Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Biomaterial Related Publications

7 Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Alginate Hydrogel for 3D Bio-Printing Self-Standing Scaffold Architecture for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Ibtisam A. Abbas Al-Darkazly

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel material for self-standing 3D scaffold architecture with proper shape fidelity are investigated. In-lab built 3D bio-printer extrusion-based technology is utilized to fabricate 3D alginate scaffold constructs. The pressure, needle speed and stage speed are varied using a computer-controlled system. The experimental result indicates that the concentration of alginate solution, calcium chloride (CaCl2) cross-linking concentration and cross-linking ratios lead to the formation of alginate hydrogel with various gelation states. Besides, the gelling conditions, such as cross-linking reaction time and temperature also have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel. Various experimental tests such as the material gelation, the material spreading and the printability test for filament collapse as well as the swelling test were conducted to evaluate the fabricated 3D scaffold constructs. The result indicates that the fabricated 3D scaffold from composition of 3.5% wt alginate solution, that is prepared in DI water and 1% wt CaCl2 solution with cross-linking ratios of 7:3 show good printability and sustain good shape fidelity for more than 20 days, compared to alginate hydrogel that is prepared in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The fabricated self-standing 3D scaffold constructs measured 30 mm × 30 mm and consisted of 4 layers (n = 4) show good pore geometry and clear grid structure after printing. In addition, the percentage change of swelling degree exhibits high swelling capability with respect to time. The swelling test shows that the geometry of 3D alginate-scaffold construct and of the macro-pore are rarely changed, which indicates the capability of holding the shape fidelity during the incubation period. This study demonstrated that the mechanical and physical properties of alginate hydrogel could be tuned for a 3D bio-printing extrusion-based system to fabricate self-standing 3D scaffold soft structures. This 3D bioengineered scaffold provides a natural microenvironment present in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which could be seeded with the biological cells to generate the desired 3D live tissue model for in vitro and in vivo tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Biomaterial, Scaffold, calcium chloride, extrusion, sodium alginate

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6 Hydrogel Based on Cellulose Acetate Used as Scaffold for Cell Growth

Authors: A. Maria G. Melero, A. M. Senna, J. A. Domingues, M. A. Hausen, E. Aparecida R. Duek, V. R. Botaro

Abstract:

A hydrogel from cellulose acetate cross linked with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (HAC-EDTA) was synthesized by our research group, and submitted to characterization and biological tests. Cytocompatibility analysis was performed by confocal microscopy using human adipocyte derived stem cells (ASCs). The FTIR analysis showed characteristic bands of cellulose acetate and hydroxyl groups and the tensile tests evidence that HAC-EDTA present a Young’s modulus of 643.7 MPa. The confocal analysis revealed that there was cell growth at the surface of HAC-EDTA. After one day of culture the cells presented spherical morphology, which may be caused by stress of the sequestration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions at the cell medium by HAC-EDTA, as demonstrated by ICP-MS. However, after seven days and 14 days of culture, the cells present fibroblastoid morphology, phenotype expected by this cellular type. The results give efforts to indicate this new material as a potential biomaterial for tissue engineering, in the future in vivo approach.

Keywords: Biomaterial, Hydrogel, cellulose acetate, cellular growth

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5 Antibacterial Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride Incorporated in Fissure Sealants

Authors: Nélio Veiga, Paula Ferreira, Tiago Correia, Maria J. Correia, Carlos Pereira, Odete Amaral, Ilídio J. Correia

Abstract:

Introduction: The application of fissure sealants is considered to be an important primary prevention method used in dental medicine. However, the formation of microleakage gaps between tooth enamel and the fissure sealant applied is one of the most common reasons of dental caries development in teeth with fissure sealants. The association between various dental biomaterials may limit the major disadvantages and limitations of biomaterials functioning in a complementary manner. The present study consists in the incorporation of a cariostatic agent – silver diamine fluoride (SDF) – in a resin-based fissure sealant followed by the study of release kinetics by spectrophotometry analysis of the association between both biomaterials and assessment of the inhibitory effect on the growth of the reference bacterial strain Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: An experimental in vitro study was designed consisting in the entrapment of SDF (Cariestop® 12% and 30%) into a commercially available fissure sealant (Fissurit®), by photopolymerization and photocrosslinking. The same sealant, without SDF was used as a negative control. The effect of the sealants on the growth of S. mutans was determined by the presence of bacterial inhibitory halos in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. In order to confirm the absence of bacteria in the surface of the materials, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) characterization was performed. Also, to analyze the release profile of SDF along time, spectrophotometry technique was applied. Results: The obtained results indicate that the association of SDF to a resin-based fissure sealant may be able to increase the inhibition of S. mutans growth. However, no SDF release was noticed during the in vitro release studies and no statistical significant difference was verified when comparing the inhibitory halo sizes obtained for test and control group.  Conclusions: In this study, the entrapment of SDF in the resin-based fissure sealant did not potentiate the antibacterial effect of the fissure sealant or avoid the immediate development of dental caries. The development of more laboratorial research and, afterwards, long-term clinical data are necessary in order to verify if this association between these biomaterials is effective and can be considered for being used in oral health management. Also, other methodologies for associating cariostatic agents and sealant should be addressed.

Keywords: Biomaterial, Primary prevention, fissure sealant, silver diamine fluoride, S. mutans

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4 Investigation of Cascade Loop Heat Pipes

Authors: Nandy Putra, Atrialdipa Duanovsah, Kristofer Haliansyah

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design a LHP with low thermal resistance and low condenser temperature. A Self-designed cascade LHP was tested by using biomaterial, sintered copper powder, and aluminum screen mesh as the wick. Using pure water as the working fluid for the first level of the LHP and 96% alcohol as the working fluid for the second level of LHP, the experiments were run with 10W, 20W, and 30W heat input. Experimental result shows that the usage of biomaterial as wick could reduce more temperature at evaporator than by using sintered copper powder and screen mesh up to 22.63% and 37.41% respectively. The lowest thermal resistance occurred during the usage of biomaterial as wick of heat pipe, which is 2.06 oC/W. The usage of cascade system could be applied to LHP to reduce the temperature at condenser and reduced thermal resistance up to 17.6%.

Keywords: Biomaterial, cascade loop heat pipe, screen mesh, sintered Cu

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3 Biocompatibility of NiTi Alloy Implants in vivo

Authors: Gul Tosun, Emine Ünsaldi Latif Özler, Nuri Orhan, Ali Said Durmus, Hatice Eröksüz

Abstract:

In this study, the powders of Ni and Ti with 50.5 at.% Ni for 12 h were blended and cold pressed at the different pressures (50, 75 and100 MPa).The porous product obtained after Ni-Ti compacts were synthesized by SHS (self-propagating hightemperature synthesis) in the different preheating temperatures (200, 250 and 300oC) and heating rates (30, 60 and 90oC/min). The effects of the pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were investigated on biocompatibility in vivo. The porosity in the synthesized products was in the range of 50.7–59.7 vol. %. The pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were found to have an important effect on the biocompatibility in-vivo of the synthesized products. Max. fibrotic tissue within the porous implant was found in vivo periods (6 months), in which compacting pressure 100MPa.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Biomaterial, NiTi, SHS

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2 Modeling of Bio Scaffolds: Structural and Fluid Transport Characterization

Authors: Sahba Sadir, M. R. A. Kadir, A. Öchsner, M. N. Harun

Abstract:

Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering and can be produced in many different ways depending on the applications and the materials used. Most researchers used an experimental trialand- error approach into new biomaterials but computer simulation applied to tissue engineering can offer a more exhaustive approach to test and screen out biomaterials. This paper develops the model of scaffolds and Computational Fluid Dynamics that show the value of computer simulations in determining the influence of the geometrical scaffold parameter porosity, pore size and shape on the permeability of scaffolds, magnitude of velocity, drop pressure, shear stress distribution and level and the proper design of the geometry of the scaffold. This creates a need for more advanced studies that include aspects of dynamic conditions of a micro fluid passing through the scaffold were characterized for tissue engineering applications and differentiation of tissues within scaffolds.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Tissue Engineering, Biomaterial, Scaffold engineering, Cellularstructure

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1 Nutrition Bio-Shield Superfood: Healthy and Live Herbal Supplement for Immune System Enhancement

Authors: Azam Bayat, Aref Khalkhali, Ali Reza Mahjoub

Abstract:

Healthy and viable herbal supplement were prepared from wheat by a green route. This organic biomaterial was named Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS). The NBS supplement had various vitamins, macro and micro molecules, and ingredients. In this study, 20 small Balb/C labile specimens were used in a weighing 30 ± 5 range. The samples were randomly divided into different groups, then the groups were divided into 5 groups. According to the results of this study, the mean number of white blood cells and neutrophil percentage in the experimental group receiving healthy and live dietary supplement showed a significant increase at the 5% probability level in all three groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight of the mouse compared to the control group. In general, the dietary supplement increases the level of immunity.

Keywords: Enhancement, Biomaterial, Immune System, healthy and live herbal supplement

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