Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

autism Related Publications

15 Evaluation of the Role of Advocacy and the Quality of Care in Reducing Health Inequalities for People with Autism, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals

Authors: Jonathan Sahu, Jill Aylott

Abstract:

Individuals with Autism, Intellectual and Developmental disabilities (AIDD) are one of the most vulnerable groups in society, hampered not only by their own limitations to understand and interact with the wider society, but also societal limitations in perception and understanding. Communication to express their needs and wishes is fundamental to enable such individuals to live and prosper in society. This research project was designed as an organisational case study, in a large secondary health care hospital within the National Health Service (NHS), to assess the quality of care provided to people with AIDD and to review the role of advocacy to reduce health inequalities in these individuals. Methods: The research methodology adopted was as an “insider researcher”. Data collection included both quantitative and qualitative data i.e. a mixed method approach. A semi-structured interview schedule was designed and used to obtain qualitative and quantitative primary data from a wide range of interdisciplinary frontline health care workers to assess their understanding and awareness of systems, processes and evidence based practice to offer a quality service to people with AIDD. Secondary data were obtained from sources within the organisation, in keeping with “Case Study” as a primary method, and organisational performance data were then compared against national benchmarking standards. Further data sources were accessed to help evaluate the effectiveness of different types of advocacy that were present in the organisation. This was gauged by measures of user and carer experience in the form of retrospective survey analysis, incidents and complaints. Results: Secondary data demonstrate near compliance of the Organisation with the current national benchmarking standard (Monitor Compliance Framework). However, primary data demonstrate poor knowledge of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, poor knowledge of organisational systems, processes and evidence based practice applied for people with AIDD. In addition there was poor knowledge and awareness of frontline health care workers of advocacy and advocacy schemes for this group. Conclusions: A significant amount of work needs to be undertaken to improve the quality of care delivered to individuals with AIDD. An operational strategy promoting the widespread dissemination of information may not be the best approach to deliver quality care and optimal patient experience and patient advocacy. In addition, a more robust set of standards, with appropriate metrics, needs to be developed to assess organisational performance which will stand the test of professional and public scrutiny.

Keywords: Advocacy, autism, Health Inequalities, Quality Of Care, intellectual developmental disabilities

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14 EEG-Based Screening Tool for School Student’s Brain Disorders Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Sherif H. ElGohary, Abdelrahman A. Ramzy, Bassel S. Abdallah, Mohamed E. Bahgat, Sarah M. Abdelkader

Abstract:

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and autism affect millions of children worldwide, many of which are undiagnosed despite the fact that all of these disorders are detectable in early childhood. Late diagnosis can cause severe problems due to the late treatment and to the misconceptions and lack of awareness as a whole towards these disorders. Moreover, electroencephalography (EEG) has played a vital role in the assessment of neural function in children. Therefore, quantitative EEG measurement will be utilized as a tool for use in the evaluation of patients who may have ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. We propose a screening tool that uses EEG signals and machine learning algorithms to detect these disorders at an early age in an automated manner. The proposed classifiers used with epilepsy as a step taken for the work done so far, provided an accuracy of approximately 97% using SVM, Naïve Bayes and Decision tree, while 98% using KNN, which gives hope for the work yet to be conducted.

Keywords: Epilepsy, autism, ADHD, eeg, SVM

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13 The Use of Music Therapy to Improve Non-Verbal Communication Skills for Children with Autism

Authors: Maria Vinca Novenia

Abstract:

The number of school-aged children with autism in Indonesia has been increasing each year. Autism is a developmental disorder which can be diagnosed in childhood. One of the symptoms is the lack of communication skills. Music therapy is known as an effective treatment for children with autism. Music elements and structures create a good space for children with autism to express their feelings and communicate their thoughts. School-aged children are expected to be able to communicate non-verbally very well, but children with autism experience the difficulties of communicating non-verbally. The aim of this research is to analyze the significance of music therapy treatment to improve non-verbal communication tools for children with autism. This research informs teachers and parents on how music can be used as a media to communicate with children with autism. The qualitative method is used to analyze this research, while the result is described with the microanalysis technique. The result is measured specifically from the whole experiment, hours of every week, minutes of every session, and second of every moment. The samples taken are four school-aged children with autism in the age range of six to 11 years old. This research is conducted within four months started with observation, interview, literature research, and direct experiment. The result demonstrates that music therapy could be effectively used as a non-verbal communication tool for children with autism, such as changes of body gesture, eye contact, and facial expression.

Keywords: autism, music therapy, Non-Verbal Communication, school-aged children, microanalysis

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12 Implicit Responses for Assessment of Autism Based on Natural Behaviors Obtained Inside Immersive Virtual Environment

Authors: E. Olmos-Raya, A. Cascales Martínez, N. Minto de Sousa, M. Alcañiz Raya

Abstract:

The late detection and subjectivity of the assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) imposed a difficulty for the children’s clinical and familiar environment. The results showed in this paper, are part of a research project about the assessment and training of social skills in children with ASD, whose overall goal is the use of virtual environments together with physiological measures in order to find a new model of objective ASD assessment based on implicit brain processes measures. In particular, this work tries to contribute by studying the differences and changes in the Skin Conductance Response (SCR) and Eye Tracking (ET) between a typical development group (TD group) and an ASD group (ASD group) after several combined stimuli using a low cost Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE). Subjects were exposed to a virtual environment that showed natural scenes that stimulated visual, auditory and olfactory perceptual system. By exposing them to the IVE, subjects showed natural behaviors while measuring SCR and ET. This study compared measures of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N = 18) with a control group of subjects with typical development (N=10) when exposed to three different conditions: only visual (V), visual and auditory (VA) and visual, auditory and olfactory (VAO) stimulation. Correlations between SCR and ET measures were also correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) test. SCR measures showed significant differences among the experimental condition between groups. The ASD group presented higher level of SCR while we did not find significant differences between groups regarding DF. We found high significant correlations among all the experimental conditions in SCR measures and the subscale of ADOS test of imagination and symbolic thinking. Regarding the correlation between ET measures and ADOS test, the results showed significant relationship between VA condition and communication scores.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, autism, eye tracking, electrodermal activity, immersive virtual environment

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11 Prototype of an Interactive Toy from Lego Robotics Kits for Children with Autism

Authors: Ricardo A. Martins, Matheus S. da Silva, Gabriel H. F. Iarossi, Helen C. M. Senefonte, Cinthyan R. S. C. de Barbosa

Abstract:

This paper is the development of a concept of the man/robot interaction. More accurately in developing of an autistic child that have more troubles with interaction, here offers an efficient solution, even though simple; however, less studied for this public. This concept is based on code applied thought out the Lego NXT kit, built for the interpretation of the robot, thereby can create this interaction in a constructive way for children suffering with Autism.

Keywords: autism, Backpropagation, lego NXT, ANN (Artificial Neural Network)

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10 Control Strategies for a Robot for Interaction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Vinicius Binotte, Guilherme Baldo, Christiane Goulart, Carlos Valadão, Eliete Caldeira, Teodiano Bastos

Abstract:

Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.

Keywords: autism, Mobile robot, Autonomous Control, Socially Assistive Robotics

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9 Addressing Oral Sensory Issues and Possible Remediation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Illustrated with a Case Study

Authors: A. K. Aswathy, Asha Manoharan, Arya Manoharan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study are to define the nature of oral sensory issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identify important components of the assessment and treatment of this issues specific to this population, and delineate specific therapeutic techniques designed to improve assessment and treatment within therapeutic settings. Literature review and case example is used to define the predominant nature of the oral sensory issues that are experienced by some children on the autism spectrum. Characteristics of this complex disorder that can have an impact on feeding skill and behavior are also identified. These factors are then integrated to create assessment and intervention techniques that can be used in conjunction with traditional feeding approaches to facilitate improvements in eating as well as reducing oral apraxic component in this unique population. The complex nature of ASD and its many influences on feeding skills and behavior create the need for modification to both assessment and treatment approaches. Additional research is needed to create therapeutic protocols that can be used by speech-language pathologists to effectively assess and treat feeding and oro motor apraxic difficulties that are commonly encountered in children with ASD.

Keywords: autism, Intervention, Feeding, oral sensory issues, oral apraxia

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8 Peer-Mediated Intervention for Social Communication Difficulties in Adolescents with Autism: Literature Review and Research Recommendations

Authors: Christine L. Cole

Abstract:

Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often experience social-communication difficulties that negatively impact their social interactions with typical peers. However, unlike other age and disability groups, there is little intervention research to inform best practice for these students. One evidence-based strategy for younger students with ASD is peer-mediated intervention (PMI). PMI may be particularly promising for use with adolescents, as peers are readily available and are natural experts for encouraging authentic high school conversations. This paper provides a review of previous research that evaluated the use of PMI to improve the socialcommunication skills of students with ASD. Specific intervention features associated with positive student outcomes are identified and recommendations for future research are provided. Adolescents with ASD are targeted due the critical importance of social conversation at the high school level.

Keywords: Adolescents, autism, Social Communication, peer-mediation

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7 Autism Spectrum Disorder: Main Problem Waiting for Solution in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by abnormalities in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Although various studies have been conducted in ASDs etiology across the world, it seems that they are still unknown in Middle East. Some scientific researches have been conducted on ASDs in Middle East (ME) especially in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A systematic literature review was performed to identify the ASDs studies in KSA. Accordingly, PubMed, ISI web of Science and Google were searched to find KSA and ME studies in ASDs. The main focus of this review work is to outline an improved understanding of the underpinnings of ASD in order to achieve therapeutic interventions and we will discuss the main problem we waiting for solution with reference with role of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to modulate cortical activity improve understanding ASD.

Keywords: autism, neurodevelopmental disorder

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6 Impact of Behavioral Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

Cognitive symptoms and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We have measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological Battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASD and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and Motor aspects. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future researches should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, ritual routine adherence, and the use of different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: autism, Motor Behavior, Cognitive Ability, and Neuropsychological battery

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5 Talent in Autism: Cognitive Style based on Weak Central Coherence and Special Sensory Characteristics in State of Kuwait: Case Study

Authors: Mariam Abdulaziz Y.Esmaeel

Abstract:

The study aimed to identify the nature of autistic talent, the manifestations of their weak central coherence, and their sensory characteristics. The case study consisted of four talented autistic males. Two of them in drawing, one in clay formation and one in jigsaw puzzle. Tools of data collection were Group Embedded Figures Test, Block Design Test, Sensory Profile Checklist Revised, Interview forms and direct observation. Results indicated that talent among autistics emerges in limited domain and being extraordinary for each case. Also overlapping construction properties. Indeed, they show three perceptual aspects of weak central coherence: The weak in visual spatial-constructional coherence, the weak in perceptual coherence and the weak in verbal – semantic coherence. Moreover, the majority of the study cases used the three strategies of weak central coherence (segmentation, obliqueness and rotation). As for the sensory characteristics, all study cases have numbers of that characteristics that especially emerges in the visual system.

Keywords: autism, talent, Central Coherence, Savant, Sensory characteristics

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4 Autistic Children and Different Tense Forms

Authors: Shahin Nematzadeh, Ameneh Zare, Shahla Raghibdoust, Iran Kalbassi

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by abnormalities in social communication, language abilities and repetitive behaviors. The present study focused on some grammatical deficits in autistic children. We evaluated the impairment of correct use of different Persian verb tenses in autistic children-s speech. Two standardized Language Test were administered then gathered data were analyzed. The main result of this study was significant difference between the mean scores of correct responses to present tense in comparison with past tense in Persian language. This study demonstrated that tense is severely impaired in autistic children-s speech. Our findings indicated those autistic children-s production of simple present/ past tense opposition to be better than production of future and past periphrastic forms (past perfect, present perfect, past progressive).

Keywords: autism, Past, Present, tense, Persian language

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3 Serious Game for Autism Children: Review of Literature

Authors: Helmi Adly Mohd Noor, Faaizah Shahbodin, Naim Che Pee

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder which affects individuals with varying degrees of impairment. Currently, there has been ample research done in serious game for autism children. Although serious games are traditionally associated with software developments, developing them in the autism field involves studying the associated technology and paying attention to aspects related to interaction with the game. Serious Games for autism cover matters related to education, therapy for communication, psychomotor treatment and social behavior enhancement. In this paper, a systematic review sets out the lines of development and research currently being conducted into serious games which pursue some form of benefit in the field of autism. This paper includes a literature review of relevant serious game developments since in year 2007 and examines new trends.

Keywords: Education, Therapy, autism, serious game

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2 Exploration of Autistic Children using Case Based Reasoning System with Cognitive Map

Authors: Ebtehal Alawi Alsaggaf, Shehab A. Gamalel-Din

Abstract:

Exploring an autistic child in Elementary school is a difficult task that must be fully thought out and the teachers should be aware of the many challenges they face raising their child especially the behavioral problems of autistic children. Hence there arises a need for developing Artificial intelligence (AI) Contemporary Techniques to help diagnosis to discover autistic people. In this research, we suggest designing architecture of expert system that combine Cognitive Maps (CM) with Case Based Reasoning technique (CBR) in order to reduce time and costs of traditional diagnosis process for the early detection to discover autistic children. The teacher is supposed to enter child's information for analyzing by CM module. Then, the reasoning processor would translate the output into a case to be solved a current problem by CBR module. We will implement a prototype for the model as a proof of concept using java and MYSQL. This will be provided a new hybrid approach that will achieve new synergies and improve problem solving capabilities in AI. And we will predict that will reduce time, costs, the number of human errors and make expertise available to more people who want who want to serve autistic children and their families.

Keywords: autism, Cognitive Maps (CM), Case Based Reasoning technique (CBR)

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1 Food for Thought: Preparing the Brain to Eat New Foods through “Messy” Play

Authors: L. Bernabeo, T. Loftus

Abstract:

Many children often experience phases of picky eating, food aversions and/or avoidance. For families with children who have special needs, these experiences are often exacerbated, which can lead to feelings that negatively impact a caregiver’s relationship with their child. Within the scope of speech language pathology practice, knowledge of both emotional and feeding development is key. This paper will explore the significance of “messy play” within typical feeding development, and the challenges that may arise if a child does not have the opportunity to engage in this type of exploratory play. This paper will consider several contributing factors that can result in a “picky eater.” Further, research has shown that individuals with special needs, including autism, possess a neurological makeup that differs from that of a typical individual. Because autism is a disorder of relating and communicating due to differences in the limbic system, an individual with special needs may respond to a typical feeding experience as if it is a traumatic event. As a result, broadening one’s dietary repertoire may seem to be an insurmountable challenge. This paper suggests that introducing new foods through exploratory play can help broaden and strengthen diets, as well as improve the feeding experience, of individuals with autism. The DIRFloortimeⓇ methodology stresses the importance of following a child's lead. Within this developmental model, there is a special focus on a person’s individual differences, including the unique way they process the world around them, as well as the significance of therapy occurring within the context of a strong and motivating relationship. Using this child-centered approach, we can support our children in expanding their diets, while simultaneously building upon their cognitive and creative development through playful and respectful interactions that include exposure to foods that differ in color, texture, and smell. Further, this paper explores the importance of exploration, self-feeding and messy play on brain development, both in the context of typically developing individuals and those with disordered development.

Keywords: Development, Exploration, autism, Feeding, play

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