Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

DCT Related Publications

15 An Analysis of Compression Methods and Implementation of Medical Images in Wireless Network

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, S. Geetha

Abstract:

The motivation of image compression technique is to reduce the irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to store or pass data in an efficient way from one place to another place. There are several types of compression methods available. Without the help of compression technique, the file size is knowingly larger, usually several megabytes, but by doing the compression technique, it is possible to reduce file size up to 10% as of the original without noticeable loss in quality. Image compression can be lossless or lossy. The compression technique can be applied to images, audio, video and text data. This research work mainly concentrates on methods of encoding, DCT, compression methods, security, etc. Different methodologies and network simulations have been analyzed here. Various methods of compression methodologies and its performance metrics has been investigated and presented in a table manner.

Keywords: JPEG, encoding, DCT, lossless compression, lossy compression, Image compression techniques

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14 Combined Source and Channel Coding for Image Transmission Using Enhanced Turbo Codes in AWGN and Rayleigh Channel

Authors: N. S. Pradeep, M. Balasingh Moses, V. Aarthi

Abstract:

Any signal transmitted over a channel is corrupted by noise and interference. A host of channel coding techniques has been proposed to alleviate the effect of such noise and interference. Among these Turbo codes are recommended, because of increased capacity at higher transmission rates and superior performance over convolutional codes. The multimedia elements which are associated with ample amount of data are best protected by Turbo codes. Turbo decoder employs Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP) and Soft Output Viterbi Decoding (SOVA) algorithms. Conventional Turbo coded systems employ Equal Error Protection (EEP) in which the protection of all the data in an information message is uniform. Some applications involve Unequal Error Protection (UEP) in which the level of protection is higher for important information bits than that of other bits. In this work, enhancement to the traditional Log MAP decoding algorithm is being done by using optimized scaling factors for both the decoders. The error correcting performance in presence of UEP in Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading are analyzed for the transmission of image with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) as source coding technique. This paper compares the performance of log MAP, Modified log MAP (MlogMAP) and Enhanced log MAP (ElogMAP) algorithms used for image transmission. The MlogMAP algorithm is found to be best for lower Eb/N0 values but for higher Eb/N0 ElogMAP performs better with optimized scaling factors. The performance comparison of AWGN with fading channel indicates the robustness of the proposed algorithm. According to the performance of three different message classes, class3 would be more protected than other two classes. From the performance analysis, it is observed that ElogMAP algorithm with UEP is best for transmission of an image compared to Log MAP and MlogMAP decoding algorithms.

Keywords: BER, fading, MAP, DCT, AWGN, UEP

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13 Video Quality assessment Measure with a Neural Network

Authors: A. Tamtaoui, H. El Khattabi, D. Aboutajdine

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the video quality measure estimation via a neural network. This latter predicts MOS (mean opinion score) by providing height parameters extracted from original and coded videos. The eight parameters that are used are: the average of DFT differences, the standard deviation of DFT differences, the average of DCT differences, the standard deviation of DCT differences, the variance of energy of color, the luminance Y, the chrominance U and the chrominance V. We chose Euclidean Distance to make comparison between the calculated and estimated output.

Keywords: video, dft, Subjective Quality, DCT, neural network MLP, Retropropagation

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12 A Novel Recursive Multiplierless Algorithm for 2-D DCT

Authors: V.K.Ananthashayana, Geetha.K.S

Abstract:

In this paper, a recursive algorithm for the computation of 2-D DCT using Ramanujan Numbers is proposed. With this algorithm, the floating-point multiplication is completely eliminated and hence the multiplierless algorithm can be implemented using shifts and additions only. The orthogonality of the recursive kernel is well maintained through matrix factorization to reduce the computational complexity. The inherent parallel structure yields simpler programming and hardware implementation and provides log 1 2 3 2 N N-N+ additions and N N 2 log 2 shifts which is very much less complex when compared to other recent multiplierless algorithms.

Keywords: DCT, Multilplerless, Ramanujan Number, Recursive

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11 A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme

Authors: Mona F. M. Mursi, Ghazy M.R. Assassa, Hatim A. Aboalsamh, Khaled Alghathbar

Abstract:

The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.

Keywords: Authentication, Watermarking, JPEG, DCT

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10 Approximate Range-Sum Queries over Data Cubes Using Cosine Transform

Authors: Cheng Luo, Wen-Chi Hou, Zhewei Jiang, Feng Yan

Abstract:

In this research, we propose to use the discrete cosine transform to approximate the cumulative distributions of data cube cells- values. The cosine transform is known to have a good energy compaction property and thus can approximate data distribution functions easily with small number of coefficients. The derived estimator is accurate and easy to update. We perform experiments to compare its performance with a well-known technique - the (Haar) wavelet. The experimental results show that the cosine transform performs much better than the wavelet in estimation accuracy, speed, space efficiency, and update easiness.

Keywords: DCT, Data Cube

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9 Comparative Study on Recent Integer DCTs

Authors: Sakol Udomsiri, Masahiro Iwahashi

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative study on recent integer DCTs and a new method to construct a low sensitive structure of integer DCT for colored input signals. The method refers to sensitivity of multiplier coefficients to finite word length as an indicator of how word length truncation effects on quality of output signal. The sensitivity is also theoretically evaluated as a function of auto-correlation and covariance matrix of input signal. The structure of integer DCT algorithm is optimized by combination of lower sensitive lifting structure types of IRT. It is evaluated by the sensitivity of multiplier coefficients to finite word length expression in a function of covariance matrix of input signal. Effectiveness of the optimum combination of IRT in integer DCT algorithm is confirmed by quality improvement comparing with existing case. As a result, the optimum combination of IRT in each integer DCT algorithm evidently improves output signal quality and it is still compatible with the existing one.

Keywords: Sensitivity, DCT, lossless, wordlength

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8 A New Approach to Face Recognition Using Dual Dimension Reduction

Authors: M. Almas Anjum, M. Younus Javed, A. Basit

Abstract:

In this paper a new approach to face recognition is presented that achieves double dimension reduction, making the system computationally efficient with better recognition results and out perform common DCT technique of face recognition. In pattern recognition techniques, discriminative information of image increases with increase in resolution to a certain extent, consequently face recognition results change with change in face image resolution and provide optimal results when arriving at a certain resolution level. In the proposed model of face recognition, initially image decimation algorithm is applied on face image for dimension reduction to a certain resolution level which provides best recognition results. Due to increased computational speed and feature extraction potential of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), it is applied on face image. A subset of coefficients of DCT from low to mid frequencies that represent the face adequately and provides best recognition results is retained. A tradeoff between decimation factor, number of DCT coefficients retained and recognition rate with minimum computation is obtained. Preprocessing of the image is carried out to increase its robustness against variations in poses and illumination level. This new model has been tested on different databases which include ORL , Yale and EME color database.

Keywords: Biometrics, Computation, Illumination, Face Recognition, Feature Extraction, DCT

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7 Texture Feature Extraction using Slant-Hadamard Transform

Authors: A. Vafaei, M. J. Nassiri, A. Monadjemi

Abstract:

Random and natural textures classification is still one of the biggest challenges in the field of image processing and pattern recognition. In this paper, texture feature extraction using Slant Hadamard Transform was studied and compared to other signal processing-based texture classification schemes. A parametric SHT was also introduced and employed for natural textures feature extraction. We showed that a subtly modified parametric SHT can outperform ordinary Walsh-Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transform. Experiments were carried out on a subset of Vistex random natural texture images using a kNN classifier.

Keywords: Texture Analysis, DCT, Slant Transform, Hadamard

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6 A Tool for Audio Quality Evaluation Under Hostile Environment

Authors: Lillie Dewan, Akhil Kumar Arya, Jagdeep Singh Lather

Abstract:

In this paper is to evaluate audio and speech quality with the help of Digital Audio Watermarking Technique under the different types of attacks (signal impairments) like Gaussian Noise, Compression Error and Jittering Effect. Further attacks are considered as Hostile Environment. Audio and Speech Quality Evaluation is an important research topic. The traditional way for speech quality evaluation is using subjective tests. They are reliable, but very expensive, time consuming, and cannot be used in certain applications such as online monitoring. Objective models, based on human perception, were developed to predict the results of subjective tests. The existing objective methods require either the original speech or complicated computation model, which makes some applications of quality evaluation impossible.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Attacks, DCT, Speech Quality

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5 The Causation and Solution of Ringing Effect in DCT-based Video Coding

Authors: Yu Yuan, David Feng, Yu-Zhuo Zhong

Abstract:

Ringing effect is one of the most annoying visual artifacts in digital video. It is a significant factor of subjective quality deterioration. However, there is a widely-accepted misunderstanding of its cause. In this paper, we propose a reasonable interpretation of the cause of ringing effect. Based on the interpretation, we suggest further two methods to reduce ringing effect in DCT-based video coding. The methods adaptively adjust quantizers according to video features. Our experiments proved that the methods could efficiently improve subjective quality with acceptable additional computing costs.

Keywords: video coding, Subjective Quality, DCT, ringing effect

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4 Comparison of Compression Ability Using DCT and Fractal Technique on Different Imaging Modalities

Authors: Sumathi Poobal, G. Ravindran

Abstract:

Image compression is one of the most important applications Digital Image Processing. Advanced medical imaging requires storage of large quantities of digitized clinical data. Due to the constrained bandwidth and storage capacity, however, a medical image must be compressed before transmission and storage. There are two types of compression methods, lossless and lossy. In Lossless compression method the original image is retrieved without any distortion. In lossy compression method, the reconstructed images contain some distortion. Direct Cosine Transform (DCT) and Fractal Image Compression (FIC) are types of lossy compression methods. This work shows that lossy compression methods can be chosen for medical image compression without significant degradation of the image quality. In this work DCT and Fractal Compression using Partitioned Iterated Function Systems (PIFS) are applied on different modalities of images like CT Scan, Ultrasound, Angiogram, X-ray and mammogram. Approximately 20 images are considered in each modality and the average values of compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are computed and studied. The quality of the reconstructed image is arrived by the PSNR values. Based on the results it can be concluded that the DCT has higher PSNR values and FIC has higher compression ratio. Hence in medical image compression, DCT can be used wherever picture quality is preferred and FIC is used wherever compression of images for storage and transmission is the priority, without loosing picture quality diagnostically.

Keywords: PSNR, DCT, PIFS, FIC

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3 Fast Extraction of Edge Histogram in DCT Domain based on MPEG7

Authors: Minyoung Eom, Yoonsik Choe

Abstract:

In these days, multimedia data is transmitted and processed in compressed format. Due to the decoding procedure and filtering for edge detection, the feature extraction process of MPEG-7 Edge Histogram Descriptor is time-consuming as well as computationally expensive. To improve efficiency of compressed image retrieval, we propose a new edge histogram generation algorithm in DCT domain in this paper. Using the edge information provided by only two AC coefficients of DCT coefficients, we can get edge directions and strengths directly in DCT domain. The experimental results demonstrate that our system has good performance in terms of retrieval efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: DCT, descriptor, EHD, MPEG7

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2 Improving Image Quality in Remote Sensing Satellites using Channel Coding

Authors: H. M. Behairy, M. S. Khorsheed

Abstract:

Among other factors that characterize satellite communication channels is their high bit error rate. We present a system for still image transmission over noisy satellite channels. The system couples image compression together with error control codes to improve the received image quality while maintaining its bandwidth requirements. The proposed system is tested using a high resolution satellite imagery simulated over the Rician fading channel. Evaluation results show improvement in overall system including image quality and bandwidth requirements compared to similar systems with different coding schemes.

Keywords: Image Compression, DCT, Image Transmission, Channel Coding, Error-Control Coding, Convolution Codes, Viterbi Algorithm, PCGC

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1 Face Recognition Using Double Dimension Reduction

Authors: A. Basit, M. A Anjum, M. Y. Javed

Abstract:

In this paper a new approach to face recognition is presented that achieves double dimension reduction making the system computationally efficient with better recognition results. In pattern recognition techniques, discriminative information of image increases with increase in resolution to a certain extent, consequently face recognition results improve with increase in face image resolution and levels off when arriving at a certain resolution level. In the proposed model of face recognition, first image decimation algorithm is applied on face image for dimension reduction to a certain resolution level which provides best recognition results. Due to better computational speed and feature extraction potential of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) it is applied on face image. A subset of coefficients of DCT from low to mid frequencies that represent the face adequately and provides best recognition results is retained. A trade of between decimation factor, number of DCT coefficients retained and recognition rate with minimum computation is obtained. Preprocessing of the image is carried out to increase its robustness against variations in poses and illumination level. This new model has been tested on different databases which include ORL database, Yale database and a color database. The proposed technique has performed much better compared to other techniques. The significance of the model is two fold: (1) dimension reduction up to an effective and suitable face image resolution (2) appropriate DCT coefficients are retained to achieve best recognition results with varying image poses, intensity and illumination level.

Keywords: Biometrics, Face Recognition, feature extraction, DCT

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