Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

bearing capacity Related Publications

18 Evaluating of Bearing Capacity of Two Adjacent Strip Foundations Located around a Soil Slip

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Meftahi, M. Hoseinzadeh

Abstract:

Selection of soil bearing capacity is an important issue that should be investigated under different conditions. The bearing capacity of foundation around of soil slope is based on the active and passive forces. On the other hand, due to extension of urban structures, it is inevitable to put the foundations together. Concerning the two cases mentioned above, investigating the behavior of adjacent foundations which are constructed besides soil slope is essential. It should be noted that, according to the conditions, the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations can be less or more than mat foundations. Also, soil reinforcement increases the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations, and the amount of its increase depends on the distance between foundations. In this research, based on numerical studies, a method is presented for evaluating ultimate bearing capacity of adjacent foundations at different intervals. In the present study, the effect of foundation width, the center to center distance of adjacent foundations and reinforced soil has been investigated on the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations beside soil slope. The results indicate that, due to interference of failure surfaces created under foundation, it depends on their intervals and the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation varies.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Settlement, Reinforcements, bearing capacity, adjacent foundation

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17 Improvement of Soft Clay Using Floating Cement Dust-Lime Columns

Authors: Adel Belal, Sameh Aboelsoud, Mohy Elmashad, Mohammed Abdelmonem

Abstract:

The two main criteria that control the design and performance of footings are bearing capacity and settlement of soil. In soft soils, the construction of buildings, storage tanks, warehouse, etc. on weak soils usually involves excessive settlement problems. To solve bearing capacity or reduce settlement problems, soil improvement may be considered by using different techniques, including encased cement dust–lime columns. The proposed research studies the effect of adding floating encased cement dust and lime mix columns to soft clay on the clay-bearing capacity. Four experimental tests were carried out. Columns diameters of 3.0 cm, 4.0 cm, and 5.0 cm and columns length of 60% of the clay layer thickness were used. Numerical model was constructed and verified using commercial finite element package (PLAXIS 2D, V8.5). The verified model was used to study the effect of distributing columns around the footing at different distances. The study showed that the floating cement dust lime columns enhanced the clay-bearing capacity with 262%. The numerical model showed that the columns around the footing have a limit effect on the clay improvement.

Keywords: Ground improvement, soft clay, bearing capacity, cement dust – lime columns

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16 Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Shafaghat, H. Khabbaz, S. Moravej, Ah. Shafaghat

Abstract:

The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, bearing capacity, shallow foundation, loose sand, settlement equations

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15 Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma Sabbagh, Ali Al-Jazaairry

Abstract:

Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.

Keywords: bearing capacity, soil confinement, cohesionless soils, soil modelling, spread footings

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14 The Influence of the Geogrid Layers on the Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils

Authors: M. Hossein Zade, S. A. Naeini, H. R. Rahmani

Abstract:

Many classical bearing capacity theories assume that the natural soil's layers are homogenous for determining the bearing capacity of the soil. But, in many practical projects, we encounter multi-layer soils. Geosynthetic as reinforcement materials have been extensively used in the construction of various structures. In this paper, numerical analysis of the Plate Load Test (PLT) using of ABAQUS software in double-layered soils with different thicknesses of sandy and gravelly layers reinforced with geogrid was considered. The PLT is one of the common filed methods to calculate parameters such as soil bearing capacity, the evaluation of the compressibility and the determination of the Subgrade Reaction module. In fact, the influence of the geogrid layers on the bearing capacity of the layered soils is investigated. Finally, the most appropriate mode for the distance and number of reinforcement layers is determined. Results show that using three layers of geogrid with a distance of 0.3 times the width of the loading plate has the highest efficiency in bearing capacity of double-layer (sand and gravel) soils. Also, the significant increase in bearing capacity between unreinforced and reinforced soil with three layers of geogrid is caused by the condition that the upper layer (gravel) thickness is equal to the loading plate width.

Keywords: reinforcement, geogrid, bearing capacity, plate load test, layered soils

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13 3D Numerical Analysis of Stone Columns Reinforced with Horizontal and Vertical Geosynthetic Materials

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Khalili

Abstract:

Improvement and reinforcement of soils with poor strength and engineering properties for constructing low height structures or structures such as liquid storage tanks, bridge columns, and heavy structures have necessitated applying particular techniques. Stone columns are among the well-known methods applied in such soils. This method provides an economically justified way for improving engineering properties of soft clay and loose sandy soils. Stone column implementation in these soils increases their bearing capacity and reduces the settlement of foundation build on them. In the present study, the finite difference based FLAC3D software was used to investigate the performance and effect of soil reinforcement through stone columns without lining and those with geosynthetic lining with different levels of stiffness in horizontal and vertical modes in clayey soils. The results showed that soil improvement using stone columns with lining in vertical and horizontal modes results in improvement of bearing capacity and foundation settlement.

Keywords: Settlement, Geosynthetic, FLAC3D, bearing capacity, stone column

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12 The Behavior of Dam Foundation Reinforced by Stone Columns: Case Study of Kissir Dam-Jijel

Authors: Toufik Karech, Abderahmen Benseghir, Tayeb Bouzid

Abstract:

This work presents a 2D numerical simulation of an earth dam to assess the behavior of its foundation after a treatment by stone columns. This treatment aims to improve the bearing capacity, to increase the mechanical properties of the soil, to accelerate the consolidation, to reduce the settlements and to eliminate the liquefaction phenomenon in case of seismic excitation. For the evaluation of the pore pressures, the position of the phreatic line and the flow network was defined, and a seepage analysis was performed with the software MIDAS Soil Works. The consolidation calculation is performed through a simulation of the actual construction stages of the dam. These analyzes were performed using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model and the results are compared with the actual measurements of settlement gauges implanted in the dam. An analysis of the bearing capacity was conducted to show the role of stone columns in improving the bearing capacity of the foundation.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Dam Foundation, bearing capacity, consolidation, stone columns, earth dam, seepage analysis

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11 Reliability Based Performance Evaluation of Stone Column Improved Soft Ground

Authors: A. GuhaRay, C. V. S. P. Kiranmayi, S. Rudraraju

Abstract:

The present study considers the effect of variation of different geotechnical random variables in the design of stone column-foundation systems for assessing the bearing capacity and consolidation settlement of highly compressible soil. The soil and stone column properties, spacing, diameter and arrangement of stone columns are considered as the random variables. Probability of failure (Pf) is computed for a target degree of consolidation and a target safe load by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The study shows that the variation in coefficient of radial consolidation (cr) and cohesion of soil (cs) are two most important factors influencing Pf. If the coefficient of variation (COV) of cr exceeds 20%, Pf exceeds 0.001, which is unsafe following the guidelines of US Army Corps of Engineers. The bearing capacity also exceeds its safe value for COV of cs > 30%. It is also observed that as the spacing between the stone column increases, the probability of reaching a target degree of consolidation decreases. Accordingly, design guidelines, considering both consolidation and bearing capacity of improved ground, are proposed for different spacing and diameter of stone columns and geotechnical random variables.

Keywords: bearing capacity, probability of failure, consolidation, stone columns, geotechnical random variables

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10 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, clay soil, circular foundation, lime-sand wall

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9 The Effect of Geogrid Reinforcement Pre-Stressing on the Performance of Sand Bed Supporting a Strip Foundation

Authors: Ahmed M. Eltohamy

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and numerical study was adopted to investigate the effect geogrid soil reinforcement pre-stressing on the pressure settlement relation of sand bed supporting a strip foundation. The studied parameters include foundation depth and pre-stress ratio for the cases of one and two pre-stressed reinforcement layers. The study reflected that pre-stressing of soil reinforcement resulted in a marked enhancement in reinforced bed soil stiffness compared to the reinforced soil without pre-stress. The best benefit of pre-stressing reinforcement was obtained as the overburden pressure and pre-straining ratio increase. Pre-stressing of double reinforcement topmost layers results in further enhancement of stress strain relation of bed soil.

Keywords: Geogrid Reinforcement, bearing capacity, strip footing, pre-stress

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8 Discrete Element Modeling on Bearing Capacity Problems

Authors: N. Li, Y. M. Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, the classical bearing capacity problem is re-considered from discrete element analysis. In the discrete element approach, the bearing capacity problem is considered from the elastic stage to plastic stage to rupture stage (large displacement). The bearing capacity failure mechanism of a strip footing on soil is investigated, and the influence of micro-parameters on the bearing capacity of soil is also observed. It is found that the distinct element method (DEM) gives very good visualized results, and basically coincides well with that derived by the classical methods.

Keywords: Failure Mechanism, bearing capacity, distinct element method, large displacement

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7 Predicting the Effect of Vibro Stone Column Installation on Performance of Reinforced Foundations

Authors: K. Al Ammari, B. G. Clarke

Abstract:

Soil improvement using vibro stone column techniques consists of two main parts: (1) the installed load bearing columns of well-compacted, coarse-grained material and (2) the improvements to the surrounding soil due to vibro compaction. Extensive research work has been carried out over the last 20 years to understand the improvement in the composite foundation performance due to the second part mentioned above. Nevertheless, few of these studies have tried to quantify some of the key design parameters, namely the changes in the stiffness and stress state of the treated soil, or have consider these parameters in the design and calculation process. Consequently, empirical and conservative design methods are still being used by ground improvement companies with a significant variety of results in engineering practice. Two-dimensional finite element study to develop an axisymmetric model of a single stone column reinforced foundation was performed using PLAXIS 2D AE to quantify the effect of the vibro installation of this column in soft saturated clay. Settlement and bearing performance were studied as an essential part of the design and calculation of the stone column foundation. Particular attention was paid to the large deformation in the soft clay around the installed column caused by the lateral expansion. So updated mesh advanced option was taken in the analysis. In this analysis, different degrees of stone column lateral expansions were simulated and numerically analyzed, and then the changes in the stress state, stiffness, settlement performance and bearing capacity were quantified. It was found that application of radial expansion will produce a horizontal stress in the soft clay mass that gradually decrease as the distance from the stone column axis increases. The excess pore pressure due to the undrained conditions starts to dissipate immediately after finishing the column installation, allowing the horizontal stress to relax. Changes in the coefficient of the lateral earth pressure K ٭, which is very important in representing the stress state, and the new stiffness distribution in the reinforced clay mass, were estimated. More encouraging results showed that increasing the expansion during column installation has a noticeable effect on improving the bearing capacity and reducing the settlement of reinforced ground, So, a design method should include this significant effect of the applied lateral displacement during the stone column instillation in simulation and numerical analysis design.

Keywords: Design, Numerical Analysis, Settlement, Installation, bearing capacity, stone column

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6 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Hossam E. M.Sallam, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi

Abstract:

The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, bearing capacity, soft foundation soil, bridge ramps, PCC piles

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5 The Effect of Stone Column (Nailing and Geogrid) on Stability of Expansive Clay

Authors: Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi, Komeil Valipourian, Orod Zarrin Kafsh

Abstract:

By enhancing the applicatıon of grounds for establishment and due to the lack of appropriate sites, engineers attempt to seek out a new method to reduce the weakness of soils. İn aspect of economic situation, various ways have been used to decrease the weak grounds. Because of the rapid development of infrastructural facilities, spreading the construction operation is an obligation. Furthermore, in various sites with the really bad soil situation, engineers have considered obvious problems. One of the most essential ways for developing the weak soils is stone column. Obviously, the method was introduced in France in 1830 to improve a native soil initially. Stone columns have an expanding range of usage in different rough foundation sites all over the world to increase the bearing capacity, to reduce the whole and differential settlements, to enhance the rate of consolidation, to stabilize slopes stability of embankments and to increase the liquefaction resistance as well. A recent procedure called installing vertical nails along the round stone columns in order to make better the performance of considered columns is offered. Moreover, thanks to the enhancing the nail diameter, number and embedment nail depth, the positive points of vertical circumferential nails increases. Based on the result of this study, load caring capacity will be develop with enhancing the length and the power of reinforcements in vertical encasement stone column (CESC). In this study, the main purpose is comparing two methods of stone columns (installed a nail surrounding the stone columns and using geogrid on clay) for enhancing the bearing capacity, decreasing the whole and various settlements.

Keywords: Clay, geogrid, bearing capacity, stone column, nailing, settlements

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4 The Role of Vibro-Stone Column for Enhancing the Soft Soil Properties

Authors: Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi, Orod Zarrin, Komeil Valipourian

Abstract:

This study investigated the behavior of improved soft soils through the vibro replacement technique by considering their settlements and consolidation rates and the applicability of this technique in various types of soils and settlement and bearing capacity calculations.

Keywords: bearing capacity, stone columns, expansive clay, vibro techniques

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3 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system can reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation has been evaluated numerically in two cases; in the first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles were the parameters which varied in this study to find out how they affected the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity.

Keywords: Settlement, soft clay, strip piled raft, bearing capacity

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2 Prediction Method of Extenics Theory for Assessment of Bearing Capacity of Lateritic Soil Foundation

Authors: Wei Bai, Ling-Wei Kong, Ai-Guo Guo

Abstract:

Base on extenics theory, the statistical physical and mechanical properties from laboratory experiments are used to evaluate the bearing capacity of lateritic soil foundation. The properties include water content, bulk density, liquid limit, cohesion, and so on. The matter-element and the dependent function are defined. Then the synthesis dependent degree and the final grade index are calculated. The results show that predicted outcomes can be matched with the in-situ test data, and a evaluate grade associate with bearing capacity can be deduced. The results provide guidance to assess and determine the bearing capacity grade of lateritic soil foundation.

Keywords: bearing capacity, lateritic soil, plate loading test, extenics theory

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1 Evaluation on Bearing Capacity of Ring Foundations on two-Layered Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, V. Rashidian, E. Izadi

Abstract:

This paper utilizes a finite element analysis to study the bearing capacity of ring footings on a two-layered soil. The upper layer, that the footing is placed on it, is soft clay and the underneath layer is a cohesionless sand. For modeling soils, Mohr–Coulomb plastic yield criterion is employed. The effects of two factors, the clay layer thickness and the ratio of internal radius of the ring footing to external radius of the ring, have been analyzed. It is found that the bearing capacity decreases as the value of ri / ro increases. Although, as the clay layer thickness increases the bearing capacity was alleviated gradually.

Keywords: bearing capacity, Ring footing, Two-layered soil

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