Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Publications

5 Increase of Atmosphere CO2 Concentration and Its Effects on Culture/Weed Interaction

Authors: J. I. Santos, A. E. Cesarin, C. A. R. Sales, M. B. B. Triano, P. F. R. B. Martins, A. F. Braga, N. J. Neto, A., A. M. Barroso, P. L. C. A. Alves, C. A. M. Huaman

Abstract:

Climate change projections based on the emission of greenhouse effect gases suggest an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, in up to 750 ppm. In this scenario, we have significant changes in plant development, and consequently, in agricultural systems. This study aims to evaluate the interaction between culture (Glycine max) and weed (Amaranthus viridis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in two conditions of CO2, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that the coexistence of culture with both weed species resulted in a mutual loss, with decrease in dry mass productivity of culture + weeds, in both conditions of CO2. However, when the culture is grown in association with E. heterophylla, total dry mass of culture + weed was smaller at 800 ppm. Soybean was more aggressive in comparison to the A. viridis in both the concentrations of CO2, but not in relation to the E. heterophylla.

Keywords: Plants interaction, increase of [CO2], plants of metabolism C3, Glycine max.

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4 Emissions of Euro 3-5 Passenger Cars Measured Over Different Driving Cycles

Authors: C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, D. J. Lopes, T. Nunes, A. Charron, M. Goriaux, P. Tassel, P. Perret

Abstract:

The reduction in vehicle exhaust emissions achieved in the last two decades is offset by the growth in traffic, as well as by changes in the composition of emitted pollutants. The present investigation illustrates the emissions of in-use gasoline and diesel passenger cars using the official European driving cycle and the ARTEMIS real-world driving cycle. It was observed that some of the vehicles do not comply with the corresponding regulations. Significant differences in emissions were observed between driving cycles. Not all pollutants showed a tendency to decrease from Euro 3 to Euro 5.

Keywords: Chassis dynamometer, driving cycles, emission factors, exhaust emissions, light-duty vehicles.

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3 Air Quality in Sports Venues with Distinct Characteristics

Authors: C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, A. Castro, R. Fraile, M. Evtyugina, E. F. Bate-Epey

Abstract:

In July 2012, an indoor/outdoor monitoring programme was undertaken in two university sports facilities: a fronton and a gymnasium. Comfort parameters (temperature, relative humidity, CO and CO2) and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continuously monitored. Concentrations of NO2, carbonyl compounds and individual VOCs were obtained. Low volume samplers were used to collect particulate matter (PM10). The minimum ventilation rates stipulated for acceptable indoor air quality were observed in both sports facilities. It was found that cleaning activities may have a large influence on the VOC levels. Acrolein was one of the most abundant carbonyl compounds, showing concentrations above the recommended limit. Formaldehyde was detected at levels lower than those commonly reported for other indoor environments. The PM10 concentrations obtained during the occupancy periods ranged between 38 and 43μgm-3 in the fronton and from 154 to 198μgm-3 in the gymnasium.

Keywords: Air exchange rates, carbonyls, gymnasiums, indoor air quality, PM10, VOCs.

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2 Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds from the Residential Combustion of Pyrenean Oak and Black Poplar

Authors: M. Evtyugina, C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, T. Nunes, L. Tarelho, M. Duarte, S. O. Prozil

Abstract:

Smoke from domestic wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments was performed to characterise the emissions from wood combustion in a fireplace and in a woodstove of two common species of trees grown in Spain: Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) and black poplar (Populus nigra). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust emissions were collected in Tedlar bags, re-sampled in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection. Pyrenean oak presented substantially higher emissions in the woodstove than in the fireplace, for the majority of compounds. The opposite was observed for poplar. Among the 45 identified species, benzene and benzenerelated compounds represent the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated VOCs and aliphatics. Emission factors obtained in this study are generally of the same order than those reported for residential experiments in the USA.

Keywords: Fireplace, VOC emissions, woodstove.

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1 Characterisation of Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Aerosols from Different European Sites

Authors: C. A. Alves, A. Vicente, M. Evtyugina, C. A. Pio, A. Hoffer, G. Kiss, S. Decesari, R. Hillamo, E.Swietlicki

Abstract:

The concentrations of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in atmospheric aerosol samples collected at a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a boreal forest (Hyytiälä,  April 2007) and a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008). A clear distinction between “clean" and “polluted" periods was observed. Concentrations obtained for Hyytiälä are significantly lower than those for the other two sites. Source reconciliation was performed using diagnostic parameters, such as the carbon preference index and ratios between PAH. The presence of an unresolved complex mixture of hydrocarbons, especially for the Finnish and Italian samples, is indicative of petrogenic inputs. In K-puszta, the aliphatic hydrocarbons are dominated by leaf wax n-alkanes. The long range transport of anthropogenic pollution contributed to the Finnish aerosol. Industrial activities and vehicular emissions represent major sources in San Pietro Capofiume. PAH in K-puszta consist of both pyrogenic and petrogenic compounds.

Keywords: Particulate matter, n-alkanes, PAH, BaPE, ruralsites, source reconciliation.

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