Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

ZnO nanoparticles Related Abstracts

6 Antibacterial Property of ZnO Nanoparticles: Effect of Intrinsic Defects

Authors: Mrutyunjay Suar, Suresh Kumar Verma, Jugal Kishore Das, Ealisha Jha, SKS Parashar

Abstract:

In recent years nanoforms of inorganic metallic oxides has attracted a lot of interest due to their small size and significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties compared to their molecular precursor. Some of the inorganic materials such as TiO2, ZnO, MgO, CaO, Al2O3 have been extensively used in biological applications. Zinc Oxide is a Wurtzite-type semiconductor and piezo-electric material exhibiting excellent electrical, optical and chemical properties with a band energy gap of 3.1-3.4 eV. Nanoforms of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) are increasingly recognised for their utility in biological application. The significant physical parameters such as surface area, particle size, surface charge and Zeta potential of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles makes it suitable for the uptake, persistance, biological, and chemical activities inside the living cells. The present study shows the effect of intrinsic defects of ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by high energy ball milling (HEBM) technique in their antibacterial activities. Bulk Zinc oxide purchased from market were ball milled for 7 h, 10 h, and 15 h respectively to produce nanosized Zinc Oxide. The structural and optical modification of such synthesized particles were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antibacterial property of synthesized Zinc Oxide nanoparticles was tested using well diffusion, minimum inhibitory Concentration, minimum bacteriocidal concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) estimation and membrane potential determination methods. In this study we observed that antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles is because of the intrinsic defects that exist as a function of difference in size and milling time.

Keywords: EPR, high energy ball milling, ZnO nanoparticles, Antibacterial properties

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5 Properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Fish Protein Isolate/Fish Skin Gelatin Film Containing Basil Leaf Essential Oil and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasir Ali Arfat

Abstract:

Composite films based on fish protein isolate (FPI) and fish skin gelatin (FSG) blend incorporated with 50 and 100% (w/w, protein) basil leaf essential oil (BEO) in the absence and presence of 3% (w/w, protein) ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) were prepared and characterised. Tensile strength (TS) decreased, whilst elongation at break (EAB) increased as BEO level increased (p < 0.05). However, ZnONP addition resulted in higher TS but lower EAB (p < 0.05). The lowest water vapour permeability (WVP) was observed for the film incorporated with 100% BEO and 3% ZnONP (p < 0.05). BEO and ZnONP incorporation decreased transparency of FPI/FSG films (p < 0.05). FTIR spectra indicated that films added with BEO exhibited higher hydrophobicity. Both BEO and ZnONP had a marked impact on thermal stability of the films. Microstructural study revealed that presence of ZnONP prevented bilayer formation of film containing 100% BEO. FPI/FSG films incorporated with 100% BEO, especially in combination with ZnONP, exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and thus could be used as an active food packaging material to ensure safety and to extend the shelf-life of packaged foods.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, bionanocomposite, fish protein isolate, fish skin gelatin, basil essential oil, antimicrobial packaging

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4 A Study on ZnO Nanoparticles Properties: An Integration of Rietveld Method and First-Principles Calculation

Authors: Ahmad Azmin Mohamad, Kausar Harun

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has been extensively used in optoelectronic devices, with recent interest as photoanode material in dye-sensitize solar cell. Numerous methods employed to experimentally synthesized ZnO, while some are theoretically-modeled. Both approaches provide information on ZnO properties, but theoretical calculation proved to be more accurate and timely effective. Thus, integration between these two methods is essential to intimately resemble the properties of synthesized ZnO. In this study, experimentally-grown ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel storage method with zinc acetate dihydrate and methanol as precursor and solvent. A 1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was used as stabilizer. The optimum time to produce ZnO nanoparticles were recorded as 12 hours. Phase and structural analysis showed that single phase ZnO produced with wurtzite hexagonal structure. Further work on quantitative analysis was done via Rietveld-refinement method to obtain structural and crystallite parameter such as lattice dimensions, space group, and atomic coordination. The lattice dimensions were a=b=3.2498Å and c=5.2068Å which were later used as main input in first-principles calculations. By applying density-functional theory (DFT) embedded in CASTEP computer code, the structure of synthesized ZnO was built and optimized using several exchange-correlation functionals. The generalized-gradient approximation functional with Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and Hubbard U corrections (GGA-PBE+U) showed the structure with lowest energy and lattice deviations. In this study, emphasize also given to the modification of valence electron energy level to overcome the underestimation in DFT calculation. Both Zn and O valance energy were fixed at Ud=8.3 eV and Up=7.3 eV, respectively. Hence, the following electronic and optical properties of synthesized ZnO were calculated based on GGA-PBE+U functional within ultrasoft-pseudopotential method. In conclusion, the incorporation of Rietveld analysis into first-principles calculation was valid as the resulting properties were comparable with those reported in literature. The time taken to evaluate certain properties via physical testing was then eliminated as the simulation could be done through computational method.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory, first-principles, ZnO nanoparticles, Rietveld-refinement

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3 Generation of ZnO-Au Nanocomposite in Water Using Pulsed Laser Irradiation

Authors: Davoud Dorranian, Elmira Solati, Atousa Mehrani

Abstract:

Generation of ZnO-Au nanocomposite under laser irradiation of a mixture of the ZnO and Au colloidal suspensions are experimentally investigated. In this work, firstly ZnO and Au nanoparticles are prepared by pulsed laser ablation of the corresponding metals in water using the 1064 nm wavelength of Nd:YAG laser. In a second step, the produced ZnO and Au colloidal suspensions were mixed in different volumetric ratio and irradiated using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm wavelength. The changes in the size of the nanostructure and optical properties of the ZnO-Au nanocomposite are studied as a function of the volumetric ratio of ZnO and Au colloidal suspensions. The crystalline structure of the ZnO-Au nanocomposites was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties of the samples were examined at room temperature by a UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was done by placing a drop of the concentrated suspension on a carbon-coated copper grid. To further confirm the morphology of ZnO-Au nanocomposites, we performed Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO-Au nanocomposites was measured to characterize the luminescence properties of the ZnO-Au nanocomposites. The ZnO-Au nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the ZnO-Au nanocomposites had the polycrystalline structure of Au. The behavior observed by images of transmission electron microscope reveals that soldering of Au and ZnO nanoparticles include their adhesion. The plasmon peak in ZnO-Au nanocomposites was red-shifted and broadened in comparison with pure Au nanoparticles. By using the Tauc’s equation, the band gap energy for ZnO-Au nanocomposites is calculated to be 3.15–3.27 eV. In this work, the formation of ZnO-Au nanocomposites shifts the FTIR peak of metal oxide bands to higher wavenumbers. PL spectra of the ZnO-Au nanocomposites show that several weak peaks in the ultraviolet region and several relatively strong peaks in the visible region. SEM image indicates that the morphology of ZnO-Au nanocomposites produced in water was spherical. The TEM images of ZnO-Au nanocomposites demonstrate that with increasing the volumetric ratio of Au colloidal suspension the adhesion increased. According to the size distribution graphs of ZnO-Au nanocomposites with increasing the volumetric ratio of Au colloidal suspension the amount of ZnO-Au nanocomposites with the smaller size is further.

Keywords: pulsed laser ablation, ZnO nanoparticles, Au nanoparticles, ZnO-Au nanocomposites

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2 Low Temperature PVP Capping Agent Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method and Their Properties

Authors: V. P. Muhamed Shajudheen, K. Viswanathan, K. Anitha Rani, A. Uma Maheswari, S. Saravana Kumar

Abstract:

We are reporting a simple and low-cost chemical precipitation method adopted to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was applied on the dried gel sample to record the phase transformation temperature of zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 to zinc oxide (ZnO) to obtain the annealing temperature of 800C. The thermal, structure, morphology and optical properties have been employed by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). X-ray diffraction results confirmed the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO nanoparticles. The two intensive peaks at 160 and 432 cm-1 in the Raman Spectrum are mainly attributed to the first order modes of the wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. The energy band gap obtained from the UV-Vis absorption spectra, shows a blue shift, which is attributed to increase in carrier concentration (Burstein Moss Effect). Photoluminescence studies of the single crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, show a strong peak centered at 385 nm, corresponding to the near band edge emission in ultraviolet range. The mixed shape of grapes, sphere, hexagonal and rock like structure has been noticed in FESEM. The results showed that PVP is a suitable capping agent for the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles by simple chemical precipitation method.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, ZnO nanoparticles, simple chemical precipitation route, mixed shape morphology, UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infra-Red spectroscopy

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1 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy

Abstract:

The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Photoluminescence, mesoporous silica, ZnO nanoparticles

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