Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Publications

8 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers microhardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures thereby improving the integrity of the material.

Keywords: Hardness, austenite, ferrite, grain size, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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7 Designs of Temperature Measuring Device for a Re-Configured Milling Machine

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The design of temperature measuring approach for a re-configured milling machine to produce friction stir welds is reported in this paper. The product design specifications for the redesigning of a milling machine were first outlined and the ranking criteria were determined. Three different concepts were generated for the temperature measurement on the reconfigured system and the preferred or the best concept was selected based on the set design ranking criteria. Further simulation and performance analysis was then conducted on the concept. The Infrared Thermography (IRT) concept was selected for the temperature measurement among other concepts generated because it is an ideal and most effective system of measurement in this regard.

Keywords: Support Systems, Friction Stir Welding, reconfiguration, Clamping system

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6 Characterising the Effects of Sand Blasting on Formed Steel Samples

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi, Enoch Ogunmuyiwa

Abstract:

The present research study focuses on the investigation of the influence of sand blasting on formed mild steel samples. The investigation involved the examinations on the parent material and a sand blasted material. The results were compared to the mechanically formed materials (sand and non-sand blasted) as well as a laser formed material (sand and non-sand blasted). Each material was characterized for the grain sizes and hardness. The percentage change in the grain sizes was quantified and correlation to the microhardness values was established. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the materials was also quantified using the obtained hardness values. The investigations revealed that the sand blasting causes an increase in the Vickers microhardness values of all the materials which also led to an increase in the UTS. After the forming operation, the microstructure revealed elongated grains as compared to almost equiaxed obtained from the parent non-sand blasted materials.

Keywords: Hardness, Metal Forming, grain size, ultimate tensile strength, sand blasting

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5 Characterising Effects of Applied Loads on the Mechanical Properties of Formed Steel Sheets

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research study is to investigate the manner in which various loads affect the mechanical properties of the formed mild steel plates. The investigation focuses on examining the cross-sectional area of the metal plate at the centre of the formed mild steel plate. Six mild steel plates were deformed with different loads. The loads applied on the plates had a magnitude of 5 kg, 10 kg, 15 kg, 20 kg, 25 kg and 30 kg. The radius of the punching die was 120 mm and the loads were applied at room temperature. The investigations established that the applied load causes the Vickers microhardness at the cross-sectional area of the plate to increase due to strain hardening. Hence, the percentage increase of the hardness due to the load was found to be directly proportional to the increase in the load. Furthermore, the tensile test results for the parent material showed that the average Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) for the three samples was 308 MPa while the average Yield Strength and Percentage Elongation were 227 MPa and 38 % respectively. Similarly, the UTS of the formed components increased after the deformation of the plate, as such it can be concluded that the forming loads alter the mechanical properties of the materials by improving and strengthening the material properties.

Keywords: Applied load, forming and Mechanical Properties

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4 Design of an Innovative Accelerant Detector

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi, Milan Isvarial

Abstract:

Today, canines are still used effectively in acceleration detection situation. However, this method is becoming impractical in modern age and a new automated replacement to the canine is required. This paper reports the design of an innovative accelerant detector. Designing an accelerant detector is a long process as is any design process; therefore, a solution to the need for a mobile, effective accelerant detector is hereby presented. The device is simple and efficient to ensure that any accelerant detection can be conducted quickly and easily. The design utilizes Ultra Violet (UV) light to detect the accelerant. When the UV light shines on an accelerant, the hydrocarbons in the accelerant emit florescence. The advantages of using the UV light to detect accelerant are also outlined in this paper. The mobility of the device is achieved by using a Direct Current (DC) motor to run tank tracks. Tank tracks were chosen as to ensure that the device will be mobile in the rough terrain of a fire site. The materials selected for the various parts are also presented. A Solid Works Simulation was also conducted on the stresses in the shafts and the results are presented. This design is an innovative solution which offers a user friendly interface. The design is also environmentally friendly, ecologically sound and safe to use.

Keywords: canines, Accelerant detector, Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Ultra Violet light

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3 Laser Forming of Titanium and Its Alloys – An Overview

Authors: Mukul Shukla, Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Laser beam forming is a novel technique developed for the joining of metallic components. In this study, an overview of the laser beam forming process, areas of application, the basic mechanisms of the laser beam forming process, some recent research studies and the need to focus more research effort on improving the laser-material interaction of laser beam forming of titanium and its alloys are presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Mechanisms, deformation, Titanium, titanium alloy, laser forming

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2 Friction Stir Welding Process: A Green Technology

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented and patented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in the United Kingdom in 1991 for butt and lap welding of metals and plastics. This paper highlights the benefits of friction stir welding process as an energy efficient and a green technology process in the field of welding. Compared to the other conventional welding processes, its benefits, typical applications and its use in joining similar and dissimilar materials are also presented.

Keywords: Green Technology, Dissimilar Materials, Friction Stir Welding, similar materials

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1 Fracture Location Characterizations of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports the tensile fracture location characterizations of dissimilar friction stir welds between 5754 aluminium alloy and C11000 copper. The welds were produced using three shoulder diameter tools; namely, 15, 18 and 25 mm by varying the process parameters. The rotational speeds considered were 600, 950 and 1200 rpm while the feed rates employed were 50, 150 and 300 mm/min to represent the low, medium and high settings respectively. The tensile fracture locations were evaluated using the optical microscope to identify the fracture locations and were characterized. It was observed that 70% of the tensile samples failed in the Thermo Mechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ) of copper at the weld joints. Further evaluation of the fracture surfaces of the pulled tensile samples revealed that welds with low Ultimate Tensile Strength either have defects or intermetallics present at their joint interfaces.

Keywords: Intermetallics, Friction Stir Welding, metallography, fracture location

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