Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Publications

3 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: Biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes.

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2 Screening for Larvicidal Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Fourteen Selected Plants and Formulation of a Larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) Larvae

Authors: Michael Russelle S. Alvarez, Noel S. Quiming, Francisco M. Heralde

Abstract:

This study aims to: a) obtain ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus, Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens and screen them for larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae; b) to fractionate the most active extract and determine the most active fraction; c) to determine the larvicidal properties of the most active extract and fraction against by computing their percentage mortality, LC50, and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure; and d) to determine the nature of the components of the active extracts and fractions using phytochemical screening. Ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of the selected plants will be screened for potential larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using standard procedures and 1% malathion and a Piper nigrum based ovicide-larvicide by the Department of Science and Technology as positive controls. The results were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s and Dunnett’s test. The most active extract will be subjected to partial fractionation using normal-phase column chromatography, and the fractions subsequently screened to determine the most active fraction. The most active extract and fraction were subjected to dose-response assay and probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. The active extracts and fractions will be screened for phytochemical content. The ethanolic extracts of C. citratus, E. hirta, I. coccinea, G. sepium, M. koenigii, E globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens exhibited significant larvicidal activity, with C. frutescens being the most active. After fractionation, the ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the most active. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. A formulation using talcum powder–300 mg fraction per 1 g talcum powder–was made and again tested for larvicidal activity. At 2 g/L, the formulation proved effective in killing all of the test larvae after 24 hours.

Keywords: Larvicidal activity screening, partial purification, dose-response assay, Capsicum frutescens.

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1 An AFM Approach of RBC Micro and Nanoscale Topographic Features during Storage

Authors: K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, S. Álvarez-García, V. Mata-Haro, D. Soto-Puebla, M. Pedroza-Montero

Abstract:

Blood gamma irradiation is the only available method to prevent transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TAGVHD). However, when blood is irradiated, determine blood shelf time is crucial. Non irradiated blood have a self-time from 21 to 35 days when is preserved with anticoagulated solution and stored at 4°C. During their storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo a series of biochemical, biomechanical and molecular changes involving what is known as storage lesion (SL). SL include loss of structural integrity of RBC, decrease of 2,3-diphosphatidylglyceric acid levels, and increase of both ion potassium concentration and hemoglobin (Hb). On the other hand, Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) represents a versatile tool for a nano-scale high resolution topographic analysis in biological systems. In order to evaluate SL in irradiated and nonirradiated blood, RBC topography and morphometric parameters were obtained from an AFM XE-BIO system. Cell viability was followed using flow cytometry. Our results showed that early markers as nanoscale roughness, allow us to evaluate blood quality since other perspective.

Keywords: AFM, Blood γ-irradiation, roughness, Storage lesion.

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