Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Building Related Publications

17 Incorporating Circular Economy into Passive Design Strategies in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Noah G. Akhimien, Eshrar Latif

Abstract:

The natural environment is in need for an urgent rescue due to dilapidation and recession of resources. Passive design strategies have proven to be one of the effective ways to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve building performance. On the other hand, there is a huge drop in material availability due to poor recycling culture. Consequently, building waste pose environmental hazard due to unrecycled building materials from construction and deconstruction. Buildings are seen to be material banks for a circular economy, therefore incorporating circular economy into passive housing will not only safe guide the climate but also improve resource efficiency. The study focuses on incorporating a circular economy in passive design strategies for an affordable energy and resource efficient residential building in Nigeria. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is still on the increase as buildings are responsible for a significant amount of this emission globally. Therefore, prompt measures need to be taken to combat the effect of global warming and associated threats. Nigeria is rapidly growing in human population, resources on the other hand have receded greatly, and there is an abrupt need for recycling even in the built environment. It is necessary that Nigeria responds to these challenges effectively and efficiently considering building resource and energy. Passive design strategies were assessed using simulations to obtain qualitative and quantitative data which were inferred to case studies as it relates to the Nigeria climate. Building materials were analysed using the ReSOLVE model in order to explore possible recycling phase. This provided relevant information and strategies to illustrate the possibility of circular economy in passive buildings. The study offers an alternative approach, as it is the general principle for the reworking of an economy on ecological lines in passive housing and by closing material loops in circular economy.

Keywords: Building, Sustainability, Efficiency, Circular economy, passive design

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16 Determination of the Thermophysical Characteristics of the Composite Material Clay Cement Paper

Authors: A. Ouargui, N. Belouaggadia, M. Ezzine

Abstract:

In Morocco, the building sector is largely responsible for the evolution of energy consumption. The control of energy in this sector remains a major issue despite the rise of renewable energies. The design of an environmentally friendly building requires mastery and knowledge of energy and bioclimatic aspects. This implies taking into consideration of all the elements making up the building and the way in which energy exchanges take place between these elements. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work is to provide some solutions to reduce energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort in the building. The objective of our work is to present an experimental study on the characterization of local materials used in the thermal insulation of buildings. These are paper recycling stabilized with cement and clay. The thermal conductivity of these materials, which were constituted based on sand, clay, cement; water, as well as treated paper, was determined by the guarded-hot-plate method. It involves the design of two materials that will subsequently be subjected to thermal and mechanical tests to determine their thermophysical properties. The results show that the thermal conductivity decreases as well in the case of the paper-cement mixture as that of the paper-clay and seems to stabilize around 40%. Measurements of mechanical properties such as flexural strength have shown that the enrichment of the studied material with paper makes it possible to reduce the flexural strength by 20% while optimizing the conductivity.

Keywords: Building, Thermal Conductivity, Composite Material, insulation, paper residue

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15 Investigation of Building Loads Effect on the Stability of Slope

Authors: Hadj Brahim Mounia, Belhamel Farid, Souici Messoud

Abstract:

In big cities, construction on sloping land (landslide) is becoming increasingly prevalent due to the unavailability of flat lands. This has created a major challenge for structural engineers with regard to structure design, due to the difficulties encountered during the implementation of projects, both for the structure and the soil. This paper analyses the effect of the number of floors of a building, founded on isolated footing on the stability of the slope using the computer code finite element PLAXIS 2D v. 8.2. The isolated footings of a building in this case were anchored in soil so that the levels of successive isolated footing realize a maximum slope of base of three for two heights, which connects the edges of the nearest footings, according to the Algerian building code DTR-BC 2.331: Shallow foundations. The results show that the embedment of the foundation into the soil reduces the value of the safety factor due to the change of the stress state of the soil by these foundations. The number of floors a building has also influences the safety factor. It has been noticed from this case of study that there is no risk of collapse of slopes for an inclination between 5° and 8°. In the case of slope inclination greater than 10° it has been noticed that the urbanization is prohibited.

Keywords: Building, Collapse, factor of safety, slope, PLAXIS 2D, isolated footing

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14 Nonlinear Analysis of a Building Surmounted by a RC Water Tank under Hydrodynamic Load

Authors: Hocine Hammoum, Karima Bouzelha, Lounis Ziani, Lounis Hamitouche

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a complex structure which is an apartment building surmounted by a reinforced concrete water tank. The tank located on the top floor of the building is a container with capacity of 1000 m3. The building is complex in its design, its calculation and by its behavior under earthquake effect. This structure located in Algiers and aged of 53 years has been subjected to several earthquakes, but the earthquake of May 21st, 2003 with a magnitude of 6.7 on the Richter scale that struck Boumerdes region at 40 Kms East of Algiers was fatal for it. It was downgraded after an investigation study because the central core sustained serious damage. In this paper, to estimate the degree of its damages, the seismic performance of the structure will be evaluated taking into account the hydrodynamic effect, using a static equivalent nonlinear analysis called pushover.

Keywords: Building, Performance Analysis, Nonlinear Analysis, Seismic Analysis, hydrodynamic, reinforced concrete tank, pushover

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13 Numerical Study on Improving Indoor Thermal Comfort Using a PCM Wall

Authors: M. Faraji, F. Berroug

Abstract:

A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed in order to analyze and optimize the latent heat storage wall. The governing equations for energy transport were developed by using the enthalpy method and discretized with volume control scheme. The resulting algebraic equations were next solved iteratively by using TDMA algorithm. A series of numerical investigations were conducted in order to examine the effects of the thickness of the PCM layer on the thermal behavior of the proposed heating system. Results are obtained for thermal gain and temperature fluctuation. The charging discharging process was also presented and analyzed.

Keywords: Building, Concrete, Thermal Control, phase change material, latent heat

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12 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar

Abstract:

Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: Building, Structure, steel, recycled material

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11 The Development of the Quality Management Processes for the Building and Environment of the Basic Education Schools

Authors: Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

The objectives of this research was to design and develop a quality management of the school buildings and environment. A quantitative and qualitative mixed research methodology was used. The population sample included 14 directors of primary schools. Two research tools were used. The first research tool included an in-depth interview and questionnaire. The second research tool included the Quality Business Process and Quality Work Procedure, and a Key Performance Indicator of each activity. The statistics included mean and standard deviation. The findings for the development of a quality management process of buildings and environment administration of the basic schools consisted of one quality business process (QBP) and seven quality work processes (QWP). The result from the experts’ evaluation revealed that the process and implementation of quality management of the school buildings and environment has passed the inspection process with consensus. This implies that the process of quality management of the school buildings and environment is suitable for implementation. Moreover, the level of agreement in the feasibility of the implementation of this plan had the mean in the range of 0.64-1.00 which suggests the design of the new plan is acceptable.

Keywords: Building, Environment, Process

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10 Numerical Simulation of the Turbulent Flow over a Three-Dimensional Flat Roof

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, E. Benini, A. Castelli

Abstract:

The flow field over a flat roof model building has been numerically investigated in order to determine threedimensional CFD guidelines for the calculation of the turbulent flow over a structure immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer. To this purpose, a complete validation campaign has been performed through a systematic comparison of numerical simulations with wind tunnel experimental data. Wind tunnel measurements and numerical predictions have been compared for five different vertical positions, respectively from the upstream leading edge to the downstream bottom edge of the analyzed model. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the building model have been numerically investigated, allowing a quantification of the capabilities of the CFD code to predict the flow separation and the extension of the recirculation regions. The proposed calculations have allowed the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a three-dimensional roof architecture dominated by flow separation.

Keywords: Wind, Building, CFD, roof

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9 Development of Cooling Load Demand Program for Building in Malaysia

Authors: Zamri Noranai, Hamidon Salleh, Mohammad Zainal Md Yusof, Dayang Siti Zainab Abang Bujang, Rosli Asmawi

Abstract:

Air conditioning is mainly to be used as human comfort medium. It has been use more often in country in which the daily temperatures are high. In scientific, air conditioning is defined as a process of controlling the moisture, cooling, heating and cleaning air. Without proper estimation of cooling load, big amount of waste energy been used because of unsuitable of air conditioning system are not considering to overcoming heat gains from surrounding. This is due to the size of the room is too big and the air conditioning has to use more energy to cool the room and the air conditioning is too small for the room. The studies are basically to develop a program to calculate cooling load. Through this study it is easy to calculate cooling load estimation. Furthermore it-s help to compare the cooling load estimation by hourly and yearly. Base on the last study that been done, the developed software are not user-friendly. For individual without proper knowledge of calculating cooling load estimation might be problem. Easy excess and user-friendly should be the main objective to design something. This program will allow cooling load able be estimate by any users rather than estimation by using rule of thumb. Several of limitation of case study is judged to sure it-s meeting to Malaysia building specification. Finally validation is done by comparison manual calculation and by developed program.

Keywords: Building, Energy and Coaling Load

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8 Attentiveness of Building Commissioning in the Malaysian Construction Industry

Authors: Kho Mei Ye, Hamzah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

This paper provides some thoughts about the lack of attentiveness of building commissioning in the construction industry and the lack of handling in project commissioning as an integral part of the project life-cycle. Many have perceived commissioning as the problem solving process of a project, rather than the start up of the equipment, or the handing over of the project to the client. Therefore, there is a lack of proper attention in the planning of commissioning as a vital part of the project life-cycle. This review paper aims to highlight the benefits of building commissioning and to propose the lacking of knowledge gap on building commissioning. Finally, this paper hopes to propose the shift of focus on this matter in future research.

Keywords: Construction, Building, delay, commissioning

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7 Numerical Analysis of Wind Loads on a Hemicylindrical Roof Building

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini, Sergio Toniato

Abstract:

The flow field over a three dimensional pole barn characterized by a cylindrical roof has been numerically investigated. Wind pressure and viscous loads acting on the agricultural building have been analyzed for several incoming wind directions, so as to evaluate the most critical load condition on the structure. A constant wind velocity profile, based on the maximum reference wind speed in the building site (peak gust speed worked out for 50 years return period) and on the local roughness coefficient, has been simulated. In order to contemplate also the hazard due to potential air wedging between the stored hay and the lower part of the ceiling, the effect of a partial filling of the barn has been investigated. The distribution of wind-induced loads on the structure have been determined, allowing a numerical quantification of the effect of wind direction on the induced stresses acting on a hemicylindrical roof.

Keywords: Wind, Building, CFD, hemicylindrical roof

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6 Modeling Strategy and Numerical Validation of the Turbulent Flow over a two-Dimensional Flat Roof

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini, Alberto Castelli

Abstract:

The construction of a civil structure inside a urban area inevitably modifies the outdoor microclimate at the building site. Wind speed, wind direction, air pollution, driving rain, radiation and daylight are some of the main physical aspects that are subjected to the major changes. The quantitative amount of these modifications depends on the shape, size and orientation of the building and on its interaction with the surrounding environment.The flow field over a flat roof model building has been numerically investigated in order to determine two-dimensional CFD guidelines for the calculation of the turbulent flow over a structure immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer. To this purpose, a complete validation campaign has been performed through a systematic comparison of numerical simulations with wind tunnel experimental data.Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have been tested for five different vertical positions, respectively from the upstream leading edge to the downstream bottom edge of the analyzed model. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the building model have been numerically investigated, allowing a quantification of the capabilities of the CFD code to predict the flow separation and the extension of the recirculation regions.The proposed calculations have allowed the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as a guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a twodimensional roof architecture dominated by flow separation.

Keywords: Wind, Building, CFD, roof

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5 Prediction of Basic Wind Speed for Ayeyarwady

Authors: Chaw Su Mon

Abstract:

Abstract— The paper presents a preliminary study on modeling and estimation of basic wind speed ( extreme wind gusts ) for the consideration of vulnerability and design of building in Ayeyarwady Region. The establishment of appropriate design wind speeds is a critical step towards the calculation of design wind loads for structures. In this paper the extreme value analysis of this prediction work is based on the anemometer data (1970-2009) maintained by the department of meteorology and hydrology of Pathein. Statistical and probabilistic approaches are used to derive formulas for estimating 3-second gusts from recorded data (10-minute sustained mean wind speeds).

Keywords: Building, Basic Wind Speed, Gusts, Statistical and probabilistic approaches

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4 Active Tendons for Seismic Control of Buildings

Authors: S. M. Nigdeli, M. H. Boduroglu

Abstract:

In this study, active tendons with Proportional Integral Derivation type controllers were applied to a SDOF and a MDOF building model. Physical models of buildings were constituted with virtual springs, dampers and rigid masses. After that, equations of motion of all degrees of freedoms were obtained. Matlab Simulink was utilized to obtain the block diagrams for these equations of motion. Parameters for controller actions were found by using a trial method. After earthquake acceleration data were applied to the systems, building characteristics such as displacements, velocities, accelerations and transfer functions were analyzed for all degrees of freedoms. Comparisons on displacement vs. time, velocity vs. time, acceleration vs. time and transfer function (Db) vs. frequency (Hz) were made for uncontrolled and controlled buildings. The results show that the method seems feasible.

Keywords: Earthquake, Building, SDOF, Active Tendons, Proportional Integral DerivationType Controllers, MDOF

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3 Structural Sustainability Techniques for RC High Rise Buildings

Authors: Mohamed A. Azab

Abstract:

Over the early years of the 21st century, cities throughout the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf region have expanded more rapidly than ever before. Given the presence of a large volume of high-rise buildings allover the region, the local authority aims to set a new standard for sustainable development; with an integrated approach to maintain a balance between economy, quality, environmental protection and safety of life. In the very near future, as mandatory requirements, sustainability will be the criteria that should be included in all building projects. It is well known in the building sustainability topics that structural design engineers do not have a key role in this matter. In addition, the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) has looked almost exclusively on the environmental components and materials specifications. The objective of this paper is to focus and establish groundwork for sustainability techniques and applications related to the RC high-rise buildings design, from the structural point of view. A set of recommendations related to local conditions, structural modeling and analysis is given, and some helpful suggestions for structural design team work are addressed. This paper attempts to help structural engineers in identifying the building sustainability design, in order to meet local needs and achieve alternative solutions at an early stage of project design.

Keywords: Design, Middle East, Building, Sustainability, Structural, high-rise

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2 Sustainable Development in Construction

Authors: Ali Kheyroddin, Ali Hemmati

Abstract:

Semnan is a city in semnan province, northern Iran with a population estimated at 119,778 inhabitants. It is the provincial capital of semnan province. Iran is a developing country and construction is a basic factor of developing too. Hence, Semnan city needs to a special programming for construction of buildings, structures and infrastructures. Semnan municipality tries to begin this program. In addition to, city has some historical monuments which can be interesting for tourists. Hence, Semnan inhabitants can benefit from tourist industry. Optimization of Energy in construction industry is another activity of this municipality and the inhabitants who execute these regulations receive some discounts. Many parts of Iran such as semnan are located in highly seismic zones and structures must be constructed safe e.g., according to recent seismic codes. In this paper opportunities of IT in construction industry of Iran are investigated in three categories. Pre-construction phase, construction phase and earthquake disaster mitigation are studied. Studies show that information technology can be used in these items for reducing the losses and increasing the benefits. Both government and private sectors must contribute to this strategic project for obtaining the best result.

Keywords: Construction, Building, Industry, document, Semnan, approval

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1 Simulation of Thermal Storage Phase Change Material in Buildings

Authors: Samira Haghshenaskashani, Hadi Pasdarshahri

Abstract:

One of the potential and effective ways of storing thermal energy in buildings is the integration of brick with phase change materials (PCMs). This paper presents a two-dimensional model for simulating and analyzing of PCM in order to minimize energy consumption in the buildings. The numerical approach has been used with the real weather data of a selected city of Iran (Tehran). Two kinds of brick integrated PCM are investigated and compared base on outdoor weather conditions and the amount of energy consumption. The results show a significant reduction in maximum entering heat flux to building about 32.8% depending on PCM quantity. The results are analyzed by various temperature contour plots. The contour plots illustrated the time dependent mechanism of entering heat flux for a brick integrated with PCM. Further analysis is developed to investigate the effect of PCM location on the inlet heat flux. The results demonstrated that to achieve maximum performance of PCM it is better to locate PCM near the outdoor.

Keywords: energy storage, Building, PCM, phase change material

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