Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

CO2 emission Related Publications

11 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: K. Mahmoud, M. Mourad

Abstract:

Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: CO2 emission, hybrid electric vehicle, electrification strategy

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10 Re-Use of Waste Marble in Producing Green Concrete

Authors: Hasan Şahan Arel

Abstract:

In this study, literature related to the replacement of cement with waste marble and the use of waste marble as an aggregate in concrete production was examined. Workability of the concrete decreased when marble powder was used as a substitute for fine aggregate. Marble powder contributed to the compressive strength of concrete because of the CaCO3 and SiO2 present in the chemical structure of the marble. Additionally, the use of marble pieces in place of coarse aggregate revealed that this contributed to the workability and mechanical properties of the concrete. When natural standard sand was replaced with marble dust at a ratio of 15% and 75%, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete increased by 20%-26% and 10%-15%, respectively. However, coarse marble aggregates exhibited the best performance at a 100% replacement ratio. Additionally, there was a greater improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete when waste marble was used in a coarse aggregate form when compared to that of when marble was used in a dust form. If the cement was replaced with marble powder in proportions of 20% or more, then adverse effects were observed on the compressive strength and workability of the concrete. This study indicated that marble dust at a cement-replacement ratio of 5%-10% affected the mechanical properties of concrete by decreasing the global annual CO2 emissions by 12% and also lowering the costs from US$40/m3 to US$33/m3.

Keywords: Concrete, Mechanical Properties, CO2 emission, marble, cement production

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9 Electricity Generation from Renewables and Targets: An Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Taner Ersoz, Tugrul Bayraktar

Abstract:

Renewable energy is referred to as "clean energy" and common popular support for the use of renewable energy (RE) is to provide electricity with zero carbon dioxide emissions. This study provides useful insight into the European Union (EU) RE, especially, into electricity generation obtained from renewables, and their targets. The objective of this study is to identify groups of European countries, using multivariate statistical analysis and selected indicators. The hierarchical clustering method is used to decide the number of clusters for EU countries. The conducted statistical hierarchical cluster analysis is based on the Ward’s clustering method and squared Euclidean distances. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified eight distinct clusters of European countries. Then, non-hierarchical clustering (k-means) method was applied. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the validity of the results with data normalized by Z score transformation. To explore the relationship between the selected indicators, correlation coefficients were computed. The results of the study reveal the current situation of RE in European Union Member States.

Keywords: correlation, K-Means Clustering, Hierarchical Clustering, CO2 emission, share of electricity generation, multivariate methods, targets, discriminant analyzed, EU member countries

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8 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire, and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: S. B. Rushayati, R. Meilani, R. Hermawan

Abstract:

A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: Deforestation, CO2 emission, forest fire, biosphere reserve

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7 Design and Operation of a Multicarrier Energy System Based On Multi Objective Optimization Approach

Authors: Halle Bakhteeyar, Azadeh Maroufmashat, Sourena Sattari Khavas

Abstract:

Multi-energy systems will enhance the system reliability and power quality. This paper presents an integrated approach for the design and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) systems, based on energy hub modeling. A multi-objective optimization model is developed by considering an integrated view of electricity and natural gas network to analyze the optimal design and operating condition of DER systems, by considering two conflicting objectives, namely, minimization of total cost and the minimization of environmental impact which is assessed in terms of CO2 emissions. The mathematical model considers energy demands of the site, local climate data, and utility tariff structure, as well as technical and financial characteristics of the candidate DER technologies. To provide energy demands, energy systems including photovoltaic, and co-generation systems, boiler, central power grid are considered. As an illustrative example, a hotel in Iran demonstrates potential applications of the proposed method. The results prove that increasing the satisfaction degree of environmental objective leads to increased total cost.

Keywords: Cost, CO2 emission, multi objective optimization, DER systems, Energy hub

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6 Highlighting of the Factors and Policies Affecting CO2 Emissions Level in Malaysian Transportation Sector

Authors: H. A. Bekhet, M. S. Indati

Abstract:

Global CO2 emission and increasing fuel consumption to meet energy demand has become a threat in recent decades. Effort to reduce the CO2 emission is now a matter of priority in most countries of the world including Malaysia. Transportation has been identified as the most intensive sector of carbon-based fuels and achievement of the voluntary target to meet 40% carbon intensity reduction set at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) means that the emission from the transport sector must be reduced accordingly. This posed a great challenge to Malaysia and effort has to be made to embrace suitable and appropriate energy policy for sustainable energy and emission reduction of this sector. The focus of this paper is to analyze the trends of Malaysia’s energy consumption and emission of four different transport sub-sectors (road, rail, aviation and maritime). Underlying factors influencing the growth of energy consumption and emission trends are discussed. Besides, technology status towards energy efficiency in transportation sub-sectors is presented. By reviewing the existing policies and trends of energy used, the paper highlights prospective policy options towards achieving emission reduction in the transportation sector.

Keywords: Energy policy, Fuel Consumption, Transportation Sector, Malaysia, CO2 emission

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5 Disclosing the Relationship among CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Bilateral Trade between Singapore and Malaysia: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: H. A. Bekhet, T. Yasmin

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship among CO2 per capita emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and bilateral trade between Singapore and Malaysia for the 1970-2011 period. ARDL model and Granger causality tests are employed for the analysis.  Results of bound F-statistics suggest that long-run  relationship exists between CO2 per capita (PCO2) and its determinants. The EKC hypothesis is not supported in Malaysia. Carbon emissions are mainly determined by energy consumption in the short and long run. While, exports to Singapore is a significant variable in explaining PCO2 emissions in Malaysia in long-run. Furthermore, we find a unidirectional causal relationship running from economic growth to PCO2 emissions.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Malaysia, CO2 emission, environmental Kuznets curve, bilateral trade, ADRL Bound Test

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4 Evaluation of Energy and Environmental Aspects of Reduced Tillage Systems Applied in Maize Cultivation

Authors: E. Šarauskis, L. Masilionytė, K. Romaneckas, Z. Kriaučiūnienė, S. Buragiene

Abstract:

In maize growing technologies, tillage technological operations are the most time-consuming and require the greatest fuel input. Substitution of conventional tillage, involving deep ploughing, by other reduced tillage methods can reduce technological production costs, diminish soil degradation and environmental pollution from greenhouse gas emissions, as well as improve economic competitiveness of agricultural produce.

Experiments designed to assess energy and environmental aspects associated with different reduced tillage systems, applied in maize cultivation were conducted at Aleksandras Stulginskis University taking into account Lithuania’s economic and climate conditions. The study involved 5 tillage treatments: deep ploughing (DP, control), shallow ploughing (SP), deep cultivation (DC), shallow cultivation (SC) and no-tillage (NT).

Our experimental evidence suggests that with the application of reduced tillage systems it is feasible to reduce fuel consumption by 13-58% and working time input by 8.4% to nearly 3-fold, to reduce the cost price of maize cultivation technological operations, decrease environmental pollution with CO2 gas by 30 to 146 kg ha-1, compared with the deep ploughing.

Keywords: Fuel Consumption, maize, CO2 emission, reduced tillage, energy and environmental assessment

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3 Energy Consumption and Surface Finish Analysis of Machining Ti6Al4V

Authors: Salman Pervaiz, Ibrahim Deiab, Amir Rashid, Mihai Nicolescu, Hossam Kishawy

Abstract:

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions impose major threat to global warming potential (GWP). Unfortunately manufacturing sector is one of the major sources that contribute towards the rapid increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In manufacturing sector electric power consumption is the major driver that influences CO2 emission. Titanium alloys are widely utilized in aerospace, automotive and petrochemical sectors because of their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Titanium alloys are termed as difficult to cut materials because of their poor machinability rating. The present study analyzes energy consumption during cutting with reference to material removal rate (MRR). Surface roughness was also measured in order to optimize energy consumption.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, CO2 emission, Ti6Al4V

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2 Numerical Study on CO2 Pollution in an Ignition Chamber by Oxygen Enrichment

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aims to obtain accurate information about the profile of the combustion in the furnace and also check the effect of oxygen enrichment on the combustion process. Oxygen enrichment is an effective way to reduce combustion pollutant. The flow rate of air to fuel ratio is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. Combustion simulations typically involve the solution of the turbulent flows with heat transfer, species transport and chemical reactions. It is common to use the Reynolds-averaged form of the governing equation in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.3 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Species mass fractions at the wall are assumed to have zero normal gradients.Results show that minimum mole fraction of CO2 happens when the flow rate ratio of air to fuel is 5.1. Additionally, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak. As a result, oxygen-enrichment can reduce the CO2 emission at this kind of furnace in high air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion Chamber, CO2 emission, oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes

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1 Optimal Generation Expansion Planning Strategy with Carbon Trading

Authors: Chih-Cheng Kao, Jong-Ian Tsai, Tung-Sheng Zhan, Chin-Der Yang

Abstract:

Fossil fuel-firing power plants dominate electric power generation in Taiwan, which are also the major contributor to Green House gases (GHG). CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas that cause global warming. This paper penetrates the relationship between carbon trading for GHG reduction and power generation expansion planning (GEP) problem for the electrical utility. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm is presented to deal with the generation expansion planning strategy of the utility with independent power providers (IPPs). The utility has to take both the IPPs- participation and environment impact into account when a new generation unit is considering expanded from view of supply side.

Keywords: Carbon trading, CO2 emission, GenerationExpansion Planning (GEP), Green House gases (GHG), ParticleSwarm Optimization (PSO)

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