Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Carbon Nanotube Related Publications

16 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: S. Iijima, T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka

Abstract:

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: Catalyst, Carbon Nanotube, chemical vapor deposition

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15 Sustainability of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Rashad Al Araj, Adil K. Tamimi

Abstract:

Concrete, despite being one of the most produced materials in the world, still has weaknesses and drawbacks. Significant concern of the cementitious materials in structural applications is their quasi-brittle behavior, which causes the material to crack and lose its durability. One of the very recently proposed mitigations for this problem is the implementation of nanotechnology in the concrete mix by adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to it. CNTs can enhance the critical mechanical properties of concrete as a structural material. Thus, this paper demonstrates a state-of-the-art review of reinforcing concrete with CNTs, emphasizing on the structural performance. It also goes over the properties of CNTs alone, the present methods and costs associated with producing them, the possible special applications of concretes reinforced with CNTs, the key challenges and drawbacks that this new technology still encounters, and the most reliable practices and methodologies to produce CNT-reinforced concrete in the lab. This work has shown that the addition of CNTs to the concrete mix in percentages as low as 0.25% weight of cement could increase the flexural strength and toughness of concrete by more than 45% and 25%, respectively, and enhance other durability-related properties, given that an effective dispersion of CNTs in the cementitious mix is achieved. Since nano reinforcement for cementitious materials is a new technology, many challenges have to be tackled before it becomes practiced at the mass level.

Keywords: Concrete, Sustainability, Carbon Nanotube, microsilica

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14 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nanofiber and Nanofiber/Nanoparticle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon

Abstract:

Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF), carbon nanofiber (CNF), polyacrylonitrile/ carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), polyvinyl alcohol/nanosilver (PVA/Ag) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. In this study, the electrical conductivities of nanofiber and nanofiber/nanoparticles have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag (at UConn condition). The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Nanocomposites, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Electrospinning, Carbon Nanotube, carbon nanofiber, PAN fiber, activate carbon nanofiber, PVA fiber

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13 Modified Poly(pyrrole) Film Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, E. Erhan

Abstract:

In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly(Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, polypyrrole, phenol biosensor, Poly(glutaraldehyde)

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12 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Ajab Khan Kasi, Jafar Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750oC analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: charge, Cyclic Voltammetry, Catalyst, Carbon Nanotube, chemical vapor deposition

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11 Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency

Authors: B. S. Yew, F. Malek, Y. S. Lee, E. M. Cheng, W. W. Liu, F. H. Wee, M. N. Iqbal, Z. Liyana, F. S. Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes (RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with the rice husk. The rectangular waveguide technique was used to measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10mm thickness.

Keywords: Composite Materials, waveguide, Carbon Nanotube, X-Band, EMI shielding effectiveness

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10 Effect of Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement in Polymer Composite Plates under Static Loading

Authors: S. Madhu, V. V. Subba Rao

Abstract:

In the implementation of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymer matrix Composites in structural applications, deflection and stress analysis are important considerations. In the present study, a multi scale analysis of deflection and stress analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite plates is presented. A micromechanics model based on the Mori-Tanaka method is developed by introducing straight CNTs aligned in one direction. The effect of volume fraction and diameter of CNTs on plate deflection and the stresses are investigated using classical laminate plate theory (CLPT). The study is primarily conducted with the intention of observing the suitability of CNT reinforced polymer composite plates under static loading for structural applications.

Keywords: Micromechanics, Carbon Nanotube, composite plate, multi-scale analysis, classical laminate plate theory

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9 Enhanced Thermal, Mechanical and Morphological Properties of CNT/HDPE Nanocomposite Using MMT as Secondary Filler

Authors: Agus Arsad, M. E. Ali Mohsin, Othman Y. Alothman

Abstract:

This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increased values for the tensile and flexural strength, as compared to the pure HDPE matrix. The thermal analysis result showed improved thermal stability of the formulated nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that larger aggregates of CNTs were disappeared upon addition of these two components leading to the enhancement of thermo-mechanical properties for such composites.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Carbon Nanotube, montmorillonite, secondary filler

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8 Size Dependence of 1D Superconductivity in NbN Nanowires on Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: T. Hashimoto, N. Miki, H. Maki

Abstract:

We report the size dependence of 1D superconductivity in ultrathin (10-130 nm) nanowires produced by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting NbN thin film. The resistance-temperature characteristic curves for samples with ≧25 nm wire width show the superconducting transition. On the other hand, for the samples with 10-nm width, the superconducting transition is not exhibited owing to the quantum size effect. The differential resistance vs. current density characteristic curves show some peak, indicating that Josephson junctions are formed in nanowires. The presence of the Josephson junctions is well explained by the measurement of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current. These understanding allow for the further expansion of the potential application of NbN, which is utilized for single photon detectors and so on.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, quantum size effect, NbN nanowire, Josephson junction

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7 Influence of Inter-tube Connections on the Stress-Strain Behavior of Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Jianwei Zhang, Dazhi Jiang, Huaxin Peng, Chunqi Wang

Abstract:

Stress-strain curve of inter-tube connected carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite under axial loading generated from molecular dynamics simulation is presented. Comparison of the response to axial mechanical loading between this composite system with composite systems reinforced by long, continuous CNTs (replicated via periodic boundary conditions) and short, discontinuous CNTs has been made. Simulation results showed that the inter-tube connection improved the mechanical properties of short discontinuous CNTs dramatically. Though still weaker than long CNT/polymer composite, more remarkable increase in the stiffness relative to the polymer was observed in the inter-tube connected CNT/polymer composite than in the discontinuous CNT/polymer composite. The manually introduced bridge break process resulted in a stress-strain curve of ductile fracture mode, which is consistent with the experimental result.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, stress-strain curve, inter-tube connection, molecular dynamics

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6 Insertion of Thiazolidinediones into Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Behnoush Zare, Mojdeh Akhavan, Ahmad Reza Dehpour

Abstract:

In this study we investigate the insertion of pioglitazone, a Thiazolidinedione, into the two different sizes of Carbon nanotub. It was shown that the insertion of pioglitazone into the carbon nanotube in a water solute environment could be related to the diameter of the nanotube and in the flow of the waters via hydrophilic interactions. This encapsulated drug-carbon nanotube molecule can be further applicable in other investigations in target therapy with these agents regarding to reduce their potential toxic effects.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, MD simulation, Thiazolidinedions

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5 Nanocomputing Memory Devices Formed from Carbon Nanotubes and Metallofulleres

Authors: Richard K. F. Lee, James M. Hill

Abstract:

In this paper, we summarize recent work of the authors on nanocomputing memory devices. We investigate two memory devices, each comprising a charged metallofullerene and carbon nanotubes. The first device involves two open nanotubes of the same radius that are joined by a centrally located nanotube of a smaller radius. A metallofullerene is then enclosed inside the structure. The second device also involves a etallofullerene that is located inside a closed carbon nanotube. Assuming the Lennard-Jones interaction energy and the continuum approximation, for both devices, the metallofullerene has two symmetrically placed equal minimum energy positions. On one side the metallofullerene represents the zero information state and by applying an external electrical field, it can overcome the energy barrier, and pass from one end of the tube to the other, where the metallofullerene then represents the one information state.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, Lennard-Jones potential, continuous approach, energy barrier, metallofullerene, nanomemory device

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4 Buckling Analysis of a Five-walled CNT with Nonlocal Theory

Authors: abdolreza MEMARI, Alireza Bozorgian, Navid Majdi Nasab

Abstract:

A continuum model is presented to study vdW interaction on buckling analysis of multi-walled walled carbon nanotube. In previous studies, only the vdW interaction between adjacent two layers was considered and the vdW interaction between the other two layers was neglected. The results show that the vdW interaction cofficients are dependent on the change of interlayer spacing and the radii of tubes. With increase of radii the vdW coefficients approach a constant value. The numerical results show that the effect of vdW interaction on the critical strain for a doublewalled CNT is negligible when the radius is large enough for the both the cases of before and after buckling.

Keywords: buckling, Carbon Nanotube, multi-walled carbon nanotube, van der Waals interaction, Critical Strain, Prebuckling Pressure

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3 Production of Carbon Nanotubes by Iron Catalyst

Authors: Nilgün Karatepe, Ezgi Dündar-Tekkaya

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their high mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical properties are regarded as promising materials for many different potential applications. Having unique properties they can be used in a wide range of fields such as electronic devices, electrodes, drug delivery systems, hydrogen storage, textile etc. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a common method for CNT production especially for mass production. Catalysts impregnated on a suitable substrate are important for production with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Iron catalyst and MgO substrate is one of most common catalyst-substrate combination used for CNT. In this study, CNTs were produced by CCVD of acetylene (C2H2) on magnesium oxide (MgO) powder substrate impregnated by iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3•9H2O) solution. The CNT synthesis conditions were as follows: at synthesis temperatures of 500 and 800°C multiwall and single wall CNTs were produced respectively. Iron (Fe) catalysts were prepared by with Fe:MgO ratio of 1:100, 5:100 and 10:100. The duration of syntheses were 30 and 60 minutes for all temperatures and catalyst percentages. The synthesized materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: Iron, Catalyst, Carbon Nanotube, catalytic chemical vapordeposition

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2 Molecular Dynamics of Fatty Acid Interacting with Carbon Nanotube as Selective Device

Authors: David L. Azevedo, Jordan Del Nero

Abstract:

In this paper we study a system composed by carbon nanotube (CNT) and bundle of carbon nanotube (BuCNT) interacting with a specific fatty acid as molecular probe. Full system is represented by open nanotube (or nanotubes) and the linoleic acid (LA) relaxing due the interaction with CNT and BuCNT. The LA has in his form an asymmetric shape with COOH termination provoking a close BuCNT interaction mainly by van der Waals force field. The simulations were performed by classical molecular dynamics with standard parameterizations. Our results show that these BuCNT and CNT are dynamically stable and it shows a preferential interaction position with LA resulting in three features: (i) when the LA is interacting with CNT and BuCNT (including both termination, CH2 or COOH), the LA is repelled; (ii) when the LA terminated with CH2 is closer to open extremity of BuCNT, the LA is also repelled by the interaction between them; and (iii) when the LA terminated with COOH is closer to open extremity of BuCNT, the LA is encapsulated by the BuCNT. These simulations are part of a more extensive work on searching efficient selective molecular devices and could be useful to reach this goal.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, linoleic acid, MolecularDynamics

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1 Low Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor based on SnO2/MWNTs Nanocomposite

Authors: Y. Mortazavi, A. Khodadadi, O. Alizadeh Sahraei, M. Vesali Naseh, S. Mosadegh

Abstract:

A composite made of plasma functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) coated with SnO2 was synthesized by sonochemical precipitation method. Thick layer of this nanocomposite material was used as ethanol sensor at low temperatures. The composite sensitivity for ethanol has increased by a factor of 2 at room temperature and by a factor of 13 at 250°C in comparison to that of pure SnO2. SEM image of nanocomposite material showed MWNTs were embedded in SnO2 matrix and also a higher surface area was observed in the presence of functionalized MWNTs. Greatly improved sensitivity of the composite material to ethanol can be attributed to new gas accessing passes through MWNTs and higher specific surface area.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Carbon Nanotube, Gas Sensor, functionalized, tin oxide, Low temperature

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