Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Bioavailability Related Publications

8 Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Barbafieri, M. Grifoni

Abstract:

Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Freundlich-like equation, sequential extraction, soil lead contamination

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7 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, W. Y. Tan, Eric Y. M. Yeo

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: Bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, combinative nutrition, nutrient synergy

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6 Factors Determining Selection of Essential Nutrition Supplements

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim

Abstract:

There are numerous nutritional supplements, such as multivitamins and nutrition drinks, in the market today. Many of these supplements are expensive and tend to be driven commercially by business decisions and big marketing budgets. Many of the costs are ultimately borne by the end user in the quest for keeping to a healthy lifestyle. This paper proposes a system with a list of ten determinants to gauge how to decide the value of various supplements. It suggests variables such as composition, safety, efficacy and bioavailability, as well as several other considerations. These guidelines can help to tackle many of the issues that people of all ages face in the way that they receive essential nutrients. The system also aims to promote and improve the safety and choice of foods and supplements. In so doing, the system aims to promote the individual’s or population’s control over their own health and reduce the growing health care burden on the society.

Keywords: Bioavailability, nutritional supplements, vitamins and minerals, supplementation determinants, nutrition guidelines

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5 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Proprieties and Health Benefits

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos, C. S. Marques

Abstract:

The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand, the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: Functional foods, Bioavailability, Carotenoids, lycopene, tomato, cancer and antioxidants

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4 Effect of Ionic Strength on Mercury Adsorption on Contaminated Soil

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, E. Tassi, F. Gorini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Barbafieri

Abstract:

Mercury adsorption on soil was investigated at different ionic strengths using Ca(NO3)2 as a background electrolyte. Results fitted the Langmuir equation and the adsorption isotherms reached a plateau at higher equilibrium concentrations. Increasing ionic strength decreased the sorption of mercury, due to the competition of Ca ions for the sorption sites in the soils. The influence of ionic strength was related to the mechanisms of heavy metal sorption by the soil. These results can be of practical importance both in the agriculture and contaminated soils since the solubility of mercury in soils are strictly dependent on the adsorption and release process.

Keywords: Remediation, Bioavailability, Heavy Metals, competitive sorption

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3 Development and in vitro Characterization of Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems of Valsartan

Authors: P. S. Rajinikanth, Yeoh Suyu, Sanjay Garg

Abstract:

The present study is aim to prepare and evaluate the selfnanoemulsifying drug delivery (SNEDDS) system of a poorly water soluble drug valsartan in order to achieve a better dissolution rate which would further help in enhancing oral bioavailability. The present research work describes a SNEDDS of valsartan using labrafil M 1944 CS, Tween 80 and Transcutol HP. The pseudoternary phase diagrams with presence and absence of drug were plotted to check for the emulsification range and also to evaluate the effect of valsartan on the emulsification behavior of the phases. The mixtures consisting of oil (labrafil M 1944 CS) with surfactant (tween 80), co-surfactant (Transcutol HP) were found to be optimum formulations. Prepared formulations were evaluated for its particle size distribution, nanoemulsifying properties, robustness to dilution, self emulsication time, turbidity measurement, drug content and invitro dissolution. The optimized formulations are further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential were carried out to confirm the stability of the formed SNEDDS formulations. The prepared formulation revealed t a significant improvement in terms of the drug solubility as compared with marketed tablet and pure drug.

Keywords: Bioavailability, valsartan, Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System, poorly soluble drug

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2 Application of a Modified BCR Approach to Investigate the Mobility and Availability of Trace Elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo,Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg) from a Solid Residue Matrix Designed for Soil Amendment

Authors: Risto Pöykiö, Hannu Nurmesniemi, Olli Dahl, Mikko Mäkelä, Gary Watkins

Abstract:

Trace element speciation of an integrated soil amendment matrix was studied with a modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The analysis included pseudo-total concentration determinations according to USEPA 3051A and relevant physicochemical properties by standardized methods. Based on the results, the soil amendment matrix possessed neutralization capacity comparable to commercial fertilizers. Additionally, the pseudo-total concentrations of all trace elements included in the Finnish regulation for agricultural fertilizers were lower than the respective statutory limit values. According to chemical speciation, the lability of trace elements increased in the following order: Hg < Cr < Co < Cu < As < Zn < Ni < Pb < Cd < V < Mo < Ba. The validity of the BCR approach as a tool for chemical speciation was confirmed by the additional acid digestion phase. Recovery of trace elements during the procedure assured the validity of the approach and indicated good quality of the analytical work.

Keywords: Bioavailability, trace element, sequential extraction, BCR, industrialresidue

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1 Metoprolol Tartrate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microparticles: Development of a Validated Invitro In-vivo Correlation

Authors: Ghulam Murtaza, Fatima Rasool, Mahmood Ahmad, Haji M. S. Khan, Shujaat A. Khan, Sonia Khiljee, Muhammad Qamar-Uz-Zaman

Abstract:

This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p<0.05) different from 1 while the values of R2 for IVIVC of T1 and Mepressor® were significantly (p<0.05) different from 1. Internal prediction errors of IVIVC, calculated from observed Area under Curve (AUC) and predicted AUC, were less than 10%. This study successfully presents a valid level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate modified dosage forms.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Dissolution, Metoprolol tartrate, Validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation

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