Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

blood flow Related Publications

5 A Novel NIRS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara, Hiroshi Tanaka, Takashi Kaburagi, Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe

Abstract:

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: Working memory, Second Language, first language, blood flow, NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, BA46

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4 A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks

Authors: Houman Tamaddon, Mehrdad Behnia, Masud Behnia

Abstract:

An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.

Keywords: blood flow, morphometric data, vascular tree, Strahler ordering system

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3 Non-Invasive Capillary Blood Flow Measurement: Laser Speckle and Laser Doppler

Authors: A.K.Jayanthy, N.Sujatha, M.Ramasubba Reddy

Abstract:

Microcirculation is essential for the proper supply of oxygen and nutritive substances to the biological tissue and the removal of waste products of metabolism. The determination of blood flow in the capillaries is therefore of great interest to clinicians. A comparison has been carried out using the developed non-invasive, non-contact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based technique and as well as a commercially available laser Doppler blood flowmeter (LDF) to evaluate blood flow at the finger tip and elbow and is presented here. The LSCI technique gives more quantitative information on the velocity of blood when compared to the perfusion values obtained using the LDF. Measurement of blood flow in capillaries can be of great interest to clinicians in the diagnosis of vascular diseases of the upper extremities.

Keywords: blood flow, speckle, Laser Doppler flowmeter, LSCI

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2 CFD Simulation of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Arterial Stenoses with Surface Irregularities

Authors: R. Manimaran

Abstract:

CFD simulations are carried out in arterial stenoses with 48 % areal occlusion. Non-newtonian fluid model is selected for the blood flow as the same problem has been solved before with Newtonian fluid model. Studies on flow resistance with the presence of surface irregularities are carried out. Investigations are also performed on the pressure drop at various Reynolds numbers. The present study revealed that the pressure drop across a stenosed artery is practically unaffected by surface irregularities at low Reynolds numbers, while flow features are observed and discussed at higher Reynolds numbers.

Keywords: roughness, blood flow, Computational fluid dynamics, Bio fluid mechanics

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1 Blood Cell Dynamics in a Simple Shear Flow using an Implicit Fluid-Structure Interaction Method Based on the ALE Approach

Authors: Choeng-Ryul Choi, Chang-Nyung Kim, Tae-Hyub Hong

Abstract:

A numerical method is developed for simulating the motion of particles with arbitrary shapes in an effectively infinite or bounded viscous flow. The particle translational and angular motions are numerically investigated using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and the dynamic mesh method (smoothing and remeshing) in FLUENT ( ANSYS Inc., USA). Also, the effects of arbitrary shapes on the dynamics are studied using the FSI method which could be applied to the motions and deformations of a single blood cell and multiple blood cells, and the primary thrombogenesis caused by platelet aggregation. It is expected that, combined with a sophisticated large-scale computational technique, the simulation method will be useful for understanding the overall properties of blood flow from blood cellular level (microscopic) to the resulting rheological properties of blood as a mass (macroscopic).

Keywords: blood flow, micro-channels, fluid-structure interaction (FSI), Arbitrary Shapes, Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

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