Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Publications

5 Prediction of Overall Efficiency in Multistage Gear Trains

Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu

Abstract:

A mathematical model for determining the overall efficiency of a multistage tractor gearbox including all gear, lubricant, surface finish related parameters and operating conditions is presented. Sliding friction, rolling friction and windage losses were considered as the main sources of power loss in the gearing system. A computer code in FORTRAN was developed to simulate the model. Sliding friction contributes about 98% of the total power loss for gear trains operating at relatively low speeds (less than 2000 rpm input speed). Rolling frictional losses decrease with increased load while windage losses are only significant for gears running at very high speeds (greater than 3000 rpm). The results also showed that the overall efficiency varies over the path of contact of the gear meshes ranging between 94% to 99.5%.

Keywords: Efficiency, multistage gear train, rolling friction, slidingfriction, windage losses

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4 Effects of Input Speed on the Dynamic Response of Planar Multi-body Systems with Differently Located Frictionless Revolute Clearance Joints

Authors: Onesmus Muvengei, John Kihiu, Bernard Ikua

Abstract:

This paper numerically investigates the effects of input speed on the overall dynamic characteristics of a multi-body system with differently located revolute clearance joints without friction. A typical planar slider-crank mechanism is used as a demonstration case in which the effects of the input speed on the dynamic performance of the mechanism with a revolute clearance joint between the crank and connecting rod, and between the connecting rod and slider are separately investigated with comprehensive observations numerically presented. It is observed that, changing the driving speed of a multibody system makes the behavior of the system to change from either periodic to chaotic, or chaotic to periodic depending on which joint has clearance. The location of the clearance revolute joint and the operating speed of a multi-body system play a crucial role in predicting accurately the dynamic responses of the system. Therefore the dynamic behavior of one clearance revolute joint cannot be used as a general case for a mechanical system.

Keywords: dynamic response, chaotic behavior, Contact-impact forces, Multi-body mechanical system, Periodic behavior, Poincare maps, Quasi-periodic behavior, Revolute clearance joint

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3 Bond Graph Modeling of Inter-Actuator Interactions in a Multi-Cylinder Hydraulic System

Authors: Mutuku Muvengei, John Kihiu

Abstract:

In this paper, a bond graph dynamic model for a valvecontrolled hydraulic cylinder has been developed. A simplified bond graph model of the inter-actuator interactions in a multi-cylinder hydraulic system has also been presented. The overall bond graph model of a valve-controlled hydraulic cylinder was developed by combining the bond graph sub-models of the pump, spool valve and the actuator using junction structures. Causality was then assigned in order to obtain a computational model which could be simulated. The causal bond graph model of the hydraulic cylinder was verified by comparing the open loop state responses to those of an ODE model which had been developed in literature based on the same assumptions. The results were found to correlate very well both in the shape of the curves, magnitude and the response times, thus indicating that the developed model represents the hydraulic dynamics of a valve-controlled cylinder. A simplified model for interactuator interaction was presented by connecting an effort source with constant pump pressure to the zero-junction from which the cylinders in a multi-cylinder system are supplied with a constant pressure from the pump. On simulating the state responses of the developed model under different situations of cylinder operations, indicated that such a simple model can be used to predict the inter-actuator interactions.

Keywords: bond graphs, Inter-actuator interactions, Valvecontrolledhydraulic cylinder

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2 Bond Graph Modeling of Mechanical Dynamics of an Excavator for Hydraulic System Analysis and Design

Authors: Mutuku Muvengei, John Kihiu

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of bond graph dynamic model of the mechanical dynamics of an excavating mechanism previously designed to be used with small tractors, which are fabricated in the Engineering Workshops of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. To develop a mechanical dynamics model of the manipulator, forward recursive equations similar to those applied in iterative Newton-Euler method were used to obtain kinematic relationships between the time rates of joint variables and the generalized cartesian velocities for the centroids of the links. Representing the obtained kinematic relationships in bondgraphic form, while considering the link weights and momenta as the elements led to a detailed bond graph model of the manipulator. The bond graph method was found to reduce significantly the number of recursive computations performed on a 3 DOF manipulator for a mechanical dynamic model to result, hence indicating that bond graph method is more computationally efficient than the Newton-Euler method in developing dynamic models of 3 DOF planar manipulators. The model was verified by comparing the joint torque expressions of a two link planar manipulator to those obtained using Newton- Euler and Lagrangian methods as analyzed in robotic textbooks. The expressions were found to agree indicating that the model captures the aspects of rigid body dynamics of the manipulator. Based on the model developed, actuator sizing and valve sizing methodologies were developed and used to obtain the optimal sizes of the pistons and spool valve ports respectively. It was found that using the pump with the sized flow rate capacity, the engine of the tractor is able to power the excavating mechanism in digging a sandy-loom soil.

Keywords: Actuators, Inverse Dynamics, bond graphs, recursive equations, quintic polynomial trajectory

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1 Modeling Parametric Vibration of Multistage Gear Systems as a Tool for Design Optimization

Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu

Abstract:

This work presents a numerical model developed to simulate the dynamics and vibrations of a multistage tractor gearbox. The effect of time varying mesh stiffness, time varying frictional torque on the gear teeth, lateral and torsional flexibility of the shafts and flexibility of the bearings were included in the model. The model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the vibration and stress levels on the gears. The first design variable, module, had little effect on the vibration levels but a higher module resulted to higher bending stress levels. The second design variable, pressure angle, had little effect on the vibration levels, but had a strong effect on the stress levels on the pinion of a high reduction ratio gear pair. A pressure angle of 25o resulted to lower stress levels for a pinion with 14 teeth than a pressure angle of 20o. The third design variable, contact ratio, had a very strong effect on both the vibration levels and bending stress levels. Increasing the contact ratio to 2.0 reduced both the vibration levels and bending stress levels significantly. For the gear train design used in this study, a module of 2.5 and contact ratio of 2.0 for the various meshes was found to yield the best combination of low vibration levels and low bending stresses. The model can therefore be used as a tool for obtaining the optimum gear design parameters for a given multistage spur gear train.

Keywords: mesh stiffness, bending stress levels, frictional torque, gear designparameters, multistage gear train, vibration levels

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