Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Related Publications

10 Characterisation of Wind-Driven Ventilation in Complex Terrain Conditions

Authors: Daniel Micallef, Damien Bounaudet, Robert N. Farrugia, Simon P. Borg, Vincent Buhagiar, Tonio Sant

Abstract:

The physical effects of upstream flow obstructions such as vegetation on cross-ventilation phenomena of a building are important for issues such as indoor thermal comfort. Modelling such effects in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations may also be challenging. The aim of this work is to establish the cross-ventilation jet behaviour in such complex terrain conditions as well as to provide guidelines on the implementation of CFD numerical simulations in order to model complex terrain features such as vegetation in an efficient manner. The methodology consists of onsite measurements on a test cell coupled with numerical simulations. It was found that the cross-ventilation flow is highly turbulent despite the very low velocities encountered internally within the test cells. While no direct measurement of the jet direction was made, the measurements indicate that flow tends to be reversed from the leeward to the windward side. Modelling such a phenomenon proves challenging and is strongly influenced by how vegetation is modelled. A solid vegetation tends to predict better the direction and magnitude of the flow than a porous vegetation approach. A simplified terrain model was also shown to provide good comparisons with observation. The findings have important implications on the study of cross-ventilation in complex terrain conditions since the flow direction does not remain trivial, as with the traditional isolated building case.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), complex terrain, cross-ventilation, wind resource, wind driven ventilation

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9 CFD Analysis of Multi-Phase Reacting Transport Phenomena in Discharge Process of Non-Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery

Authors: Jinliang Yuan, Jong-Sung Yu, Bengt Sundén

Abstract:

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for rechargeable non-aqueous electrolyte lithium-air batteries with a partial opening for oxygen supply to the cathode. Multi-phase transport phenomena occurred in the battery are considered, including dissolved lithium ions and oxygen gas in the liquid electrolyte, solid-phase electron transfer in the porous functional materials and liquid-phase charge transport in the electrolyte. These transport processes are coupled with the electrochemical reactions at the active surfaces, and effects of discharge reaction-generated solid Li2O2 on the transport properties and the electrochemical reaction rate are evaluated and implemented in the model. The predicted results are discussed and analyzed in terms of the spatial and transient distribution of various parameters, such as local oxygen concentration, reaction rate, variable solid Li2O2 volume fraction and porosity, as well as the effective diffusion coefficients. It is found that the effect of the solid Li2O2 product deposited at the solid active surfaces is significant on the transport phenomena and the overall battery performance.

Keywords: Modeling, Transport Phenomena, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), multi-phase, lithium-air battery

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8 Modeling and Simulation of Axial Fan Using CFD

Authors: Hemant Kumawat

Abstract:

Axial flow fans, while incapable of developing high pressures, they are well suitable for handling large volumes of air at relatively low pressures. In general, they are low in cost and possess good efficiency, and can have blades of airfoil shape. Axial flow fans show good efficiencies, and can operate at high static pressures if such operation is necessary. Our objective is to model and analyze the flow through AXIAL FANS using CFD Software and draw inference from the obtained results, so as to get maximum efficiency. The performance of an axial fan was simulated using CFD and the effect of variation of different parameters such as the blade number, noise level, velocity, temperature and pressure distribution on the blade surface was studied. This paper aims to present a final 3D CAD model of axial flow fan. Adapting this model to the available components in the market, the first optimization was done. After this step, CFX flow solver is used to do the necessary numerical analyses on the aerodynamic performance of this model. This analysis results in a final optimization of the proposed 3D model which is presented in this article.

Keywords: Optimization, ANSYS CFX, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), axial fan

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7 CFD Modeling of Insect Flight at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Wu Di, Yeo Khoon Seng, Lim Tee Tai

Abstract:

The typical insects employ a flapping-wing mode of flight. The numerical simulations on free flight of a model fruit fly (Re=143) including hovering and are presented in this paper. Unsteady aerodynamics around a flapping insect is studied by solving the three-dimensional Newtonian dynamics of the flyer coupled with Navier-Stokes equations. A hybrid-grid scheme (Generalized Finite Difference Method) that combines great geometry flexibility and accuracy of moving boundary definition is employed for obtaining flow dynamics. The results show good points of agreement and consistency with the outcomes and analyses of other researchers, which validate the computational model and demonstrate the feasibility of this computational approach on analyzing fluid phenomena in insect flight. The present modeling approach also offers a promising route of investigation that could complement as well as overcome some of the limitations of physical experiments in the study of free flight aerodynamics of insects. The results are potentially useful for the design of biomimetic flapping-wing flyers.

Keywords: flapping wings, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fluid structure interaction (FSI), free hovering flight, fruit fly, insect aerodynamics, leading edge vortex (LEV), Navier-Stokes equations (N-S), generalized finite-difference method (GFD)

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6 Coupling Concept of two Parallel Research Codes for Two and Three Dimensional Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis

Authors: Luciano Garelli, Marco Schauer, Jorge D’Elia, Mario A. Storti, Sabine C. Langer

Abstract:

This paper discuss a coupling strategy of two different software packages to provide fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The basic idea is to combine the advantages of the two codes to create a powerful FSI solver for two and three dimensional analysis. The fluid part is computed by a program called PETSc-FEM a software developed at Centro de Investigaci´on de M´etodos Computacionales –CIMEC. The structural part of the coupled process is computed by the research code elementary Parallel Solver – (ELPASO) of the Technische Universit¨at Braunschweig, Institut f¨ur Konstruktionstechnik (IK).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite element method (FEM), Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI)

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5 The Impact of an Air-Supply Guide Vane on the Indoor Air Distribution

Authors: C.-C. Tsao, S.-W. Nien, W.-H. Chen, Y.-C. Shih

Abstract:

Indoor air distribution has great impact on people-s thermal sensation. Therefore, how to remove the indoor excess heat becomes an important issue to create a thermally comfortable indoor environment. To expel the extra indoor heat effectively, this paper used a dynamic CFD approach to study the effect of an air-supply guide vane swinging periodically on the indoor air distribution within a model room. The numerical results revealed that the indoor heat transfer performance caused by the swing guide vane had close relation with the number of vortices developing under the inlet cold jet. At larger swing amplitude, two smaller vortices continued to shed outward under the cold jet and remove the indoor heat load more effectively. As a result, it can be found that the average Nusselt number on the floor increased with the increase of the swing amplitude of the guide vane.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Thermal comfort, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), dynamic mesh, indoor air distribution

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4 CFD Modeling of a Radiator Axial Fan for Air Flow Distribution

Authors: S. Jain, Y. Deshpande

Abstract:

The fluid mechanics principle is used extensively in designing axial flow fans and their associated equipment. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air flow distribution from a radiator axial flow fan used in an acid pump truck Tier4 (APT T4) Repower. This axial flow fan augments the transfer of heat from the engine mounted on the APT T4. CFD analysis was performed for an area weighted average static pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the fan. Pressure contours, velocity vectors, and path lines were plotted for detailing the flow characteristics for different orientations of the fan blade. The results were then compared and verified against known theoretical observations and actual experimental data. This study shows that a CFD simulation can be very useful for predicting and understanding the flow distribution from a radiator fan for further research work.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), acid pump truck (APT) Tier4 Repower, axial flow fan, area weighted average static pressure difference, and contour plots

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3 Performance Prediction of a 5MW Wind Turbine Blade Considering Aeroelastic Effect

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Yoo-Han Kim

Abstract:

In this study, aeroelastic response and performance analyses have been conducted for a 5MW-Class composite wind turbine blade model. Advanced coupled numerical method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational flexible multi-body dynamics (CFMBD) has been developed in order to investigate aeroelastic responses and performance characteristics of the rotating composite blade. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ω SST turbulence model were solved for unsteady flow problems on the rotating turbine blade model. Also, structural analyses considering rotating effect have been conducted using the general nonlinear finite element method. A fully implicit time marching scheme based on the Newmark direct integration method is applied to solve the coupled aeroelastic governing equations of the 3D turbine blade for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Detailed dynamic responses and instantaneous velocity contour on the blade surfaces which considering flow-separation effects were presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the huge rotating wind- turbine blade model.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fluid structure interaction (FSI), Computational Multi-Body Dynamics (CMBD), Reynolds-averageNavier-Stokes (RANS), FiniteElement Method (FEM)

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2 Using Hybrid System of Ground Heat Exchanger and Evaporative Cooler in Arid Weather Condition

Authors: Vahid Khalajzadeh, Ghassem Heidarinejad

Abstract:

In this paper, the feasibility study of using a hybrid system of ground heat exchangers (GHE) and direct evaporative cooling system in arid weather condition has been performed. The model is applied for Yazd and Kerman, two cities with arid weather condition in Iran. The system composed of three sections: Ground- Coupled-Circuit (GCC), Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) and Cooling Coil Unite (CCU). The GCC provides the necessary precooling for DEC. The GCC includes four vertical GHE which are designed in series configuration. Simulation results show that hybridization of GCC and DEC could provide comfort condition whereas DEC alone did not. Based on the results the cooling effectiveness of a hybrid system is more than unity. Thus, this novel hybrid system could decrease the air temperature below the ambient wet-bulb temperature. This environmentally clean and energy efficient system can be considered as an alternative to the mechanical vapor compression systems.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Cooling CoilUnit (CCU), Direct Evaporative Cooling (DEC), Ground CoupledCircuit (GCC)

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1 Aerodynamics and Optimization of Airfoil Under Ground Effect

Authors: Juhee LEE, Byeong Sam Kim, Kyoungwoo Park, Kwang Soo Kim

Abstract:

The Prediction of aerodynamic characteristics and shape optimization of airfoil under the ground effect have been carried out by integration of computational fluid dynamics and the multiobjective Pareto-based genetic algorithm. The main flow characteristics around an airfoil of WIG craft are lift force, lift-to-drag ratio and static height stability (H.S). However, they show a strong trade-off phenomenon so that it is not easy to satisfy the design requirements simultaneously. This difficulty can be resolved by the optimal design. The above mentioned three characteristics are chosen as the objective functions and NACA0015 airfoil is considered as a baseline model in the present study. The profile of airfoil is constructed by Bezier curves with fourteen control points and these control points are adopted as the design variables. For multi-objective optimization problems, the optimal solutions are not unique but a set of non-dominated optima and they are called Pareto frontiers or Pareto sets. As the results of optimization, forty numbers of non- dominated Pareto optima can be obtained at thirty evolutions.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Genetic Algorithm, shape optimization, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Airfoil on WIGcraft

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