Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Publications

5 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: Electrification strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, CO2 emission.

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4 Effect of Crude oil Intoxication on Antioxidant and Marker Enzymes of Tissue Damage in Liver of Rat

Authors: K. Mahmoud, T. Shalahmetova, Sh. Deraz

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to examine the dose-response relationships between antioxidant parameters and liver contaminant levels of Kazakhstan light crude oil (KLCO) in albino rats. The animals were repeatedly exposed, by intraperitoneal injection, to low dosages (0.5–1.5 ml/kg) of KLCO. Rats exposed to these doses levels did not show any apparent symptoms of intoxication. Serum aminotransferases increased significantly (p<0.05) while after 8-d recovered to control level. hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased after 1 and 3-d except with 0.5 ml while with increased exposure time it deceased insignificantly after 5-d and significantly after 8-d. Dose and time-dependent increases were observed in the levels of hepatic glutathione-S-transeferase (GST) and conjugated diene (CD) while malondialdehyde (MDA) was evolved after 8 with the dose of 1.5 ml. the data obtained indicate impaired liver function in the rats intoxicated with KLCO as manifested by elevated liver enzymes.

Keywords: Crude oil; superoxide dismutase, glutathione-Stranseferase, malondialdehyde, conjugated diene, aminotransferases.

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3 Antioxidant Responses to Different Exposure Regimes of Kazakhstan Light Crude Oil in Livers of Male Albino Rats

Authors: K. Mahmoud, T. Shalahmetova, B. Umbayev, Sh. Deraz

Abstract:

Biochemical investigations were carried out to assess the effect of different exposure regimes of Kazakhstan crude oil (KCO) on hepatic antioxidant defense system in albino rats. Contaminants were delivered under two different dosing regimes, with all treatments receiving the same total contaminant load by the end of the exposure period. Rats in regime A injected with KCO once at a dose of 6 ml/kg bw while in regime B injected multiply at a dose of 1.5 ml/kg bw on day 1, 3, 5 and 8. Antioxidant biomarkers were measured in hepatic tissue after 1, 3, 5 and 8 days. Significant induction was observed in serum aminotransferases (ALT, AST) (p<0.01) and hepatic Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (p<0.05) in the two exposure regimes, with the majority of significant induction occurring in regime A. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased 1-d after injection (p<0.01) but the increase was reduced time dependently thereafter while after 8-d induced again (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly induced after 3 and 5-d (p<0.05) in regime A while in regime B was not changed significantly (p>0.05) at short time after exposure. However, there was significant increase after 8-d (p<0.01). Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced pathologic changes from inflammatory cells infiltration to hemorrhage and necrosis of hepatocytes. Acute exposure to crude oil adversely affect hepatic cell so human must avoid such exposure.

Keywords: Kazakhstan crude oil, Antioxidant biomarkers, Histological examination, Dose regime, Rats

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2 Determination and Preconcentration of Iron (II) in Aqueous Solution with Amberlite XAD-4 Functionalized with 1-amino-2-naphthole by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Mahshid Nikpour Nezhati, Faranak Mahmoudi, Elham Moniri, Meghdad Karimi

Abstract:

A new chelating resin is prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with 1-amino-2-naphthole through an azo spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and studied for preconcentrating of Fe (II) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for metal monitoring. The optimum pH value for sorption of the iron ions was 6.5. The resin was subjected to evaluation through batch binding of mentioned metal ion. Quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 0.5 M HNO3. The sorption capacity was found 4.1 mmol.g-1 of resin for Fe (II) in the aqueous solution. The chelating resin can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 97% was obtained the metal ions with 0.5 M HNO3 as eluting agent. The method was applied for metal ions determination from industrial waste water sample.

Keywords: Amberlite XAD-4, Iron (II), Flame atomic absorption, Chelator, 1-amino-2- naphthole

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1 Amberlite XAD-4 Functionalized with 1-amino-2-naphthole for Determination and Preconcentration of Copper (II) in Aqueous Solution by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Elham Moniri, Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Mahshid Nikpour Nezhati, Faranak Mahmoudi, Meghdad Karimi

Abstract:

A new chelating resin is prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with 1-amino-2-naphthole through an azo spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and studied for preconcentrating of Cu (II) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for metal monitoring. The optimum pH value for sorption of the copper ions was 6.5. The resin was subjected to evaluation through batch binding of mentioned metal ion. Quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 0.5 M HNO3. The sorption capacity was found 4.8 mmol.g-1 of resin for Cu (II) in the aqueous solution. The chelating resin can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 99% was obtained the metal ions with 0.5 M HNO3 as eluting agent. The method was applied for metal ions determination from industrial waste water sample.

Keywords: Amberlite XAD-4; Copper (II); Flame atomicabsorption; Chelator; 1-amino-2- naphthole

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