Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Publications

14 Numerical Example of Aperiodic Diffraction Grating

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

Diffraction grating is periodic module used in many engineering fields, its geometrical conception gives interesting properties of diffraction and interferences, a uniform and periodic diffraction grating consists of a number of identical apertures that are equally spaced, in this case, the amplitude of intensity distribution in the far field region is generally modulated by diffraction pattern of single aperture. In this paper, we study the case of aperiodic diffraction grating with identical rectangular apertures where theirs coordinates are modeled by square root function, we elaborate a computer simulation comparatively to the periodic array with same length and we discuss the numerical results.

Keywords: Diffraction grating, interferences, amplitude modulation, laser.

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13 A Survey on Facial Feature Points Detection Techniques and Approaches

Authors: Rachid Ahdid, Khaddouj Taifi, Said Safi, Bouzid Manaut

Abstract:

Automatic detection of facial feature points plays an important role in applications such as facial feature tracking, human-machine interaction and face recognition. The majority of facial feature points detection methods using two-dimensional or three-dimensional data are covered in existing survey papers. In this article chosen approaches to the facial features detection have been gathered and described. This overview focuses on the class of researches exploiting facial feature points detection to represent facial surface for two-dimensional or three-dimensional face. In the conclusion, we discusses advantages and disadvantages of the presented algorithms.

Keywords: Facial feature points, face recognition, facial feature tracking, two-dimensional data, three-dimensional data.

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12 Recognition of Tifinagh Characters with Missing Parts Using Neural Network

Authors: El Mahdi Barrah, Said Safi, Abdessamad Malaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an algorithm for reconstruction from incomplete 2D scans for tifinagh characters. This algorithm is based on using correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. This system proposed contains three main parts: pre-processing, features extraction and recognition. In the first step, we construct a database of tifinagh characters. In the second step, we will apply “shape analysis algorithm”. In classification part, we will use Neural Network. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method give good results.

Keywords: Tifinagh character recognition, Neural networks, Local cost computation.

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11 Extended Set of DCT-TPLBP and DCT-FPLBP for Face Recognition

Authors: El Mahdi Barrah, Said Safi, Abdessamad Malaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe an application for face recognition. Many studies have used local descriptors to characterize a face, the performance of these local descriptors remain low by global descriptors (working on the entire image). The application of local descriptors (cutting image into blocks) must be able to store both the advantages of global and local methods in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. This system uses neural network techniques. The letter method provides a good compromise between the two approaches in terms of simplifying of calculation and classifying performance. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained from other local and global conventional approaches.

Keywords: Face detection, face recognition, discrete cosine transform (DCT), FPLBP, TPLBP, NN.

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10 Methods of Geodesic Distance in Two-Dimensional Face Recognition

Authors: Rachid Ahdid, Said Safi, Bouzid Manaut

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative study of three methods of 2D face recognition system such as: Iso-Geodesic Curves (IGC), Geodesic Distance (GD) and Geodesic-Intensity Histogram (GIH). These approaches are based on computing of geodesic distance between points of facial surface and between facial curves. In this study we represented the image at gray level as a 2D surface in a 3D space, with the third coordinate proportional to the intensity values of pixels. In the classifying step, we use: Neural Networks (NN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The images used in our experiments are from two wellknown databases of face images ORL and YaleB. ORL data base was used to evaluate the performance of methods under conditions where the pose and sample size are varied, and the database YaleB was used to examine the performance of the systems when the facial expressions and lighting are varied.

Keywords: 2D face recognition, Geodesic distance, Iso-Geodesic Curves, Geodesic-Intensity Histogram, facial surface, Neural Networks, K-Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machines.

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9 Extending the Quantum Entropy to Multidimensional Signal Processing

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

This paper treats different aspects of entropy measure in classical information theory and statistical quantum mechanics, it presents the possibility of extending the definition of Von Neumann entropy to image and array processing. In the first part, we generalize the quantum entropy using singular values of arbitrary rectangular matrices to measure the randomness and the quality of denoising operation, this new definition of entropy can be implemented to compare the performance analysis of filtering methods. In the second part, we apply the concept of pure state in quantum formalism to generalize the maximum entropy method for narrowband and farfield source localization problem. Several computer simulation results are illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

Keywords: Von Neumann entropy, Filtering, array, DoA, Maximum Entropy Method.

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8 Equalization Algorithms for MIMO System

Authors: Said Elkassimi, Said Safi, B. Manaut

Abstract:

In recent years, multi-antenna techniques are being considered as a potential solution to increase the flow of future wireless communication systems. The objective of this article is to study the emission and reception system MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), and present the different reception decoding techniques. First we will present the least complex technical, linear receivers such as the zero forcing equalizer (ZF) and minimum mean squared error (MMSE). Then a nonlinear technique called ordered successive cancellation of interferences (OSIC) and the optimal detector based on the maximum likelihood criterion (ML), finally, we simulate the associated decoding algorithms for MIMO system such as ZF, MMSE, OSIC and ML, thus a comparison of performance of these algorithms in MIMO context.

Keywords: Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO), ZF, MMSE, Ordered Interference Successive Cancellation (OSIC), ML, Interference Successive Cancellation (SIC).

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7 Study of Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and the Equalization of Radio Mobile Channel

Authors: Said Elkassimi, Said Safi, B. Manaut

Abstract:

This paper presented a study of three algorithms, the equalization algorithm to equalize the transmission channel with ZF and MMSE criteria, application of channel Bran A, and adaptive filtering algorithms LMS and RLS to estimate the parameters of the equalizer filter, i.e. move to the channel estimation and therefore reflect the temporal variations of the channel, and reduce the error in the transmitted signal. So far the performance of the algorithm equalizer with ZF and MMSE criteria both in the case without noise, a comparison of performance of the LMS and RLS algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering second equalizer, LMS, RLS Bran A, Proakis (B) MMSE, ZF.

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6 Blind Identification and Equalization of CDMA Signals Using the Levenvberg-Marquardt Algorithm

Authors: Mohammed Boutalline, Imad Badi, Belaid Bouikhalene, Said Safi

Abstract:

In this paper we describe the Levenvberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm for identification and equalization of CDMA signals received by an antenna array in communication channels. The synthesis explains the digital separation and equalization of signals after propagation through multipath generating intersymbol interference (ISI). Exploiting discrete data transmitted and three diversities induced at the reception, the problem can be composed by the Block Component Decomposition (BCD) of a tensor of order 3 which is a new tensor decomposition generalizing the PARAFAC decomposition. We optimize the BCD decomposition by Levenvberg-Marquardt method gives encouraging results compared to classical alternating least squares algorithm (ALS). In the equalization part, we use the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) to perform the presented method. The simulation results using the LM algorithm are important.

Keywords: Identification and equalization, communication channel, Levenvberg-Marquardt, tensor decomposition

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5 Generalized Maximum Entropy Method for Cosmic Source Localization

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

The Maximum entropy principle in spectral analysis was used as an estimator of Direction of Arrival (DoA) of electromagnetic or acoustic sources impinging on an array of sensors, indeed the maximum entropy operator is very efficient when the signals of the radiating sources are ergodic and complex zero mean random processes which is the case for cosmic sources. In this paper, we present basic review of the maximum entropy method (MEM) which consists of rank one operator but not a projector, and we elaborate a new operator which is full rank and sum of all possible projectors. Two dimensional Simulation results based on Monte Carlo trials prove the resolution power of the new operator where the MEM presents some erroneous fluctuations.

Keywords: Maximum entropy, Cosmic source, Localization, operator, projector, azimuth, elevation, DoA, circular array.

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4 Angles of Arrival Estimation with Unitary Partial Propagator

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigated the effect of real valued transformation of the spectral matrix of the received data for Angles Of Arrival estimation problem.  Indeed, the unitary transformation of Partial Propagator (UPP) for narrowband sources is proposed and applied on Uniform Linear Array (ULA).

Monte Carlo simulations proved the performance of the UPP spectrum comparatively with Forward Backward Partial Propagator (FBPP) and Unitary Propagator (UP). The results demonstrates that when some of the sources are fully correlated and closer than the Rayleigh angular limit resolution of the broadside array, the UPP method outperforms the FBPP in both of spatial resolution and complexity.

Keywords: DOA, Uniform Linear Array, Narrowband, Propagator, Real valued transformation, Subspace, Unitary Operator.

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3 Angle of Arrival Detection with Fifth Order Phase Operators

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi

Abstract:

In this paper, a fifth order propagator operators are proposed for estimating the Angles Of Arrival (AOA) of narrowband electromagnetic waves impinging on antenna array when its number of sensors is larger than the number of radiating sources.

The array response matrix is partitioned into five linearly dependent phases to construct the noise projector using five different propagators from non diagonal blocks of the spectral matrice of the received data; hence, five different estimators are proposed to estimate the angles of the sources. The simulation results proved the performance of the proposed estimators in the presence of white noise comparatively to high resolution eigen based spectra.

Keywords: DOA, narrowband, antenna, propagator, high resolution. Array, operator, angular, spectrum, goniometry.

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2 Higher Order Statistics for Identification of Minimum Phase Channels

Authors: Mohammed Zidane, Said Safi, Mohamed Sabri, Ahmed Boumezzough

Abstract:

This paper describes a blind algorithm, which is compared with two another algorithms proposed in the literature, for estimating of the minimum phase channel parameters. In order to identify blindly the impulse response of these channels, we have used Higher Order Statistics (HOS) to build our algorithm. The simulation results in noisy environment, demonstrate that the proposed method could estimate the phase and magnitude with high accuracy of these channels blindly and without any information about the input, except that the input excitation is identically and independent distribute (i.i.d) and non-Gaussian.

Keywords: System Identification, Higher Order Statistics, Communication Channels.

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1 Blind Identification Channel Using Higher Order Cumulants with Application to Equalization for MC−CDMA System

Authors: Mohammed Zidane, Said Safi, Mohamed Sabri, Ahmed Boumezzough

Abstract:

In this paper we propose an algorithm based on higher order cumulants, for blind impulse response identification of frequency radio channels and downlink (MC−CDMA) system Equalization. In order to test its efficiency, we have compared with another algorithm proposed in the literature, for that we considered on theoretical channel as the Proakis’s ‘B’ channel and practical frequency selective fading channel, called Broadband Radio Access Network (BRAN C), normalized for (MC−CDMA) systems, excited by non-Gaussian sequences. In the part of (MC−CDMA), we use the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) equalizer after the channel identification to correct the channel’s distortion. The simulation results, in noisy environment and for different signal to noise ratio (SNR), are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Blind identification and equalization, Higher Order Cumulants, (MC−CDMA) system, MMSE equalizer.

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