Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

coal combustion Related Publications

4 Plasma Arc Burner for Pulverized Coal Combustion

Authors: Gela Gelashvili, David Gelenidze, Sulkhan Nanobashvili, Irakli Nanobashvili, George Tavkhelidze, Tsiuri Sitchinava

Abstract:

Development of new highly efficient plasma arc combustion system of pulverized coal is presented. As it is well-known, coal is one of the main energy carriers by means of which electric and heat energy is produced in thermal power stations. The quality of the extracted coal decreases very rapidly. Therefore, the difficulties associated with its firing and complete combustion arise and thermo-chemical preparation of pulverized coal becomes necessary. Usually, other organic fuels (mazut-fuel oil or natural gas) are added to low-quality coal for this purpose. The fraction of additional organic fuels varies within 35-40% range. This decreases dramatically the economic efficiency of such systems. At the same time, emission of noxious substances in the environment increases. Because of all these, intense development of plasma combustion systems of pulverized coal takes place in whole world. These systems are equipped with Non-Transferred Plasma Arc Torches. They allow practically complete combustion of pulverized coal (without organic additives) in boilers, increase of energetic and financial efficiency. At the same time, emission of noxious substances in the environment decreases dramatically. But, the non-transferred plasma torches have numerous drawbacks, e.g. complicated construction, low service life (especially in the case of high power), instability of plasma arc and most important – up to 30% of energy loss due to anode cooling. Due to these reasons, intense development of new plasma technologies that are free from these shortcomings takes place. In our proposed system, pulverized coal-air mixture passes through plasma arc area that burns between to carbon electrodes directly in pulverized coal muffler burner. Consumption of the carbon electrodes is low and does not need a cooling system, but the main advantage of this method is that radiation of plasma arc directly impacts on coal-air mixture that accelerates the process of thermo-chemical preparation of coal to burn. To ensure the stability of the plasma arc in such difficult conditions, we have developed a power source that provides fixed current during fluctuations in the arc resistance automatically compensated by the voltage change as well as regulation of plasma arc length over a wide range. Our combustion system where plasma arc acts directly on pulverized coal-air mixture is simple. This should allow a significant improvement of pulverized coal combustion (especially low-quality coal) and its economic efficiency. Preliminary experiments demonstrated the successful functioning of the system.

Keywords: coal combustion, plasma arc, plasma torches, pulverized coal

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3 Statistical Modeling of Constituents in Ash Evolved From Pulverized Coal Combustion

Authors: Esam Jassim

Abstract:

Industries using conventional fossil fuels have an  interest in better understanding the mechanism of particulate  formation during combustion since such is responsible for emission  of undesired inorganic elements that directly impact the atmospheric  pollution level. Fine and ultrafine particulates have tendency to  escape the flue gas cleaning devices to the atmosphere. They also  preferentially collect on surfaces in power systems resulting in  ascending in corrosion inclination, descending in the heat transfer  thermal unit, and severe impact on human health. This adverseness  manifests particularly in the regions of world where coal is the  dominated source of energy for consumption.  This study highlights the behavior of calcium transformation as  mineral grains verses organically associated inorganic components  during pulverized coal combustion. The influence of existing type of  calcium on the coarse, fine and ultrafine mode formation mechanisms  is also presented. The impact of two sub-bituminous coals on particle  size and calcium composition evolution during combustion is to be  assessed. Three mixed blends named Blends 1, 2, and 3 are selected  according to the ration of coal A to coal B by weight. Calcium  percentage in original coal increases as going from Blend 1 to 3.  A mathematical model and a new approach of describing  constituent distribution are proposed. Analysis of experiments of  calcium distribution in ash is also modeled using Poisson distribution.  A novel parameter, called elemental index λ, is introduced as a  measuring factor of element distribution.  Results show that calcium in ash that originally in coal as mineral  grains has index of 17, whereas organically associated calcium  transformed to fly ash shown to be best described when elemental  index λ is 7.  As an alkaline-earth element, calcium is considered the  fundamental element responsible for boiler deficiency since it is the  major player in the mechanism of ash slagging process. The  mechanism of particle size distribution and mineral species of ash  particles are presented using CCSEM and size-segregated ash  characteristics. Conclusions are drawn from the analysis of  pulverized coal ash generated from a utility-scale boiler.

 

Keywords: coal combustion, inorganic element, poisson distribution, Calcium transformation

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2 On Unburned Carbon in Coal Ash from Various Combustion Units

Authors: L. Bartonová, D. Juchelková, Z. Klika, B. Cech

Abstract:

Work is focused to the study of unburned carbon in ash from coal (and wastes) combustion in 8 combustion tests at 3 fluidised-bed power station, at co-combustion of coal and wastes (also at fluidized bed) and at bench-scale unit simulating coal combustion in small domestic furnaces. The attention is paid to unburned carbon contents in bottom ashes and fly ashes at these 8 combustion tests and to morphology of unburned carbons. Specific surface area of coals, unburned carbons and ashes and the relation of specific surface area of unburned carbon and the content of volatile combustibles in coal were studied as well.

Keywords: Emissions, coal combustion, Toxic Elements, unburned carbon

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1 Volatility of Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and As in Fluidised-Bed Combustion Chamber in Relation to Their Modes of Occurrence in Coal

Authors: L. Bartoňová, Z. Klika

Abstract:

Modes of occurrence of Pb, As, Cr, Co, Cu, and Ni in bituminous coal and lignite were determined by means of sequential extraction using NH4OAc, HCl, HF and HNO3 extraction solutions. Elemental affinities obtained were then evaluated in relation to volatility of these elements during the combustion of these coals in two circulating fluidised-bed power stations. It was found out that higher percentage of the elements bound in silicates brought about lower volatility, while higher elemental proportion with monosulphides association (or bound as exchangeable ion) resulted in higher volatility. The only exception was the behavior of arsenic, whose volatility depended on amount of limestone added during the combustion process (as desulphurisation additive) rather than to its association in coal.

Keywords: coal combustion, Trace Elements, volatility, sequential extraction

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