Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Cytotoxicity Related Publications

11 Magnetic Properties and Cytotoxicity of Ga-Mn Magnetic Ferrites Synthesized by the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández, Javier Sánchez

Abstract:

Magnetic spinel ferrites are materials that possess size, magnetic properties and heating ability adequate for their potential use in biomedical applications. The Mn0.5Ga0.5Fe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as chelating agent of metallic precursors. The synthesized samples were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) as an inverse spinel structure with no secondary phases. Saturation magnetization (Ms) of crystalline powders was 45.9 emu/g, which was higher than those corresponding to GaFe2O4 (14.2 emu/g) and MnFe2O4 (40.2 emu/g) synthesized under similar conditions, while the coercivity field (Hc) was 27.9 Oe. The average particle size was 18 ± 7 nm. The heating ability of the MNPs was enough to increase the surrounding temperature up to 43.5 °C in 7 min when a quantity of 4.5 mg of MNPs per mL of liquid medium was tested. Cytotoxic effect (hemolysis assay) of MNPs was determined and the results showed hemolytic values below 1% in all tested cases. According to the results obtained, these synthesized nanoparticles can be potentially used as thermoseeds for hyperthermia therapy.

Keywords: Magnetic Hyperthermia, Cytotoxicity, manganese-gallium ferrite, heating ability

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10 Apoptotic Induction Ability of Harmalol and Its Binding: Biochemical and Biophysical Perspectives

Authors: Kakali Bhadra

Abstract:

Harmalol administration caused remarkable reduction in proliferation of HepG2 cells with GI50 of 14.2 mM, without showing much cytotoxicity in embryonic liver cell line, WRL-68. Data from circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetric analysis of harmalol-CT DNA complex shows conformational changes with prominent CD perturbation and stabilization of CT DNA by 8 oC. Binding constant and stoichiometry was also calculated using the above biophysical techniques. Further, dose dependent apoptotic induction ability of harmalol was studied in HepG2 cells using different biochemical assays. Generation of ROS, DNA damage, changes in cellular external and ultramorphology, alteration of membrane, formation of comet tail, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and a significant increase in Sub Go/G1 population made the cancer cell, HepG2, prone to apoptosis. Up regulation of p53 and caspase 3 further indicated the apoptotic role of harmalol.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cytotoxicity, ROS, comet assay, beta carboline alkaloid

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9 Preparation, Characterisation, and Measurement of the in vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cytotoxic Pt(II) Oxadiazoline Complexes

Authors: G. Wagner, R. Herrmann

Abstract:

Cytotoxic platinum compounds play a major role in the chemotherapy of a large number of human cancers. However, due to the severe side effects for the patient and other problems associated with their use, there is a need for the development of more efficient drugs and new methods for their selective delivery to the tumours. One way to achieve the latter could be in the use of nanoparticular substrates that can adsorb or chemically bind the drug. In the cell, the drug is supposed to be slowly released, either by physical desorption or by dissolution of the particle framework. Ideally, the cytotoxic properties of the platinum drug unfold only then, in the cancer cell and over a longer period of time due to the gradual release. In this paper, we report on our first steps in this direction. The binding properties of a series of cytotoxic Pt(II) oxadiazoline compounds to mesoporous silica particles has been studied by NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy. High loadings were achieved when the Pt(II) compound was relatively polar, and has been dissolved in a relatively nonpolar solvent before the silica was added. Typically, 6-10 hours were required for complete equilibration, suggesting the adsorption did not only occur to the outer surface but also to the interior of the pores. The untreated and Pt(II) loaded particles were characterised by C, H, N combustion analysis, BET/BJH nitrogen sorption, electron microscopy (REM and TEM) and EDX. With the latter methods we were able to demonstrate the homogenous distribution of the Pt(II) compound on and in the silica particles, and no Pt(II) bulk precipitate had formed. The in vitro cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) has been determined for one of the new platinum compounds adsorbed to mesoporous silica particles of different size, and compared with the corresponding compound in solution. The IC50 data are similar in all cases, suggesting that the release of the Pt(II) compound was relatively fast and possibly occurred before the particles reached the cells. Overall, the platinum drug is chemically stable on silica and retained its activity upon prolonged storage.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, mesoporous silica, nanoparticles platinum compounds

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8 Prophylactic Effects of Dairy Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS through Overexpression of BAX, CASP 3, CASP 8 and CASP 9 on Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Amir Saber Gharamaleki, Beitollah Alipour, Zeinab Faghfoori, Ahmad YariKhosroushahi

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and intestinal microbial community plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Probiotics have recently been assessed as effective anti-proliferative agents and thus this study was performed to examine whether CRC undergo apoptosis by treating with isolated Iranian native dairy yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS, secretion metabolites. The cytotoxicity assessments on cells (HT-29, Caco-2) were accomplished through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as well as qualitative DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining) and quantitative (flow cytometry assessments) evaluations of apoptosis. To evaluate the main mechanism of apoptosis, Real time PCR method was applied. Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS secretions (IC50) showed significant cytotoxicity against HT-29 and Caco-2 cancer cell lines (66.57 % and 66.34 % apoptosis) similar to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) while apoptosis only was developed in 27.57 % of KDR normal cells. The prophylactic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus (PTCC 5195), as a reference yeast, was not similar to Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS indicating strain dependency of bioactivities on CRC disease prevention. Based on real time PCR results, the main cytotoxicity is related to apoptosis phenomenon and the core related mechanism is depended on the overexpression of BAX, CASP 9, CASP 8 and CASP 3 inducing apoptosis genes. However, several investigations should be conducted to precisely determine the effective compounds to be used as anticancer therapeutics in the future.

Keywords: apoptosis, Yeast, Cytotoxicity, anticancer, anti-proliferative

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7 Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin

Abstract:

The article represents the results of research of antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor medicines on their basis have been substantiated.

Keywords: Secondary Metabolites, Cytotoxicity, Flavonoids, antitumor activity, Polygonum L

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6 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Aroonsri Priprem, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Teerasak Damrongrungruang

Abstract:

Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. ceritina Kulesh. and delphinidin-rich extracts from Clitoria ternatea L. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3 and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation. FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding. Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, physicochemical characteristics, anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea

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5 Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid

Authors: Emil Omurzak, Tsutomu Mashimo, Zhazgul Kelgenbaeva, Saadat Sulaimankulova

Abstract:

Spherical shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) and [email protected] nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Fe electrodes immersed in water with CTAB surfactant and HAuCl4 solution using simple method-pulsed plasma in liquid, without the use of dopants or special conditions for stabilization. Vibrating sample magnetometer indicated ferromagnetic behavior of particles at room temperature with coercivity and saturation magnetization of (Hc=105 Oe, Ms=6.83 emu/g) for Fe3O4 and (Hc=175, Ms=3.56emu/g) for [email protected] nanoparticles. Structure and morphology of nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis and HR-TEM measurements. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was indicated using a XTT assay to be very low (cell viability: 98-89% with Fe3O4 and 99-91% for [email protected] NPs).

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Cytotoxicity, magnetite, Gold coated magnetite, Pulsed Plasma in Liquid

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4 Swelling Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Maleic Acid Grafted Chitosan

Authors: Sevil Yucel, Zafer Omer Ozdemir, Cem Kesgin, Pinar Terzioglu, Simten Unlu, Yagmur Erdogan, Kubra Pusat

Abstract:

Chitosan is an attractive polysaccharide obtained by deacetylation of an abundant natural biopolymer called chitin. Chitin and chitosan are excellent materials. To improve the potential of chitin and chitosan modification is needed. In the present study, grafting of maleic acid on to chitosan by cerium ammonium nitrate in acetic acid solution was investigated with use of a microwave and reflux system. The grafted chitosan was characterized by using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The solubility and swelling behavior of grafted chitosans were determined in acetate buffer (pH 3.6), citrophosphate buffer (pH 5.6 and pH 7.0), and boric buffer (pH 9.2) solutions. The sample obtained by microwave system with use of a chitosan/maleic anhydride/ceric ammonium nitrate 0.2/3.922/0.99 gram of raw material within 30 minute showed the maximum swelling ratio (13.6) in boric buffer solution.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, chitosan, swell, grafted, maleic acid

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3 Study on Phytochemical Properties, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera L.

Authors: Tin A. Khaing, K. Thu, Yin Y. Mon, Ohn M. Tun

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Aloe vera. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of A. vera revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids phenolic compounds, and etc. with absence of cyanogenic glycosides. Three different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide were used to screen the antimicrobial activity of A. vera leaves against four human clinical pathogens by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in methanol extract followed by ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide. It was also found that remarkable antibacterial activities with methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. vera compared with the standard antibiotic, tetracycline that was not active against E. coli and S. boydii and supported the view that A. vera is a potent antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic. Moreover, the brine shrimps (Artemia salina) toxicity test exhibited LC50 value was 569.52 ppm. The resulting data indicated that the A. vera plant have less toxic effects on brine shrimp. Hence, it is signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Cytotoxicity, brine shrimp, Aloe vera L, phytochemical properties

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2 The Tyrosinase and Cyclooxygenase Inhibitory Activities and Cytotoxicity Screening of Tamarindus indica Seeds

Authors: P. Thongmuang, Y. Sudjaroen

Abstract:

The methanolic extracts from seeds of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus extraction and evaluated for total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Then, methanolic extract was screened biological activities (In vitro) for anti-melanogenic activity by tyrosinase inhibition test, antiinflammation activity by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition test, and cytotoxic screening test with Vero cells. The results showed that total phenolic content, which contained in extract, was contained 27.72 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g of dry weight. The ability to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme, which exerted by Tamarind seed extracts (1 mg/ml) was 52.13 ± 0.42 %. The extract was not possessed inhibitory effect to COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes and cytotoxic effect to Vero cells. The finding is concludes that tested seed extract was possessed antimelanogenic activity with non-toxic effects. However, there was not exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. Further studies include the use of advance biological models to confirm this biological activity, as well as, the isolation and characterization of the purified compounds that it was contained.

Keywords: Seed, Cytotoxicity, Phenolic Compounds, anti-melanogenic, Tamarindus indica, antiinflammatotion

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1 High Efficiency, Selectivity against Cancer Cell Line of Purified L-Asparaginase from Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Authors: Hazim Saadoon Aljewari, Mohammed Ibraheem Nader, Abdul Hussain M. Alfaisal, NatthidaWeerapreeyakul, Sahapat

Abstract:

L-asparaginase was extracted from pathogenic Escherichia coli which was isolated from urinary tract infection patients. L-asparaginase was purified 96-fold by ultrafiltration, ion exchange and gel filtration giving 39.19% yield with final specific activity of 178.57 IU/mg. L-asparaginase showed 138,356±1,000 Dalton molecular weight with 31024±100 Dalton molecular mass. Kinetic properties of enzyme resulting 1.25×10-5 mM Km and 2.5×10-3 M/min Vmax. L-asparaginase showed a maximum activity at pH 7.5 when incubated at 37 ºC for 30 min and illustrated its full activity (100%) after 15 min incubation at 20-37 ºC, while 70% of its activity was lost when incubated at 60 ºC. L-asparaginase showed cytotoxicity to U937 cell line with IC50 0.5±0.19 IU/ml, and selectivity index (SI=7.6) about 8 time higher selectivity over the lymphocyte cells. Therefore, the local pathogenic E. coli strains may be used as a source of high yield of L-asparaginase to produce anti cancer agent with high selectivity.

Keywords: Purification, Cytotoxicity, l-asparaginase, selectivity index

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