Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Bridge Related Publications

13 Applications of Drones in Infrastructures: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Jin Fan, M. Ala Saadeghvaziri

Abstract:

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, equipped with various kinds of advanced detecting or surveying systems, are effective and low-cost in data acquisition, data delivery and sharing, which can benefit the building of infrastructures. This paper will give an overview of applications of drones in planning, designing, construction and maintenance of infrastructures. The drone platform, detecting and surveying systems, and post-data processing systems will be introduced, followed by cases with details of the applications. Challenges from different aspects will be addressed. Opportunities of drones in infrastructure include but not limited to the following. Firstly, UAVs equipped with high definition cameras or other detecting equipment are capable of inspecting the hard to reach infrastructure assets. Secondly, UAVs can be used as effective tools to survey and map the landscape to collect necessary information before infrastructure construction. Furthermore, an UAV or multi-UVAs are useful in construction management. UVAs can also be used in collecting roads and building information by taking high-resolution photos for future infrastructure planning. UAVs can be used to provide reliable and dynamic traffic information, which is potentially helpful in building smart cities. The main challenges are: limited flight time, the robustness of signal, post data analyze, multi-drone collaboration, weather condition, distractions to the traffic caused by drones. This paper aims to help owners, designers, engineers and architects to improve the building process of infrastructures for higher efficiency and better performance.

Keywords: Information, Construction, Infrastructure, Bridge, Drones

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12 Performance of Bridge Approach Slabs in Bridge Construction: A Case Study

Authors: Aurora Cerri, Niko Pullojani

Abstract:

Long-term differential settlement between the bridge structure and the bridge embankment typically results in an abrupt grade change, causing driver discomfort, impairing driver safety, and exerting a potentially excessive impact traffic loading on the abutment. This paper has analysed a case of study showing the effect of an approaching slab realized in a bridge constructed at Tirane-Elbasan Motorway. The layer thickness under the slab is modeled as homogenous, the slab is a reinforced concrete structure and over that the asphaltic layers take place. Analysis indicates that reinforced concrete approaching slab distributes the stresses quite uniformly into the road fill layers and settlements varies in a range less than 2.50 cm in the total slab length of 6.00 m with a maximum slope of 1/240. Results taken from analytical analysis are compared with topographic measurements done on field and they carry great similarities.

Keywords: Bridge, differential settlement, road pavement, approach slab

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11 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mücip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya

Abstract:

This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, Inspection, Bridge, column, stirrup reinforcement

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10 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: Earthquake, Bridge, spectrum, finite element

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9 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges

Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis

Abstract:

Paper presents a study about dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 prestressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicle passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and the bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge pavement in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

Keywords: Bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor

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8 Experimental Investigation on Tsunami Acting on Bridges

Authors: Iman Mazinani, Zubaidah Ismail, Ahmad Mustafa Hashim, Amirreza Saba

Abstract:

Two tragic tsunamis that devastated the west coast of Sumatra Island, Indonesia in 2004 and North East Japan in 2011 had damaged bridges to various extents. Tsunamis have resulted in the catastrophic deterioration of infrastructures i.e. coastal structures, utilities and transportation facilities. A bridge structure performs vital roles to enable people to perform activities related to their daily needs and for development. A damaged bridge needs to be repaired expeditiously. In order to understand the effects of tsunami forces on bridges, experimental tests are carried out to measure the characteristics of hydrodynamic force at various wave heights. Coastal bridge models designed at a 1:40 scale are used in a 24.0 m long hydraulic flume with a cross section of 1.5 m by 2.0 m. The horizontal forces and uplift forces in all cases show that forces increase nonlinearly with increasing wave amplitude.

Keywords: Tsunami, Bridge, horizontal force, uplift force

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7 Performance of Bridge Girder with Perforations under Tsunami Wave Loading

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Sadia Rahman, M. T. R. Khan, R. Triatmadja

Abstract:

Tsunami disaster poses a great threat to coastal infrastructures. Bridges without adequate provisions for earthquake and tsunami loading is generally vulnerable to tsunami attack. During the last two disastrous tsunami event (i.e. Indian Ocean and Japan Tsunami) a number of bridges were observed subsequent damages by tsunami waves. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of perforations in bridge girder in force reduction. Results showed that significant amount of forces were reduced using perforations in girder. Approximately 10% to 18% force reductions were achieved by using about 16% perforations in bridge girder. Subsequent amount of force reductions revealed that perforations in girder are effective in reducing tsunami forces as perforations in girder let water to be passed through. Thus, less bridge damages are expected with the presence of perforations in girder during tsunami period.

Keywords: Tsunami, Bridge, wave, Force, perforation, girder

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6 The Importance of Bridge Health Monitoring

Authors: Punya Chupanit, Chayatan Phromsorn

Abstract:

In the past, there were many bridge-s collapses due to lack of bridge structural capacity information. Most of concrete bridge health was relied on information from visual inspection, which sometime was inadequate. This study was conducted in order to investigate relationship between bridge structural condition and bridge visual condition. This study was a part of a big project conducted at Department of Highways of Thailand. In this study, 31 bridges including slab-type bridges, plank-girder bridges, prestressed box-beam bridges, prestressed I-girder bridges and prestressed multibeam bridges were selected for visual inspection and load test. It was found a positive correlation between bridge appearance and bridge-s load carrying capacity. However, statistical characteristic revealed low correlation between them.

Keywords: Bridge, load test, Visual inspection, Condition Rating, Rating Factor

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5 Developing Damage Assessment Model for Bridge Surroundings: A Study of Disaster by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan

Authors: Jieh-Haur Chen, Pei-Fen Huang

Abstract:

This paper presents an integrated model that automatically measures the change of rivers, damage area of bridge surroundings, and change of vegetation. The proposed model is on the basis of a neurofuzzy mechanism enhanced by SOM optimization algorithm, and also includes three functions to deal with river imagery. High resolution imagery from FORMOSAT-2 satellite taken before and after the invasion period is adopted. By randomly selecting a bridge out of 129 destroyed bridges, the recognition results show that the average width has increased 66%. The ruined segment of the bridge is located exactly at the most scour region. The vegetation coverage has also reduced to nearly 90% of the original. The results yielded from the proposed model demonstrate a pinpoint accuracy rate at 99.94%. This study brings up a successful tool not only for large-scale damage assessment but for precise measurement to disasters.

Keywords: Optimization, Bridge, Fuzzy, Damage Assessment, ANN, SOM, remote sensing image, typhoon disaster

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4 Uniform Distribution of Ductility Demand in Irregular Bridges using Shape Memory Alloy

Authors: Seyed Mohyeddin Ghodratian, Mehdi Ghassemieh, Mohammad Khanmohammadi

Abstract:

Excessive ductility demand on shorter piers is a common problem for irregular bridges subjected to strong ground motion. Various techniques have been developed to reduce the likelihood of collapse of bridge due to failure of shorter piers. This paper presents the new approach to improve the seismic behavior of such bridges using Nitinol shape memory alloys (SMAs). Superelastic SMAs have the ability to remain elastic under very large deformation due to martensitic transformation. This unique property leads to enhanced performance of controlled bridge compared with the performance of the reference bridge. To evaluate the effectiveness of the devices, nonlinear time history analysis is performed on a RC single column bent highway bridge using a suite of representative ground motions. The results show that this method is very effective in limiting the ductility demand of shorter pier.

Keywords: Bridge, irregularity, ductility demand, shape memory alloy

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3 Investigation of Scour Depth at Bridge Piers using Bri-Stars Model in Iran

Authors: Gh. Saeidifar, F. Raeiszadeh

Abstract:

BRI-STARS (BRIdge Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation) program was used to investigate the scour depth around bridge piers in some of the major river systems in Iran. Model calibration was performed by collecting different field data. Field data are cataloged on three categories, first group of bridges that their rivers bed are formed by fine material, second group of bridges that their rivers bed are formed by sand material, and finally bridges that their rivers bed are formed by gravel or cobble materials. Verification was performed with some field data in Fars Province. Results show that for wide piers, computed scour depth is more than measured one. In gravel bed streams, computed scour depth is greater than measured scour depth, the reason is due to formation of armor layer on bed of channel. Once this layer is eroded, the computed scour depth is close to the measured one.

Keywords: Computer Modeling, Bridge, local scour, BRI-STARS

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2 Evaluation of Seismic Damage for Gisha Bridge in Tehran by HAZUS Methodology

Authors: Langroudi B., Salehi E., Keshani S., Baghersad M.

Abstract:

Transportation is of great importance in the current life of human beings. The transportation system plays many roles, from economical development to after-catastrophe aids such as rescue operation in the first hours and days after an earthquake. In after earthquakes response phase, transportation system acts as a basis for ground operations including rescue and relief operation, food providing for victims and etc. It is obvious that partial or complete obstruction of this system results in the stop of these operations. Bridges are one of the most important elements of transportation network. Failure of a bridge, in the most optimistic case, cuts the relation between two regions and in more developed countries, cuts the relation of numerous regions. In this paper, to evaluate the vulnerability and estimate the damage level of Tehran bridges, HAZUS method, developed by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) with the aid of National Institute of Building Science (NIBS), is used for the first time in Iran. In this method, to evaluate the collapse probability, fragility curves are used. Iran is located on seismic belt and thus, it is vulnerable to earthquakes. Thus, the study of the probability of bridge collapses, as an important part of transportation system, during earthquakes is of great importance. The purpose of this study is to provide fragility curves for Gisha Bridge, one of the longest steel bridges in Tehran, as an important lifeline element. Besides, the damage probability for this bridge during a specific earthquake, introduced as scenario earthquakes, is calculated. The fragility curves show that for the considered scenario, the probability of occurrence of complete collapse for the bridge is 8.6%.

Keywords: Bridge, Damage Evaluation, Seismic Vulnerability, fragility curve, lifelines

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1 An Examination of Backing Effects on Ratings for Masonry Arch Bridges

Authors: Muhammad E. Rahman, Paul J. Fanning

Abstract:

Many single or multispan arch bridges are strengthened with the addition of some kind of structural support between adjacent arches of multispan or beside the arch barrel of a single span to increase the strength of the overall structure. It was traditionally formed by either placing loose rubble masonry blocks between the arches and beside the arches or using mortar or concrete to construct a more substantial structural bond between the spans. On the other hand backing materials are present in some existing bridges. Existing arch assessment procedures generally ignore the effects of backing materials. In this paper an investigation of the effects of backing on ratings for masonry arch bridges is carried out. It is observed that increasing the overall lateral stability of the arch system through the inclusion of structural backing results in an enhanced failure load by reducing the likelihood of any tension occurring at the top of the arch.

Keywords: Masonry, Bridge, arch, Backing

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