Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Publications

6 Acoustic Finite Element Analysis of a Slit Model with Consideration of Air Viscosity

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.

Keywords: Simulation, FEM, air viscosity, slit.

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5 Examination of the Effect of Air Viscosity on Narrow Acoustic Tubes Using FEM Involving Complex Effective Density and Complex Bulk Modulus

Authors: M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Earphones and headphones, which are compact electro-acoustic transducers, tend to have a lot of acoustic absorption materials and porous materials known as dampers, which often have a large number of extremely small holes and narrow slits to inhibit the resonance of the vibrating system, because the air viscosity significantly affects the acoustic characteristics in such acoustic paths. In order to perform simulations using the finite element method (FEM), it is necessary to be aware of material characteristics such as the impedance and propagation constants of sound absorbing materials and porous materials. The transfer function is widely known as a measurement method for an acoustic tube with such physical properties, but literature describing the measurements at the upper limits of the audible range is yet to be found. The acoustic tube, which is a measurement instrument, must be made narrow, and the distance between the two sets of microphones must be shortened in order to take measurements of acoustic characteristics at higher frequencies. When such a tube is made narrow, however, the characteristic impedance has been observed to become lower than the impedance of air. This paper considers the cause of this phenomenon to be the effect of the air viscosity and describes an FEM analysis of an acoustic tube considering air viscosity to compare to the theoretical formula by including the effect of air viscosity in the theoretical formula for an acoustic tube.

Keywords: Acoustic tube, air viscosity, earphones, FEM, porous materials, sound absorbing materials, transfer function method.

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4 Nonlinear and Chaotic Motions for a Shock Absorbing Structure Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, Y. Kurosawa, S. Maruyama, K. Tobita, Y. Hirano, K. Yokouchi, K. Kihara, T. Sunaga

Abstract:

This paper describes dynamic analysis using proposed fast finite element method for a shock absorbing structure including a sponge. The structure is supported by nonlinear concentrated springs. The restoring force of the spring has cubic nonlinearity and linear hysteresis damping. To calculate damping properties for the structures including elastic body and porous body, displacement vectors as common unknown variable are solved under coupled condition. Under small amplitude, we apply asymptotic method to complex eigenvalue problem of this system to obtain modal parameters. And then expressions of modal loss factor are derived approximately. This approach was proposed by one of the authors previously. We call this method as Modal Strain and Kinetic Energy Method (MSKE method). Further, using the modal loss factors, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. This transformation yields computation efficiency. As a numerical example of a shock absorbing structures, we adopt double skins with a sponge. The double skins are supported by nonlinear concentrated springs. We clarify influences of amplitude of the input force on nonlinear and chaotic responses.

Keywords: Dynamic response, Nonlinear and chaotic motions, Finite Element analysis, Numerical analysis.

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3 Acoustic Analysis with Consideration of Damping Effects of Air Viscosity in Sound Pathway

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Sound pathways in the enclosures of small earphones are very narrow. In such narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change because of the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method that includes the effects of damping due to air viscosity for modeling the sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing finite element method for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results using the proposed finite element method are validated against the existing calculation methods.

Keywords: Simulation, FEM, air viscosity, damping.

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2 Finite Element Analysis for Damped Vibration Properties of Panels Laminated Porous Media

Authors: Y. Kurosawa, T. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for sound-proof structures involving elastic body, viscoelastic body, and porous media. For elastic and viscoelastic body displacement is modeled using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantities to represent damped sound fields in the porous media. Particle displacement in the porous media is discretised using finite element method. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous media. Further, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived using asymptotic method. Eigenvalue analysis and frequency responded were calculated for automotive test panel laminated viscoelastic and porous structures using this technique, the results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: Damping, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, Computer Aided Engineering.

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1 Theoretical Analysis of Damping Due to Air Viscosity in Narrow Acoustic Tubes

Authors: M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Headphones and earphones have many extremely small holes or narrow slits; they use sound-absorbing or porous material (i.e., dampers) to suppress vibratory system resonance. The air viscosity in these acoustic paths greatly affects the acoustic properties. Simulation analyses such as the finite element method (FEM) therefore require knowledge of the material properties of sound-absorbing or porous materials, such as the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. The transfer function method using acoustic tubes is a widely known measuring method, but there is no literature on taking measurements up to the audible range. To measure the acoustic properties at high-range frequencies, the acoustic tubes that form the measuring device need to be narrowed, and the distance between the two microphones needs to be reduced. However, when the tubes are narrowed, the characteristic impedance drops below the air impedance. In this study, we considered the effect of air viscosity in an acoustical tube, introduced a theoretical formula for this effect in the form of complex density and complex sonic velocity, and verified the theoretical formula. We also conducted an experiment and observed the effect from air viscosity in the actual measurements.

Keywords: acoustic tube, air viscosity, earphones, FEM, porous material, sound-absorbing material, transfer function method

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