Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Publications

3 Transformer Life Enhancement Using Dynamic Switching of Second Harmonic Feature in IEDs

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, P. K. Gargava

Abstract:

Energization of a transformer results in sudden flow of current which is an effect of core magnetization. This current will be dominated by the presence of second harmonic, which in turn is used to segregate fault and inrush current, thus guaranteeing proper operation of the relay. This additional security in the relay sometimes obstructs or delays differential protection in a specific scenario, when the 2nd harmonic content was present during a genuine fault. This kind of scenario can result in isolation of the transformer by Buchholz and pressure release valve (PRV) protection, which is acted when fault creates more damage in transformer. Such delays involve a huge impact on the insulation failure, and chances of repairing or rectifying fault of problem at site become very dismal. Sometimes this delay can cause fire in the transformer, and this situation becomes havoc for a sub-station. Such occurrences have been observed in field also when differential relay operation was delayed by 10-15 ms by second harmonic blocking in some specific conditions. These incidences have led to the need for an alternative solution to eradicate such unwarranted delay in operation in future. Modern numerical relay, called as intelligent electronic device (IED), is embedded with advanced protection features which permit higher flexibility and better provisions for tuning of protection logic and settings. Such flexibility in transformer protection IEDs, enables incorporation of alternative methods such as dynamic switching of second harmonic feature for blocking the differential protection with additional security. The analysis and precautionary measures carried out in this case, have been simulated and discussed in this paper to ensure that similar solutions can be adopted to inhibit analogous issues in future.

Keywords: Differential protection, intelligent electronic device (IED), 2nd harmonic, inrush inhibit.

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2 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Maloperation

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

In this paper, various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance Restricted Earth Fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The maloperation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methodology has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the issues related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: Relay maloperation, transformer, low impedance REF, MatLab, 64R, IEEE C37.91.

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1 Smart Monitoring and Control of Tap Changer Using Intelligent Electronic Device

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, G. R. Manjunatha, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, M. V. Gopalan

Abstract:

In this paper, monitoring and control of tap changer mechanism of a transformer implementation in an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) is discussed. It has been a custom for decades to provide a separate panel for on load tap changer control for monitoring the tap position. However, this facility cannot either record or transfer the information to remote control centers. As there is a technology shift towards the smart grid protection and control standards, the need for implementing remote control and monitoring has necessitated the implementation of this feature in numerical relays. This paper deals with the programming, settings and logic implementation which is applicable to both IEC 61850 compatible and non-compatible IEDs thereby eliminating the need for separate tap changer control equipment. The monitoring mechanism has been implemented in a 28MVA, 110 /6.9kV transformer with 16 tap position with GE make T60 IED at Ultratech cement limited Gulbarga, Karnataka and is in successful service.

Keywords: Transformer protection, tap changer control, tap position monitoring, on load tap changer, intelligent electronic device (IED).

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