Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Decomposition Related Publications

9 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Oxidation, Decomposition, antioxidant, tocopherol

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8 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Oxidation, Decomposition, antioxidant, tocopherol

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7 Comparison of Processing Conditions for Plasticized PVC and PVB

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Jaroslav Císař, Pavel Mokrejš

Abstract:

It is the worldwide problem that the recycled PVB is not recycled and it is wildly stored in landfills. However, PVB has similar chemical properties such as PVC. Moreover, both of these polymers are plasticized. Therefore, the study of thermal properties of plasticized PVC and the recycled PVB obtained by recycling of windshields is carried out. This work has done in order to find nondegradable processing conditions applicable for both polymers. Tested PVC contained 38% of plasticizer diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition of both vinyl polymers are compared by calorimetric analysis and by tensile strength analysis.

Keywords: Recycling, Thermal analysis, Reprocessing, Decomposition, poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl chloride)

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6 Algebraic Riccati Matrix Equation for Eigen- Decomposition of Special Structured Matrices; Applications in Structural Mechanics

Authors: Mahdi Nouri

Abstract:

In this paper Algebraic Riccati matrix equation is used for Eigen-decomposition of special structured matrices. This is achieved by similarity transformation and then using algebraic riccati matrix equation to triangulation of matrices. The process is decomposition of matrices into small and specially structured submatrices with low dimensions for fast and easy finding of Eigenpairs. Numerical and structural examples included showing the efficiency of present method.

Keywords: Decomposition, eigenvalue problem, Matrix Equation, Graphs theory, bisymmetric, Riccati, symmetric, persymmetric, canonical forms, adjacency and Laplacian matrices

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5 Application of Computational Methods Mm2 and Gussian for Studing Unimolecular Decomposition of Vinil Ethers based on the Mechanism of Hydrogen Bonding

Authors: Behnaz Shahrokh, Garnik N. Sargsyan, Arkadi B. Harutyunyan

Abstract:

Investigations of the unimolecular decomposition of vinyl ethyl ether (VEE), vinyl propyl ether (VPE) and vinyl butyl ether (VBE) have shown that activation of the molecule of a ether results in formation of a cyclic construction - the transition state (TS), which may lead to the displacement of the thermodynamic equilibrium towards the reaction products. The TS is obtained by applying energy minimization relative to the ground state of an ether under the program MM2 when taking into account the hydrogen bond formation between a hydrogen atom of alkyl residue and the extreme atom of carbon of the vinyl group. The dissociation of TS up to the products is studied by energy minimization procedure using the mathematical program Gaussian. The obtained calculation data for VEE testify that the decomposition of this ether may be conditioned by hydrogen bond formation for two possible versions: when α- or β- hydrogen atoms of the ethyl group are bound to carbon atom of the vinyl group. Applying the same calculation methods to other ethers (VPE and VBE) it is shown that only in the case of hydrogen bonding between α-hydrogen atom of the alkyl residue and the extreme atom of carbon of the vinyl group (αH---C) results in decay of theses ethers.

Keywords: Ethers, Decomposition, Gaussian, MM2

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4 A Decomposition Method for the Bipartite Separability of Bell Diagonal States

Authors: Wei-Chih Su, Kuan-Peng Chen, Ming-Chung Tsai, Zheng-Yao Su

Abstract:

A new decomposition form is introduced in this report to establish a criterion for the bi-partite separability of Bell diagonal states. A such criterion takes a quadratic inequality of the coefficients of a given Bell diagonal states and can be derived via a simple algorithmic calculation of its invariants. In addition, the criterion can be extended to a quantum system of higher dimension.

Keywords: Decomposition, bipartite separability, Bell diagonal states

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3 Thermogravimetry Study on Pyrolysis of Various Lignocellulosic Biomass for Potential Hydrogen Production

Authors: S. Yusup, M.M. Ahmad, S.S. Abdullah, A. Ramli, L. Ismail

Abstract:

This paper aims to study decomposition behavior in pyrolytic environment of four lignocellulosic biomass (oil palm shell, oil palm frond, rice husk and paddy straw), and two commercial components of biomass (pure cellulose and lignin), performed in a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The unit which consists of a microbalance and a furnace flowed with 100 cc (STP) min-1 Nitrogen, N2 as inert. Heating rate was set at 20⁰C min-1 and temperature started from 50 to 900⁰C. Hydrogen gas production during the pyrolysis was observed using Agilent Gas Chromatography Analyzer 7890A. Oil palm shell, oil palm frond, paddy straw and rice husk were found to be reactive enough in a pyrolytic environment of up to 900°C since pyrolysis of these biomass starts at temperature as low as 200°C and maximum value of weight loss is achieved at about 500°C. Since there was not much different in the cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin fractions between oil palm shell, oil palm frond, paddy straw and rice husk, the T-50 and R-50 values obtained are almost similar. H2 productions started rapidly at this temperature as well due to the decompositions of biomass inside the TGA. Biomass with more lignin content such as oil palm shell was found to have longer duration of H2 production compared to materials of high cellulose and hemicelluloses contents.

Keywords: biomass, Hydrogen, Decomposition, thermogravimetry, lignocellulosic

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2 Applications of Rough Set Decompositions in Information Retrieval

Authors: Chen Wu, Xiaohua Hu

Abstract:

This paper proposes rough set models with three different level knowledge granules in incomplete information system under tolerance relation by similarity between objects according to their attribute values. Through introducing dominance relation on the discourse to decompose similarity classes into three subclasses: little better subclass, little worse subclass and vague subclass, it dismantles lower and upper approximations into three components. By using these components, retrieving information to find naturally hierarchical expansions to queries and constructing answers to elaborative queries can be effective. It illustrates the approach in applying rough set models in the design of information retrieval system to access different granular expanded documents. The proposed method enhances rough set model application in the flexibility of expansions and elaborative queries in information retrieval.

Keywords: Approximation, Decomposition, dominance relation, Incomplete information system, Rough set model, tolerance relation, elaborative query

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1 N-Sun Decomposition of Complete, Complete Bipartite and Some Harary Graphs

Authors: R. Anitha, R. S. Lekshmi

Abstract:

Graph decompositions are vital in the study of combinatorial design theory. A decomposition of a graph G is a partition of its edge set. An n-sun graph is a cycle Cn with an edge terminating in a vertex of degree one attached to each vertex. In this paper, we define n-sun decomposition of some even order graphs with a perfect matching. We have proved that the complete graph K2n, complete bipartite graph K2n, 2n and the Harary graph H4, 2n have n-sun decompositions. A labeling scheme is used to construct the n-suns.

Keywords: Decomposition, spanning tree, Hamilton cycle, n-sun graph, perfect matching

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