Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

cooking Related Publications

3 Measuring the Effect of Ventilation on Cooking in Indoor Air Quality by Low-Cost Air Sensors

Authors: Andres Gonzalez, Adam Boies, Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson

Abstract:

The concern of the indoor air quality (IAQ) has been increasing due to its risk to human health. The smoking, sweeping, and stove and stovetop use are the activities that have a major contribution to the indoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution also affects IAQ. The most important factors over IAQ from cooking activities are the materials, fuels, foods, and ventilation. The low-cost, mobile air quality monitoring (LCMAQM) sensors, is reachable technology to assess the IAQ. This is because of the lower cost of LCMAQM compared to conventional instruments. The IAQ was assessed, using LCMAQM, during cooking activities in a University of Minnesota graduate-housing evaluating different ventilation systems. The gases measured are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The particles measured are particle matter (PM) 2.5 micrometer (µm) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA). The measurements are being conducted during April 2019 in Como Student Community Cooperative (CSCC) that is a graduate housing at the University of Minnesota. The measurements are conducted using an electric stove for cooking. The amount and type of food and oil using for cooking are the same for each measurement. There are six measurements: two experiments measure air quality without any ventilation, two using an extractor as mechanical ventilation, and two using the extractor and windows open as mechanical and natural ventilation. 3The results of experiments show that natural ventilation is most efficient system to control particles and CO2. The natural ventilation reduces the concentration in 79% for LDSA and 55% for PM2.5, compared to the no ventilation. In the same way, CO2 reduces its concentration in 35%. A well-mixed vessel model was implemented to assess particle the formation and decay rates. Removal rates by the extractor were significantly higher for LDSA, which is dominated by smaller particles, than for PM2.5, but in both cases much lower compared to the natural ventilation. There was significant day to day variation in particle concentrations under nominally identical conditions. This may be related to the fat content of the food. Further research is needed to assess the impact of the fat in food on particle generations.

Keywords: ventilation, Indoor Air Quality, cooking, low-cost sensor

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2 Nutritional Evaluation of Sorghum Flour (Sorghumbicolor L. Moench) During Processing of Injera

Authors: Elfadil E. Babiker, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Noha A. Mohammed

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of sorghum flour during processing of injera (unleavened thick bread). The proximate composition of sorghum flour before and after fermentation and that of injera was determined. Compared to the raw flour and fermented one, injera had low protein (11.55%), ash (1.57%) and fat (2.40%) contents but high in fiber content. Moreover, injera was found to have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher energy (389.08 Kcal/100g) compared to raw and fermented sorghum flour. Injera contained lower levels of anti-nutritional factors (polyphenols, phytate and tannins) compared to raw and fermented sorghum. Also it was found to be rich in Ca (4.75mg/100g), Fe (3.95 mg/100g), and Cu (0.7 mg/100g) compared to that of raw and fermented flour. Moreover, both the extractable minerals and protein digestibility were high for injera due to low amount of anti-nutrients. Injera was found to contain an appreciable amount of amino acids except arginine and tyrosine.

Keywords: Fermentation, sorghum, cooking, Malt, Protein fractions

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1 Biochemical Characteristics of Sorghum Flour Fermented and/or Supplemented with Chickpea Flour

Authors: Omima E. Fadlallah, Abdullahi H. El Tinay, Elfadil E. Babiker

Abstract:

Sorghum flour was supplemented with 15 and 30% chickpea flour. Sorghum flour and the supplement were fermented at 35 oC for 0, 8, 16, and 24 h. Changes in pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids, protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition were investigated during fermentation and/or after supplementation of sorghum flour with chickpea. The pH of the fermenting material decreased sharply with a concomitant increase in the titrable acidity. The total soluble solids remained unchanged with progressive fermentation time. The protein content of sorghum cultivar was found to be 9.27 and that of chickpea was 22.47%. The protein content of sorghum cultivar after supplementation with15 and 30% chickpea was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased to 11.78 and 14.55%, respectively. The protein digestibility also increased after fermentation from 13.35 to 30.59 and 40.56% for the supplements, respectively. Further increment in protein content and digestibility was observed when supplemented and unsupplemented samples were fermented for different periods of time. Cooking of fermented samples was found to increase the protein content slightly and decreased digestibility for both supplements. Amino acid content of fermented and fermented and cooked supplements was determined. Supplementation was found to increase the lysine and therionine content. Cooking following fermentation decreased lysine, isoleucine, valine and sulfur containg amino acids.

Keywords: Protein, Fermentation, Amino Acid, chickpea, sorghum, cooking

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