 333 K), feed salt concentration (5000 to 7000 mg/l) and permeate pressure (1.5 to 6 kPa) on the membrane distillation (MD) permeation flux have been investigated. The maximum flux reached to 28.34 kg/m2 h at feed temperature, 333 K; vacuum pressure, 1.5 kPa; feed flow rate, 55 l/h and feed salt concentration, 7000 mg/l. The negligible effects in the reduction of permeate flux found over 150 h experimental run for salt water. But for the natural ground water application over 75 h, scale deposits observed on the membrane surface and 29% reduction in the permeate flux over 75 h. This reduction can be eliminated by acidification of feed water. Hence, promote the research attention in apply of VMD for the ground water purification over today-s conventional RO operation.

Keywords: Desalination, Ground Water, VMD, hydrophobic PTFE flat membrane

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2 'Drought Proofing' Australian Cities: Implications for Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainability

Authors: Phoenix Lawhon Isler, John Merson, David Roser

Abstract:

Urban water management in Australia faces increasing pressure to deal with the challenges of droughts, growing population and the climate change uncertainty. Addressing these challenges is an opportunity to incorporate the parallel goals of sustainable water management and climate change adaptation through holistic, non-technical means. This paper presents case studies from Perth and Sydney which show how despite robust adaptation plans and experience, recent efforts to 'drought proof' cities have focused on supply-side measures (i.e. desalination), rather than rethinking how water is used and managing demand. The trend towards desalination as a climate adaptation measure raises questions about the sustainability of urban water futures in Australia.

Keywords: Desalination, Climate Change Adaptation, drought management, sustainable urban water management

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1 The Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena in Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Desalination

Authors: Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar, Saroj B. Parjane, M. G. Sane, Rajendra M. Abhang, Mahendra Guddad

Abstract:

Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process can be used for water purification or the desalination of salt water. The process simply consists of a flat sheet hydrophobic micro porous PTFE membrane and diaphragm vacuum pump without a condenser for the water recovery or trap. The feed was used aqueous NaCl solution. The VMD experiments were performed to evaluate the heat and mass transfer coefficient of the boundary layer in a membrane module. The only operating parameters are feed inlet temperature, and feed flow rate were investigated. The permeate flux was strongly affected by the feed inlet temperature, feed flow rate, and boundary layer heat transfer coefficient. Since lowering the temperature polarization coefficient is essential enhance the process performance considerable and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient for maximizes the mass flux of distillate water. In this paper, the results of VMD experiments are used to measure the boundary layer heat transfer coefficient, and the experimental results are used to reevaluate the empirical constants in the Dittus- Boelter equation.

Keywords: Desalination, Membrane distillation, temperature polarization, heat and mass transfer coefficient

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