Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Publications

4 Hardness Variations as Affected by Bar Diameter of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: Hamad K. Al-Khalid, Ayman M. Alaskari, Samy E. Oraby

Abstract:

Hardness of the widely used structural steel is of vital importance since it may help in the determination of many mechanical properties of a material under loading situations. In order to obtain reliable information for design, properties homogeneity should be validated. In the current study the hardness variation over the different diameters of the same AISI 4140 bar is investigated. Measurements were taken on the two faces of the stock at equally spaced eight sectors and fifteen layers. Statistical and graphical analysis are performed to asses the distribution of hardness measurements over the specified area. Hardness measurements showed some degree of dispersion with about ± 10% of its nominal value provided by manufacturer. Hardness value is found to have a slight decrease trend as the diameter is reduced. However, an opposite behavior is noticed regarding the sequence of the sector indicating a nonuniform distribution over the same area either on the same face or considering the corresponding sector on the other face (cross section) of the same material bar.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Hardness, Hardness variation, AISI 4140 steel, Bardiameter

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3 Mathematical Modeling Experimental Approach of the Friction on the Tool-Chip Interface of Multicoated Carbide Turning Inserts

Authors: Samy E. Oraby, Ayman M. Alaskari

Abstract:

The importance of machining process in today-s industry requires the establishment of more practical approaches to clearly represent the intimate and severe contact on the tool-chipworkpiece interfaces. Mathematical models are developed using the measured force signals to relate each of the tool-chip friction components on the rake face to the operating cutting parameters in rough turning operation using multilayers coated carbide inserts. Nonlinear modeling proved to have high capability to detect the nonlinear functional variability embedded in the experimental data. While feedrate is found to be the most influential parameter on the friction coefficient and its related force components, both cutting speed and depth of cut are found to have slight influence. Greater deformed chip thickness is found to lower the value of friction coefficient as the sliding length on the tool-chip interface is reduced.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, cutting forces, Frictionforces, Friction coefficient and Chip ratio

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2 SEM and AFM Investigations of Surface Defects and Tool Wear of Multilayers Coated Carbide Inserts

Authors: Ayman M. Alaskari, Samy E. Oraby, Abdulla I. Almazrouee

Abstract:

Coated tool inserts can be considered as the backbone of machining processes due to their wear and heat resistance. However, defects of coating can degrade the integrity of these inserts and the number of these defects should be minimized or eliminated if possible. Recently, the advancement of coating processes and analytical tools open a new era for optimizing the coating tools. First, an overview is given regarding coating technology for cutting tool inserts. Testing techniques for coating layers properties, as well as the various coating defects and their assessment are also surveyed. Second, it is introduced an experimental approach to examine the possible coating defects and flaws of worn multicoated carbide inserts using two important techniques namely scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Finally, it is recommended a simple procedure for investigating manufacturing defects and flaws of worn inserts.

Keywords: Defects, SEM, AFM, Coated inserts

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1 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)Topographical Surface Characterization of Multilayer-Coated and Uncoated Carbide Inserts

Authors: Samy E. Oraby, Ayman M. Alaskari

Abstract:

In recent years, scanning probe atomic force microscopy SPM AFM has gained acceptance over a wide spectrum of research and science applications. Most fields focuses on physical, chemical, biological while less attention is devoted to manufacturing and machining aspects. The purpose of the current study is to assess the possible implementation of the SPM AFM features and its NanoScope software in general machining applications with special attention to the tribological aspects of cutting tool. The surface morphology of coated and uncoated as-received carbide inserts is examined, analyzed, and characterized through the determination of the appropriate scanning setting, the suitable data type imaging techniques and the most representative data analysis parameters using the MultiMode SPM AFM in contact mode. The NanoScope operating software is used to capture realtime three data types images: “Height", “Deflection" and “Friction". Three scan sizes are independently performed: 2, 6, and 12 μm with a 2.5 μm vertical range (Z). Offline mode analysis includes the determination of three functional topographical parameters: surface “Roughness", power spectral density “PSD" and “Section". The 12 μm scan size in association with “Height" imaging is found efficient to capture every tiny features and tribological aspects of the examined surface. Also, “Friction" analysis is found to produce a comprehensive explanation about the lateral characteristics of the scanned surface. Configuration of many surface defects and drawbacks has been precisely detected and analyzed.

Keywords: surface roughness, PSD, carbide inserts, surface defects, SPM AFM contact mode, scan size

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