Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

cavity Related Publications

11 Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO3 Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ(3)-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ(2)-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ(2) process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the mirror reflectance and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.

Keywords: cavity, periodically-poled LiNbO₃, third-harmonic generation, sum-frequency generation

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10 Performance of Axially Loaded Single Pile Embedded in Cohesive Soil with Cavities

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

The stability of a single model pile located adjacent to a continuous cavity was studied. This paper is an attempt to understand the behaviour of axially loaded single pile embedded in clayey soil with the presences of cavities. The performance of piles located in such soils was studied analytically. A verification analysis was carried out on available studies to assess the ability of analytical model to correctly interpret the system behaviour. The study was adopted by finite element program (PLAXIS). The study included many cases; in each case, there is a critical value in which the presence of cavities has shown minimum effect on the pile performance. Figures including the load carrying capacity of pile with the affecting factors are presented. These figures provide beneficial information for pile design constructed close to underground cavities. It was concluded that the load carrying capacity of the pile is reduced by the presence of the cavity within the soil mass. This reduction varies according to the size and location of cavity.

Keywords: Clay, cavity, ultimate capacity, pile, axial load

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9 Effect of Cavities on the Behaviour of Strip Footing Subjected to Inclined Load

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

One of the important concerns within the field of geotechnical engineering is the presence of cavities in soils. This present work is an attempt to understand the behaviour of strip footing subjected to inclined load and constructed on cavitied soil. The failure mechanism of strip footing located above such soils was studied analytically. The capability of analytical model to correctly expect the system behaviour is assessed by carrying out verification analysis on available studies. The study was prepared by finite element software (PLAXIS) in which an elastic-perfectly plastic soil model was used. It was indicated, from the results of the study, that the load carrying capacity of foundation constructed on cavity can be analysed well using such analysis. The research covered many foundation cases, and in each foundation case, there occurs a critical depth under which the presence of cavities has shown minimum impact on the foundation performance. When cavities are found above this critical depth, the load carrying capacity of the foundation differs with many influences, such as the location and size of the cavity and footing depth. Figures involving the load carrying capacity with the affecting factors studied are presented. These figures offer information beneficial for the design of strip footings rested on underground cavities. Moreover, the results might be used to design a shallow foundation constructed on cavitied soil, whereas the obtained failure mechanisms may be employed to improve numerical solutions for this kind of problems.

Keywords: strip footing, cavity, axial load, inclined load

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8 Computational Analysis of Cavity Effect over Aircraft Wing

Authors: P. Booma Devi, Dilip A. Shah

Abstract:

This paper seeks the potentials of studying aerodynamic characteristics of inward cavities called dimples, as an alternative to the classical vortex generators. Increasing stalling angle is a greater challenge in wing design. But our examination is primarily focused on increasing lift. In this paper, enhancement of lift is mainly done by introduction of dimple or cavity in a wing. In general, aircraft performance can be enhanced by increasing aerodynamic efficiency that is lift to drag ratio of an aircraft wing. Efficiency improvement can be achieved by improving the maximum lift co-efficient or by reducing the drag co-efficient. At the time of landing aircraft, high angle of attack may lead to stalling of aircraft. To avoid this kind of situation, increase in the stalling angle is warranted. Hence, improved stalling characteristic is the best way to ease landing complexity. Computational analysis is done for the wing segment made of NACA 0012. Simulation is carried out for 30 m/s free stream velocity over plain airfoil and different types of cavities. The wing is modeled in CATIA V5R20 and analyses are carried out using ANSYS CFX. Triangle and square shapes are used as cavities for analysis. Simulations revealed that cavity placed on wing segment shows an increase of maximum lift co-efficient when compared to normal wing configuration. Flow separation is delayed at downstream of the wing by the presence of cavities up to a particular angle of attack.

Keywords: cavity, lift, enhancement of stall angle, square and rectangle dimples

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7 Numerical Study on the Cavity-Induced Piping Failure of Embankment

Authors: H. J. Kim, G. C. Park, K. C. Kim, J. H. Shin

Abstract:

Cavities are frequently found beneath conduits on pile foundations in old embankments. Cavity reduces seepage length significantly and consequently causes piping failure of embankments. Case studies of embankment failures indicate that the relative settlement between ground and pile supported-concrete conduit was the main reason of the cavity. In this paper, an attempt to simulate the cavity-induced piping failure mechanism was made using finite element numerical method. Piping potential is examined by carrying out parametric study for influencing factors such as cavity length, water level, and flow conditions. The concentration of hydraulic gradient adjacent to cavity was found. It is found that the hydraulic gradient close to the cavity exceeds considerably the critical hydraulic gradient causing piping. Piping failure potential due to the existence of cavity is evaluated and contour map for the potential risk of an embankment for piping failure is proposed.

Keywords: piping, cavity, embankment, hydraulic gradient

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6 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: natural convection, cavity, nusselt number, wavy wall

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5 Natural Convection in Wavy-Wall Cavities Filled with Power-Law Fluid

Authors: Cha’O-Kuang Chen, Ching-Chang Cho

Abstract:

This paper investigates the natural convection heat transfer performance in a complex-wavy-wall cavity filled with power-law fluid. In performing the simulations, the continuity, Cauchy momentum and energy equations are solved subject to the Boussinesq approximation using a finite volume method. The simulations focus specifically on the effects of the flow behavior index in the power-law model and the Rayleigh number on the flow streamlines, isothermal contours and mean Nusselt number within the cavity. The results show that pseudoplastic fluids have a better heat transfer performance than Newtonian or dilatant fluids. Moreover, it is shown that for Rayleigh numbers greater than Ra=103, the mean Nusselt number has a significantly increase as the flow behavior index is decreased.

Keywords: Heat Transfer Enhancement, natural convection, non-Newtonian fluid, power-law fluid, cavity, wavy wall

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4 Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convective Flow in a Cavity

Authors: R.YadollahiFarsani, B. Ghasemi

Abstract:

A magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective flow in a cavity was studied in this paper. The lower surface of cavity was heated from below whereas other walls of the cavity were thermally isolated. The governing two-dimensional flow equations have been solved by using finite volume code. The effects of magnetic field were studied on flow and temperature field and heat transfer performance at a wide range of parameters, Such as Hartmann (0≤Ha≤100) and Reynolds (1≤Re≤100) numbers. The results showed that as Hartman number increases the Nusselt number, representing heat transfer from the cavity decreases.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, mixed convection, cavity, magnetohydrodynamic

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3 Numerical Simulation of Conjugated Heat Transfer Characteristics of Laminar Air Flows in Parallel-Plate Dimpled Channels

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Mohammad A. Esmaeili, Koohyar Vahidkhah

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical study on surface heat transfer characteristics of laminar air flows in parallel-plate dimpled channels. The two-dimensional numerical model is provided by commercial code FLUENT and the results are obtained for channels with symmetrically opposing hemi-cylindrical cavities onto both walls for Reynolds number ranging from 1000 to 2500. The influence of variations in relative depth of dimples (the ratio of cavity depth to the cavity curvature diameter), the number of them and the thermophysical properties of channel walls on heat transfer enhancement is studied. The results are evident for existence of an optimum value for the relative depth of dimples in which the largest wall heat flux and average Nusselt number can be achieved. In addition, the results of conjugation simulation indicate that the overall influence of the ratio of wall thermal conductivity to the one of the fluid on heat transfer rate is not much significant and can be ignored.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical, cavity, Conjugation, laminar air flow, parallel-plate channel

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2 Tumble Flow Analysis in an Unfired Engine Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: B. Murali Krishna, J. M. Mallikarjuna

Abstract:

This paper deals with the experimental investigations of the in-cylinder tumble flows in an unfired internal combustion engine with a flat piston at the engine speeds ranging from 400 to 1000 rev/min., and also with the dome and dome-cavity pistons at an engine speed of 1000 rev/min., using particle image velocimetry. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, tumble flow analysis is carried out in the combustion space on a vertical plane passing through cylinder axis. To analyze the tumble flows, ensemble average velocity vectors are used and to characterize it, tumble ratio is estimated. From the results, generally, we have found that tumble ratio varies mainly with crank angle position. Also, at the end of compression stroke, average turbulent kinetic energy is more at higher engine speeds. We have also found that, at 330 crank angle position, flat piston shows an improvement of about 85 and 23% in tumble ratio, and about 24 and 2.5% in average turbulent kinetic energy compared to dome and dome-cavity pistons respectively

Keywords: PIV, cavity, In-cylinder flow, Dome piston, Tumble

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1 Magnetohydrodynamic Damping of Natural Convection Flows in a Rectangular Enclosure

Authors: M. Battira, R. Bessaih

Abstract:

We numerically study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability of oscillatory natural convection flow in a rectangular cavity, with free top surface, filled with a liquid metal, having an aspect ratio equal to A=L/H=5, and subjected to a transversal temperature gradient and a uniform magnetic field oriented in x and z directions. The finite volume method was used in order to solve the equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and potential. The stability diagram obtained in this study highlights the dependence of the critical value of the Grashof number Grcrit , with the increase of the Hartmann number Ha for two orientations of the magnetic field. This study confirms the possibility of stabilization of a liquid metal flow in natural convection by application of a magnetic field and shows that the flow stability is more important when the direction of magnetic field is longitudinal than when the direction is transversal.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, natural convection, cavity, liquid metal, oscillatory

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