Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Copper Related Publications

26 Investigation of Some Flotation Parameters and the Role of Dispersants in the Flotation of Chalcopyrite

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen

Abstract:

A suitable choice of flotation parameters and reagents have a strong effect on the effectiveness of flotation process. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the flotation of chalcopyrite with the different conditions and dispersants. Flotation parameters such as grinding time, pH, type, and dosage of dispersant were investigated. In order to understand the interaction of some dispersants, sodium silicate, sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium polyphosphate were used. The optimum results were obtained at a pH of 11.5 and a grinding time of 10 minutes. A copper concentrate was produced assaying 29.85% CuFeS2 and 65.97% flotation recovery under optimum rougher flotation conditions with sodium silicate.

Keywords: Flotation, Copper, chalcopyrite, dispersant

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25 Optimization of the Co-Precipitation of Industrial Waste Metals in a Continuous Reactor System

Authors: Thomas S. Abia II, Citlali Garcia-Saucedo

Abstract:

A continuous copper precipitation treatment (CCPT) system was conceived at Intel Chandler Site to serve as a first-of-kind (FOK) facility-scale waste copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and manganese (Mn) co-precipitation facility. The process was designed to treat highly variable wastewater discharged from a substrate packaging research factory. The paper discusses metals co-precipitation induced by internal changes for manufacturing facilities that lack the capacity for hardware expansion due to real estate restrictions, aggressive schedules, or budgetary constraints. Herein, operating parameters such as pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) were examined to analyze the ability of the CCPT System to immobilize various waste metals. Additionally, influential factors such as influent concentrations and retention times were investigated to quantify the environmental variability against system performance. A total of 2,027 samples were analyzed and statistically evaluated to measure the performance of CCPT that was internally retrofitted for Mn abatement to meet environmental regulations. In order to enhance the consistency of the influent, a separate holding tank was cannibalized from another system to collect and slow-feed the segregated Mn wastewater from the factory into CCPT. As a result, the baseline influent Mn decreased from 17.2+18.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 5.15+8.11 mg1L-1 post-pilot (70.1% reduction). Likewise, the pre-trial and post-trial average influent Cu values to CCPT were 52.0+54.6 mg1L-1 and 33.9+12.7 mg1L-1, respectively (34.8% reduction). However, the raw Ni content of 0.97+0.39 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot increased to 1.06+0.17 mg1L-1 at post-pilot. The average Mn output declined from 10.9+11.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 0.44+1.33 mg1L-1 at post-pilot (96.0% reduction) as a result of the pH and ORP operating setpoint changes. In similar fashion, the output Cu quality improved from 1.60+5.38 mg1L-1 to 0.55+1.02 mg1L-1 (65.6% reduction) while the Ni output sustained a 50% enhancement during the pilot study (0.22+0.19 mg1L-1 reduced to 0.11+0.06 mg1L-1). pH and ORP were shown to be significantly instrumental to the precipitative versatility of the CCPT System.

Keywords: Optimization, Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Copper, co-precipitation, manganese, pilot study

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24 Upsetting of Tri-Metallic St-Cu-Al and St-Cu60Zn-Al Cylindrical Billets

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can

Abstract:

This work investigates upsetting of the tri-metallic cylindrical billets both experimentally and analytically with a reduction ratio 30%. Steel, brass, and copper are used for the outer and outmost rings and aluminum for the inner core. Two different models have been designed to show material flow and the cavity took place over the two interfaces during forming after this reduction ratio. Each model has an outmost ring material as steel. Model 1 has an outer ring between the outmost ring and the solid core material as copper and Model 2 has a material as brass. Solid core is aluminum for each model. Billets were upset in press machine by using parallel flat dies. Upsetting load was recorded and compared for models and single billets. To extend the tests and compare with experimental procedure to a wider range of inner core and outer ring geometries, finite element model was performed. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. The aim is to show how contact between outmost ring, outer ring and the inner core are carried on throughout the upsetting process. Results have shown that, with changing in height, between outmost ring, outer ring and inner core, the Model 1 and Model 2 had very good interaction, and the contact surfaces of models had various interface behaviour. It is also observed that tri-metallic materials have lower weight but better mechanical properties than single materials. This can give an idea for using and producing these new materials for different purposes.

Keywords: steel, Aluminum, Copper, brass, upsetting, tri-metallic

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23 Optimization of Dissolution of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Chloride Solutions

Authors: Turan Çalban, Soner Kuşlu, Mustafa Sertçelik, Hacali Necefoğlu

Abstract:

In this study, Chevreul’s salt was dissolved in ammonium chloride solutions. All experiments were performed in a batch reactor. The obtained results were optimized. Parameters used in the experiments were the reaction temperature, the ammonium chloride concentration, the reaction time and the solid-to-liquid ratio. The optimum conditions were determined by 24 factorial experimental design method. The best values of four parameters were determined as based on the experiment results. After the evaluation of experiment results, all parameters were found as effective in experiment conditions selected. The optimum conditions on the maximum Chevreul’s salt dissolution were the ammonium chloride concentration 4.5 M, the reaction time 13.2 min., the reaction temperature 25 oC, and the solid-to-liquid ratio 9/80 g.mL-1. The best dissolution yield in these conditions was 96.20%.

Keywords: Optimization, Copper, ammonium chloride, Chevreul’s salt, factorial experimental design method

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22 Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper

Authors: Tahany W. Sadak

Abstract:

Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec.  Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Thermal analysis, Hardness, Copper, thermal fatigue

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21 Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Copper Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation Technique-Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

Authors: Krishnaiah Arkanti, Ramulu Malothu

Abstract:

The experiments have been conducted to study the mechanical properties of commercially pure copper processing at room temperature by severe plastic deformation using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) through a die of 90oangle up to 3 passes by route BC i.e. rotating the sample in the same direction by 90o after each pass. ECAE is used to produce from existing coarse grains to ultra-fine, equiaxed grains structure with high angle grain boundaries in submicron level by introducing a large amount of shear strain in the presence of hydrostatic pressure into the material without changing billet shape or dimension. Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. Yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility are structure sensitive properties and vary with the structure of the material. Microhardness and tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the hardness, strength and ductility of the ECAE processed materials. The results reveal that the strength and hardness of commercially pure copper samples improved significantly without losing much ductility after each pass.

Keywords: Severe Plastic Deformation, Mechanical Properties, Copper, equal channel angular extrusion

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20 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate

Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede

Abstract:

Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.

Keywords: Extraction, Copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate

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19 Laboratory Evaluation of the Flotation Response of a Copper Cobalt Oxide Ore to Gasoil-Rinkalore Mixtures

Authors: M. B. Kime, J. Ntambwe, J. Mwamba

Abstract:

Froth flotation remains to date as one of the most used metallurgical processes for concentrating metal-bearing minerals in ores. Oxide ores are relatively less amenable to froth flotation and require a judicious choice of reagents for the recovery of metals to be optimised. Laboratory batch flotation tests were conducted to determine the effect of two types of gasoil-rinkalore mixtures on the flotation response of a copper cobalt oxide ore sample. The head assay conducted on the initial ore sample showed that it contained about 2.90% of Cu, 0.12% of Co. Upon the flotation test work, the results obtained indicated that the concentrate obtained with use of the mixture gazoil-rinkalore RX yielded 8.24% Cu and 0.22% Co concentrate grades with recoveries of 76.0% Cu and 78.0% Co respectively. But, the concentrate obtained by use of the mixture gazoil-rinkalore RX3 yielded relatively bad results with 5.92% Cu and 0.18% Cu concentrate grades with recoveries of 70.3% Cu and 65.3% Co respectively.

Keywords: Copper, froth flotation, cobalt, Rinkalore RX, Rinkalore RX3, Shangolowe

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18 The Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Grifoni, A. Pera

Abstract:

The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: Pathogens, Sanitation, Copper, zinc, biological sludge, Ca(OH)2

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17 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov

Abstract:

In this article a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes- in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: Adsorption, Copper, TiO2, activated carbon, ozone decomposition

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16 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Nidhi Gadura, Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu

Abstract:

For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing in Escherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference in loss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Copper, gram positive, gram negative

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15 Polyacrylate Modified Copper Nanoparticles with Controlled Size

Authors: Robert Prucek, Ales Panacek, Jan Filip, Libor Kvítek, Radek Zbořil

Abstract:

The preparation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) through the reduction of copper ions by sodium borohydride in the presence of sodium polyacrylate with a molecular weight of 1200 is reported. Cu NPs were synthesized at a concentration of copper salt equal to 2.5, 5, and 10 mM, and at a molar ratio of copper ions and monomeric unit of polyacrylate equal to 1:2. The as-prepared Cu NPs have diameters of about 2.5–3 nm for copper concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mM, and 6 nm for copper concentration of 10 mM. Depending on the copper salt concentration and concentration of additionally added polyacrylate to Cu particle dispersion, primarily formed NPs grow through the process of aggregation and/or coalescence into clusters and/or particles with a diameter between 20–100 nm. The amount of additionally added sodium polyacrylate influences the stability of Cu particles against air oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of the prepared Cu particles for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol is discussed.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Catalyst, Copper, sodium polyacrylate

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14 Influence of the Field Type (Mountain and Plain) on the Cupric Status of Lambs

Authors: Mouna Mallem, Majid Tlidjane

Abstract:

The study realized on alive lambs in two different areas mountain and plain in Batna region, aims to demonstrate the possible effect of field type on cupric status of lambs, through evaluation of copper contents in the chain: soil – plant – animal by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This comparative study also allowed the investigation of the influence of the age and the season. The results obtained show that contents of copper in the soil, forage in the same way as in the plasma of lambs are higher in the plain than in the mountainous area; however, the difference is significant only between the values of feed.

Keywords: Copper, forage, lambs, Plasma copper

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13 Copper Content in Daily Food Rations Planned and Served to Students from Selected Military Academies and Soldiers Doing Compulsory Military Service in the Polish Army

Authors: J. Bertrandt, A. Kłos, R. Waszkowski, T. Nowicki, R. Pytlak, E. Stęzycka, A. Gazdzinska

Abstract:

 The aim of the work was estimation of copper intake with the daily food rations used for alimentation of students of military high schools and soldiers doing compulsory military service in the Polish Army. An average planned copper content in daily food rations used for alimentation of students and soldiers amounted to 2.49±0.35 mg, and 2.44±0.25 mg respectively. The copper content in the daily food ration given for consumption to students amounted from 1.81±0.14 mg to 2.58±0.44 mg while daily food rations served to soldiers delivered from 2.06±0.45 mg to 2.13±0.33 mg. The copper content in the rations planned for students and soldiers alimentation was within the limits of the norms obligatory in Poland. Daily food rations given for consumption, except rations served for students, were within the limits of the recommended norms, but food rations really eaten by examined men didn’t cover the requirements for copper.

 

Keywords: Copper, daily food ration, military service

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12 Preparation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles by Reduction of Copper Ions in Aqueous Solution and Their Metal-Metal Bonding Properties

Authors: Y. Kobayashi, T. Shirochi, Y. Yasuda, T. Morita

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for preparing metallic Cu nanoparticles in aqueous solution, and a metal-metal bonding technique using the Cu particles.Preparation of the Cu particle colloid solution was performed in water at room temperature in air using a copper source (0.01 M Cu(NO3)2), a reducing reagent (0.2 - 1.0 M hydrazine), and stabilizers (0.5×10-3 M citric acid and 5.0×10-3 M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide). The metallic Cu nanoparticles with sizes of ca. 60nm were prepared at all the hydrazine concentrations examined. A stage and a plate of metallic Cu were successfully bonded under annealing at 400oC and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5min in H2 gas with help of the metallic Cu particles. A shear strength required for separating the bonded Cu substrates reached the maximum value at a hydrazine concentration of 0.8M, and it decreased beyond the concentration. Consequently, the largest shear strength of 22.9 MPa was achieved at the 0.8 M hydrazine concentration.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bonding, Copper, Colloid, aqueous solution

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11 The Impact of Copper and Zinc Deficiency on Milk Production Performances of Intensively Grazed Dairy Cows on the North-East of Romania

Authors: Alina Anton, Gheorghe Solcan, Carmen Solcan

Abstract:

The influence of copper and zinc supplements on milk production performances and health indicators was tested in a 20- week feeding trial, with 40 Holstein-Friesian lactating cows, devided in four groups (copper, zinc, copper-zinc and control). Correlations of the Cu and Zn plasma values with some animal performance criteria of health (body condition score and somatic cell counts) and production (milk yield, peak milk yield, fat and crude protein content) were done. During the 140 days of the experiment, the two added minerals caused a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of their plasma values after the peak of the cows’ lactations. It was also observed that subjects that have received copper and zinc supplements had the lowest number of somatic cell counts in milk. The Pearson correlation test showed a positive corellation (p = 0.007, r = + 0.851) between the plasma Zn and the milk production. The improvement of the nutritional status improved the milk production performances of the cows as well as their health performances.

Keywords: Health, milk production, Copper, zinc, dairy cows

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10 Mucus Secretion Responses to Various Sublethal Copper (II) Concentrations in the Mussel Perna perna

Authors: Kamleshan Pillay

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of mucus production as a biomarker. This was done by exposing the mussel Perna perna to various sublethal concentrations of Cu. Mussels are effective as a bioindicator species as they accumulate Cu in their tissues. Differences in mucus production rates were evaluated at different Cu concentrations. The findings of this study indicate that increasing Cu concentrations had a significant effect on the mucus production rates over a 24 hour exposure. There were also significant differences between the mucus production rates at different Cu concentrations (p < 0.05). Thus, mucus is an essential detoxification mechanism.

Keywords: Copper, mucus, Depuration, Perna perna

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9 A Critics Study of Neural Networks Applied to ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

This paper presents a critical study about the application of Neural Networks to ion-exchange process. Ionexchange is a complex non-linear process involving many factors influencing the ions uptake mechanisms from the pregnant solution. The following step includes the elution. Published data presents empirical isotherm equations with definite shortcomings resulting in unreliable predictions. Although Neural Network simulation technique encounters a number of disadvantages including its “black box", and a limited ability to explicitly identify possible causal relationships, it has the advantage to implicitly handle complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent variables. In the present paper, the Neural Network model based on the back-propagation algorithm Levenberg-Marquardt was developed using a three layer approach with a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at hidden layer with 11 neurons and linear transfer function (purelin) at out layer. The above mentioned approach has been used to test the effectiveness in simulating ion exchange processes. The modeling results showed that there is an excellent agreement between the experimental data and the predicted values of copper ions removed from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Simulation, Copper, ion-exchange process

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8 Leaching Characteristics of Upgraded Copper Flotation Tailings

Authors: Mercy M. Ramakokovhu, Henry Kasaini, Richard K.K. Mbaya

Abstract:

The copper flotation tailings from Konkola Copper mine in Nchanga, Zambia were used in the study. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaching characteristics of the tailings material prior and after the physical beneficiation process is employed. The Knelson gravity concentrator (KC-MD3) was used for the beneficiation process. The copper leaching efficiencies and impurity co-extraction percentages in both the upgraded and the raw feed material were determined at different pH levels and temperature. It was observed that the copper extraction increased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in pH levels. In comparison to the raw feed sample, the upgraded sample reported a maximum copper extraction of 69% which was 9%, higher than raw feed % extractions. The impurity carry over was reduced from 18% to 4 % on the upgraded sample. The reduction in impurity co-extraction was as a result of the removal of the reactive gangue elements during the upgrading process, this minimized the number of side reaction occurring during leaching.

Keywords: Iron, Copper, Atmospheric leaching, Knelson concentrator

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7 Biokinetics of Coping Mechanism of Freshwater tilapia following Exposure to Waterborne and Dietary Copper

Authors: Jeng-Wei Tsai

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to understand the main sources of copper (Cu) accumulation in target organs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to investigate how the organism mediate the process of Cu accumulation under prolonged conditions. By measuring both dietary and waterborne Cu accumulation and total concentrations in tilapia with biokinetic modeling approach, we were able to clarify the biokinetic coping mechanisms for the long term Cu accumulation. This study showed that water and food are both the major source of Cu for the muscle and liver of tilapia. This implied that control the Cu concentration in these two routes will be correlated to the Cu bioavailability for tilapia. We found that exposure duration and level of waterborne Cu drove the Cu accumulation in tilapia. The ability for Cu biouptake and depuration in organs of tilapia were actively mediated under prolonged exposure conditions. Generally, the uptake rate, depuration rate and net bioaccumulation ability in all selected organs decreased with the increasing level of waterborne Cu and extension of exposure duration.Muscle tissues accounted for over 50%of the total accumulated Cu and played a key role in buffering the Cu burden in the initial period of exposure, alternatively, the liver acted a more important role in the storage of Cu with the extension of exposures. We concluded that assumption of the constant biokinetic rates could lead to incorrect predictions with overestimating the long-term Cu accumulation in ecotoxicological risk assessments.

Keywords: Copper, tilapia, Biokinetics, Chronic exposure, Coping mechanism

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6 Copper Contamination in the Sediments of Northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan

Authors: Chiu-Wen Chen, Chih-Feng Chen, Cheng-Di Dong

Abstract:

The distribution, enrichment, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of copper (Cu) in the surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were investigated. Sediment samples from 12 locations of northern Kaohsiung Harbor were collected and characterized for Cu, aluminum, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease and grain size. Results showed that the Cu concentrations varied from 6.9–244 mg/kg with an average of 109±66 mg/kg. The spatial distribution of Cu reveals that the Cu concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor entrance region. This indicates that upstream industrial and municipal wastewater discharges along the river bank are major sources of Cu pollution. Results from the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index analyses imply that the sediments collected from the river mouth can be characterized between moderate and moderately severe degree enrichment and between none to medium and moderate accumulation of Cu, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk.

Keywords: Enrichment, Copper, Sediment, accumulation, ecological risk

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5 Treatment of Paper and Pulp Mill Effluent by Coagulation

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Tjoon Tow Teng, Shri Chand, Kailas L. Wasewar

Abstract:

The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluent amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. All the available methods for treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent have certain drawbacks. The coagulation is one of the cheapest process for treatment of various organic effluents. Thus, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour of paper mill effluent is studied using coagulation process. The batch coagulation process was performed using various coagulants like: aluminium chloride, poly aluminium chloride and copper sulphate. The initial pH of the effluent (Coagulation pH) has tremendous effect on COD and colour removal. Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) as coagulant reduced COD to 84 % and 92 % of colour was removed at an optimum pH 5 and coagulant dose of 8 ml l-1. With aluminium chloride at an optimum pH = 4 and coagulant dose of 5 g l-1, 74 % COD and 86 % colour removal were observed. The results using copper sulphate as coagulant (a less commercial coagulant) were encouraging. At an optimum pH 6 and mass loading of 5 g l-1, 76 % COD reduction and 78 % colour reduction were obtained. It was also observed that after addition of coagulant, the pH of the effluent decreases. The decrease in pH was highest for AlCl3, which was followed by PAC and CuSO4. Significant amount of COD reductions was obtained by coagulation process. Since the coagulation process is the first stage for treatment of effluent and some of the coagulant cations usually remain in the treated effluents. Thus, cation like copper may be one of the good catalyst for second stage of treatment process like wet oxidation. The copper has been found to be good oxidation catalyst then iron and aluminum.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Coagulation, Copper, PAC, Aluminium based coagulants, Pulp and paper mill effluent

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4 Removal of Copper and Zinc Ions onto Biomodified Palm Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: Gulnaziya Issabayeva, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

Abstract:

commercially produced in Malaysia granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was biomodified with bacterial biomass (Bacillus subtilis) to produce a hybrid biosorbent of higher efficiency. The obtained biosorbent was evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity to remove copper and zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments where concentrations of metal ions varied from 20 to 350 mg/L. A range of pH from 3 to 6 of aqueous solutions containing metal ions was tested. Langmuir adsorption model was used to interpret the experimental data. Comparison of the adsorption data of the biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon showed higher uptake of metal ions by the hybrid biosorbent. A trend in metal ions uptake increase with the increase in the solution-s pH was observed. The surface characterization data indicated a decrease in the total surface area for the hybrid biosorbent; however the uptake of copper and zinc by it was at least equal to the original PSAC at pH 4 and 5. The highest capacity of the hybrid biosorbent was observed at pH 5 and comprised 22 mg/g and 19 mg/g for copper and zinc, respectively. The adsorption capacity at the lowest pH of 3 was significantly low. The experimental results facilitated identification of potential factors influencing the adsorption of copper and zinc onto biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon.

Keywords: Adsorption, Copper, zinc, biomodification, palm shell carbon

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3 Artificial Intelligence Model to Predict Surface Roughness of Ti-15-3 Alloy in EDM Process

Authors: Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Kadirgama, M.A. Maleque, Rosli A. Bakar

Abstract:

Conventionally the selection of parameters depends intensely on the operator-s experience or conservative technological data provided by the EDM equipment manufacturers that assign inconsistent machining performance. The parameter settings given by the manufacturers are only relevant with common steel grades. A single parameter change influences the process in a complex way. Hence, the present research proposes artificial neural network (ANN) models for the prediction of surface roughness on first commenced Ti-15-3 alloy in electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The proposed models use peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time and servo voltage as input parameters. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) with three hidden layer feedforward networks are applied. An assessment is carried out with the models of distinct hidden layer. Training of the models is performed with data from an extensive series of experiments utilizing copper electrode as positive polarity. The predictions based on the above developed models have been verified with another set of experiments and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Beside this they can be exercised as precious tools for the process planning for EDM.

Keywords: Copper, surface roughness, Ti-15l-3, positive polarity, multi-layered perceptron

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2 An Investigation of the Cu-Ni Compound Cathode Materials Affecting on Transient Recovery Voltage

Authors: Arunrungrusmi S, Chaokamnerd W, Tanitteerapan T, Mungkung N., Yuji T.

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the instability of a contact surface between Copper and Nickel an alloy cathode in vacuum, the different ratio of Copper and Copper were conducted at 1%, 2% and 4% by using the cathode spot model. The transient recovery voltage is predicted. The cathode spot region is recognized as the collisionless space charge sheath connected with singly ionized collisional plasma. It was found that the transient voltage is decreased with increasing the percentage of an amount of Nickel in cathode materials.

Keywords: Instability, Copper, Nickel, cathode spot, Vacuum arc, Low current, Transient Recovery Voltage

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1 Transport and Fate of Copper in Soils

Authors: S K Sharma, N S Sehkon, S Deswal, Siby John

Abstract:

The presence of toxic heavy metals in industrial effluents is one of the serious threats to the environment. Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Mercury, Copper, Arsenic are found in the effluents of industries such as foundries, electroplating, petrochemical, battery manufacturing, tanneries, fertilizer, dying, textiles, metallurgical and metal finishing. Tremendous increase of industrial copper usage and its presence in industrial effluents has lead to a growing concern about the fate and effects of Copper in the environment. Percolation of industrial effluents through soils leads to contamination of ground water and soils. The transport of heavy metals and their diffusion into the soils has therefore, drawn the attention of the researchers. In this study, an attempt has been made to delineate the mechanisms of transport and fate of copper in terrestrial environment. Column studies were conducted using perplex glass square column of dimension side 15 cm and 1.35 m long. The soil samples were collected from a natural drain near Mohali (India). The soil was characterized to be poorly graded sandy loam. The soil was compacted to the field dry density level of about 1.6 g/cm3. Break through curves for different depths of the column were plotted. The results of the column study indicated that the copper has high tendency to flow in the soils and fewer tendencies to get absorbed on the soil particles. The t1/2 estimates obtained from the studies can be used for design copper laden wastewater disposal systems.

Keywords: Transport, Soil, Copper, Column study

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