Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Publications

3 Extraction of Phenol, o-Cresol, and p-Cresol from Coal Tar: Effect of Temperature and Mixing

Authors: Dewi S. Fardhyanti, Panut Mulyono, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research needed to be done that given the optimum conditions for the separation of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from the coal tar by solvent extraction process. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of two kinds of aqueous were used as solvents: methanol and acetone solutions, the effect of temperature (298, 306, and 313K) and mixing (30, 35, and 40rpm) for the separation of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar by solvent extraction. Results indicated that phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol in coal tar were selectivity extracted into the solvent phase and these components could be separated by solvent extraction. The aqueous solution of methanol, mass ratio of solvent to feed, Eo/Ro=1, extraction temperature 306K and mixing 35 rpm were the most efficient for extraction of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar.

Keywords: Coal tar, Distribution coefficient, Extraction, Yield.

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2 Pseudo-Homogeneous Kinetic of Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Husk for Ethanol Production: Effect of Sugar Degradation

Authors: Megawati, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Rice husk is a lignocellulosic source that can be converted to ethanol. Three hundreds grams of rice husk was mixed with 1 L of 0.18 N sulfuric acid solutions then was heated in an autoclave. The reaction was expected to be at constant temperature (isothermal), but before that temperature was achieved, reaction has occurred. The first liquid sample was taken at temperature of 140 0C and repeated every 5 minute interval. So the data obtained are in the regions of non-isothermal and isothermal. It was observed that the degradation has significant effects on the ethanol production. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors for hydrolysis and sugar degradation of 1.58 x 105 1/min and 2.29 x 108 L/mole/min, respectively, while the activation energies are 64,350 J/mole and 76,571 J/mole. The highest ethanol concentration from fermentation is 1.13% v/v, attained at 220 0C.

Keywords: degradation, ethanol, hydrolysis, rice husk

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1 Pseudo-Homogeneous Kinetic of Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Huskfor Ethanol Production: Effect of Sugar Degradation

Authors: Megawati, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Rice husk is a lignocellulosic source that can be converted to ethanol. Three hundreds grams of rice husk was mixed with 1 L of 0.18 N sulfuric acid solutions then was heated in an autoclave. The reaction was expected to be at constant temperature (isothermal), but before that temperature was achieved, reaction has occurred. The first liquid sample was taken at temperature of 140 0C and repeated every 5 minute interval. So the data obtained are in the regions of non-isothermal and isothermal. It was observed that the degradation has significant effects on the ethanol production. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors for hydrolysis and sugar degradation of 1.58 x 105 min-1 and 2.29 x 108 L/mole-min, respectively, while the activation energies are 64,350 J/mole and 76,571 J/mole. The highest ethanol concentration from fermentation is 1.13% v/v, attained at 220 0C.

Keywords: degradation, ethanol, hydrolysis, rice husk.

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