Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Publications

2 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner

Abstract:

Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculation of pressure losses in the real lungs is time consuming and inefficient process due to its complexity and diversity. For these calculations is necessary to slightly simplify the geometry of lungs (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the idealized models of lungs (Horsfield, Weibel). The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli and continuity equations. The aim of the article is to analyse the accuracy of the analytical method and its possibility of use for the calculation of pressure losses in lower generations, which is difficult to solve by numerical method due to the small geometry.

Keywords: pressure gradient, airways resistance, breathing, real geometry of bronchial tree

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1 The Pressure Losses in the Model of Human Lungs

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Pavel Niedoba

Abstract:

For the treatment of acute and chronic lung diseases it is preferred to deliver medicaments by inhalation. The drug is delivered directly to tracheobronchial tree. This way allows the given medicament to get directly into the place of action and it makes rapid onset of action and maximum efficiency. The transport of aerosol particles in the particular part of the lung is influenced by their size, anatomy of the lungs, breathing pattern and airway resistance. This article deals with calculation of airway resistance in the lung model of Horsfield. It solves the problem of determination of the pressure losses in bifurcation and thus defines the pressure drop at a given location in the bronchial tree. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for transport of aerosol particles in a central part of bronchial tree realized by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The results obtained from CFD simulation will allow us to provide information on the required particle size and optimal inhalation technique for particle transport into particular part of the lung.

Keywords: Flow, human lungs, bronchial tree, pressure losses, airways resistance, breathing

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