Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

bearing Related Publications

12 Development of a Real Time Axial Force Measurement System and IoT-Based Monitoring for Smart Bearing

Authors: Hassam Ahmed, Yuanzhi Liu, Yassine Selami, Wei Tao, Hui Zhao

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to develop a real time axial force measurement system for a smart bearing through the use of strain-gauges, whereby the data acquisition is performed by an Arduino microcontroller due to its easy manipulation and low-cost. The measured signal is acquired and then discretized using a Wheatstone Bridge and an Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) respectively. For bearing monitoring, a real time monitoring system based on Internet of things (IoT) and Bluetooth were developed. Experimental tests were performed on a bearing within a force range up to 600 kN. The experimental results show that there is a proportional linear relationship between the applied force and the output voltage, and the error R squared is within 0.9878 based on the regression analysis.

Keywords: IoT, bearing, force measurement, strain gauge

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11 Diagnosis of Intermittent High Vibration Peaks in Industrial Gas Turbine Using Advanced Vibrations Analysis

Authors: Abubakar Rashid, Muhammad Saad, Faheem Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper provides a comprehensive study pertaining to diagnosis of intermittent high vibrations on an industrial gas turbine using detailed vibrations analysis, followed by its rectification. Engro Polymer & Chemicals Limited, a Chlor-Vinyl complex located in Pakistan has a captive combined cycle power plant having two 28 MW gas turbines (make Hitachi) & one 15 MW steam turbine. In 2018, the organization faced an issue of high vibrations on one of the gas turbines. These high vibration peaks appeared intermittently on both compressor’s drive end (DE) & turbine’s non-drive end (NDE) bearing. The amplitude of high vibration peaks was between 150-170% on the DE bearing & 200-300% on the NDE bearing from baseline values. In one of these episodes, the gas turbine got tripped on “High Vibrations Trip” logic actuated at 155µm. Limited instrumentation is available on the machine, which is monitored with GE Bently Nevada 3300 system having two proximity probes installed at Turbine NDE, Compressor DE &at Generator DE & NDE bearings. Machine’s transient ramp-up & steady state data was collected using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408. Since only 01 key phasor is installed at Turbine high speed shaft, a derived drive key phasor was configured in ADRE to obtain low speed shaft rpm required for data analysis. By analyzing the Bode plots, Shaft center line plot, Polar plot & orbit plots; rubbing was evident on Turbine’s NDE along with increased bearing clearance of Turbine’s NDE radial bearing. The subject bearing was then inspected & heavy deposition of carbonized coke was found on the labyrinth seals of bearing housing with clear rubbing marks on shaft & housing covering at 20-25 degrees on the inner radius of labyrinth seals. The collected coke sample was tested in laboratory & found to be the residue of lube oil in the bearing housing. After detailed inspection & cleaning of shaft journal area & bearing housing, new radial bearing was installed. Before assembling the bearing housing, cleaning of bearing cooling & sealing air lines was also carried out as inadequate flow of cooling & sealing air can accelerate coke formation in bearing housing. The machine was then taken back online & data was collected again using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408 for health analysis. The vibrations were found in acceptable zone as per ISO standard 7919-3 while all other parameters were also within vendor defined range. As a learning from subject case, revised operating & maintenance regime has also been proposed to enhance machine’s reliability.

Keywords: Vibration, Gas Turbine, bearing, ADRE, GE Bently Nevada, Hitachi

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10 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo

Abstract:

This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: bearing, simulink, friction, electric power steering, EPS, worm gear, column electric power steering system

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9 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: S. W. Lo, C.-H. Yu

Abstract:

A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Polymer, bearing, aerostatic, static stiffness

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8 Numerical Study on the Static Characteristics of Novel Aerostatic Thrust Bearings Possessing Elastomer Capillary Restrictor and Bearing Surface

Authors: S. W. Lo, S.-H. Lu, Y. H. Guo, L.-C. Hsu

Abstract:

In this paper a novel design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed and is analyzed numerically. The capillary restrictor and bearing disk are made of elastomer like silicone and PU. The viscoelasticity of elastomer helps the capillary expand for more air flux and at the same time, allows conicity of the bearing surface to form when the air pressure is enhanced. Therefore the bearing has the better ability of passive compensation. In the present example, as compared with the typical model, the new designs can nearly double the load capability and offer four times static stiffness.

Keywords: bearing, aerostatic, elastomer, static stiffness

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7 The Effect of Rotational Speed and Shaft Eccentric on Looseness of Bearing

Authors: Chalermsak Leetrakool, Komson Jirapattarasilp

Abstract:

This research was to study effect of rotational speed and eccentric factors, which were affected on looseness of bearing. The experiment was conducted on three rotational speeds and five eccentric distances with 5 replications. The results showed that influenced factor affected to looseness of bearing was rotational speed and eccentric distance which showed statistical significant. Higher rotational speed would cause on high looseness. Moreover, more eccentric distance, more looseness of bearing. Using bearing at high rotational with high eccentric of shaft would be affected bearing fault more than lower rotational speed. The prediction equation of looseness was generated by regression analysis. The prediction has an effected to the looseness of bearing at 91.5%.

Keywords: bearing, rotational speed, eccentric, Looseness

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6 Babbitt Casting and Babbitt Spraying Processes Case Study

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, S.Norouzi H. Mohammadi Majd

Abstract:

In this paper, the babbitting of a bearing in boiler feed pump of an electromotor has been studied. These bearings have an important role in reducing the shut down times in the pumps, compressors and turbines. The most conventional method in babbitting is casting as a melting method. The comparison between thermal spray and casting methods in babbitting shows that the thermal spraying babbitt layer has better performance and tribological behavior. The metallurgical and tribological analysis such as SEM, EDS and wet chemical analysis has been made in the Babbitt alloys and worn surfaces. Two type of babbitt materials: tinbase and lead-base babbitt was used. The benefits of thermally sprayed babbitt layers are completely clear especially in large bearings.

Keywords: Bonding, bearing, thermal spray, Babbitting, BFP, CWP

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5 Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings Subjected to a Centric Thrust Load: Alternative Approach

Authors: Mário C. Ricci

Abstract:

An alternative iterative computational procedure is proposed for internal normal ball loads calculation in statically loaded single-row, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known thrust load, which is applied in the inner ring at the geometric bearing center line. An accurate method for curvature radii at contacts with inner and outer raceways in the direction of the motion is used. Numerical aspects of the iterative procedure are discussed. Numerical examples results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature. Twenty figures are presented showing the geometrical features, the behavior of the convergence variables and the following parameters as functions of the thrust load: normal ball loads, contact angle, distance between curvature centers, and normal ball and axial deflections.

Keywords: Numerical, ball, Method, Static, bearing, load, iterative

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4 Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings Subjected to a Centric Thrust Load: Numerical Aspects

Authors: Mário C. Ricci

Abstract:

A known iterative computational procedure is used for internal normal ball loads calculation in statically loaded single-row, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known thrust load, which is applied in the inner ring at the geometric bearing center line. Numerical aspects of the iterative procedure are discussed. Numerical examples results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature. Twenty figures are presented showing the geometrical features, the behavior of the convergence variables and the following parameters as functions of the thrust load: normal ball loads, contact angle, distance between curvature centers, and normal ball and axial deflections between the raceways.

Keywords: Numerical, ball, Method, Static, bearing, load, iterative

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3 Internal Loading Distribution in Statically Loaded Ball Bearings, Subjected to a Combined Radial and Thrust Load, Including the Effects of Temperature and Fit

Authors: Mário C. Ricci

Abstract:

A new, rapidly convergent, numerical procedure for internal loading distribution computation in statically loaded, singlerow, angular-contact ball bearings, subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load, which must be applied so that to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings, is used to find the load distribution differences between a loaded unfitted bearing at room temperature, and the same loaded bearing with interference fits that might experience radial temperature gradients between inner and outer rings. For each step of the procedure it is required the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations – where Z is the number of the balls – to yield exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles.

Keywords: Numerical, ball, temperature, Method, Static, bearing, load, iterative, Fit

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2 Beating Phenomenon of Multi-Harmonics Defect Frequencies in a Rolling Element Bearing: Case Study from Water Pumping Station

Authors: Fathi N. Mayoof

Abstract:

Rolling element bearings are widely used in industry, especially where high load capacity is required. The diagnosis of their conditions is essential matter for downtime reduction and saving cost of maintenance. Therefore, an intensive analysis of frequency spectrum of their faults must be carried out in order to determine the main reason of the fault. This paper focus on a beating phenomena observed in the waveform (time domain) of a cylindrical rolling element bearing. The beating frequencies were not related to any sources nearby the machine nor any other malfunctions (unbalance, misalignment ...etc). More investigation on the spike energy and the frequency spectrum indicated a problem with races of the bearing. Multi-harmonics of the fundamental defects frequencies were observed. Two of them were close to each other in magnitude those were the source of the beating phenomena.

Keywords: Vibration, bearing, beating, spike energy

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1 Seismic Analysis of a S-Curved Viaduct using Stick and Finite Element Models

Authors: Sourabh Agrawal, Ashok K. Jain

Abstract:

Stick models are widely used in studying the behaviour of straight as well as skew bridges and viaducts subjected to earthquakes while carrying out preliminary studies. The application of such models to highly curved bridges continues to pose challenging problems. A viaduct proposed in the foothills of the Himalayas in Northern India is chosen for the study. It is having 8 simply supported spans @ 30 m c/c. It is doubly curved in horizontal plane with 20 m radius. It is inclined in vertical plane as well. The superstructure consists of a box section. Three models have been used: a conventional stick model, an improved stick model and a 3D finite element model. The improved stick model is employed by making use of body constraints in order to study its capabilities. The first 8 frequencies are about 9.71% away in the latter two models. Later the difference increases to 80% in 50th mode. The viaduct was subjected to all three components of the El Centro earthquake of May 1940. The numerical integration was carried out using the Hilber- Hughes-Taylor method as implemented in SAP2000. Axial forces and moments in the bridge piers as well as lateral displacements at the bearing levels are compared for the three models. The maximum difference in the axial forces and bending moments and displacements vary by 25% between the improved and finite element model. Whereas, the maximum difference in the axial forces, moments, and displacements in various sections vary by 35% between the improved stick model and equivalent straight stick model. The difference for torsional moment was as high as 75%. It is concluded that the stick model with body constraints to model the bearings and expansion joints is not desirable in very sharp S curved viaducts even for preliminary analysis. This model can be used only to determine first 10 frequency and mode shapes but not for member forces. A 3D finite element analysis must be carried out for meaningful results.

Keywords: Seismic, expansion joint, bearing, finite element, time history analysis, stick model, body constraint, box girder, curved viaduct, link element

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