Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

zirconia Related Abstracts

9 Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase

Authors: Rafaela Santos, Júlio Matias de Souza, Filipe Silva, Rubens Nascimento, Márcio Fredel, Buno Henriques

Abstract:

Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test, Vickers indentations and fracture toughness. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical and wear results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 particles.

Keywords: Composites, Strengthening, Wear, porcelain, toughening, dental restoration, zirconia

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8 Comparison of the Effect of Feldspathic Porcelain and Zirconia on Natural Tooth Wear

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Elham Hamidi Shishavan

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Enamel wear is among the main disadvantages of ceramic restorations. Recently, use of full zirconia crowns without dental porcelain has been suggested. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feldspathic porcelain and zirconia on the wear of natural teeth. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 22 zirconia specimens were fabricated; out of which, 11 specimens were polished and used as zirconia specimens while the remaining 11 were used to fabricate porcelain specimens. A total of 22 natural human teeth were also collected. The natural teeth were photographed by a stereomicroscope in a fixed position and the distance from the cusp tip to a reference point was measured. Next, 11 teeth opposed zirconia and the remaining 11 opposed porcelain specimens in a chewing simulator and subjected to 120,000 masticatory cycles. The teeth were photographed again and the greatest difference between the before and after values was recorded. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) wear rate was 153.8±95.68 and 306.3±127.74, in the zirconia and porcelain groups, respectively; and the two groups had a statistically significant difference in this respect (P=0.007). Conclusion: The mean wear was significantly lower in teeth opposing zirconia than in those opposing feldspathic porcelain.

Keywords: effect, zirconia, natural tooth wear, feldspathic porcelain

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7 Fabrication of Wollastonite/Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Zirconia by Room Temperature Spray Process

Authors: Jaehong Kim, Jong Kook Lee, Sangcheol Eum

Abstract:

Wollastonite/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on zirconia were obtained by room temperature spray process. Wollastonite powder was synthesized by solid-state reaction between calcite and silica powder. Hydroxyapatite powder was prepared from bovine bone by the calcination at 1200oC 1h. From two starting raw powders, three kinds of powder mixture were obtained by the ball milling for 24h. By using these powders, wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coatings were fabricated on zirconia substrates by a room temperature spray process, and their microstructure and biological behavior were investigated and compared with pure wollastonite and hydroxyapatite coatings. Wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coatings on zirconia substrates were homogeneously formed in microstructure and had a nanoscaled grain size. The phase composition of the resultant wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coatings was similar to that of the starting powders, however, the grain size of the wollastonite or hydroxyapatite particles was reduced to about 100 nm due to their formation by particle impaction and fracture. The wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coating layer exhibited bioactivity in a stimulated body fluid and forming ability of new hydroxyapatite precipitates of 25 nm during in vitro test in SBF solution, which was enhanced by the increasing wollastonite content.

Keywords: zirconia, wollastonite, hydroxyapatite composite coatings, room temperature spay process

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6 Vapor Phase Transesterification of Dimethyl Malonate with Phenol over Cordierite Honeycomb Coated with Zirconia and Its Modified Forms

Authors: Prathap S. Raghavendra, Mohamed S. Z. Shamshuddin, Thimmaraju N. Venkatesh

Abstract:

The transesterification of dimethyl malonate (DMM) with phenol has been studied in vapour phase over cordierite honeycomb coated with solid acid catalysts such as ZrO2,Mo(VI)/ZrO2 and SO42-/ZrO2. The catalytic materials were prepared honeycomb coated and powder forms and characterized for their total surface acidity by NH3-TPD and crystalinity by powder XRD methods. Phenyl methyl malonate (PMM) and diphenyl malonate (DPM) were obtained as the reaction products. A good conversion of DMM (up to 82%) of MPM with 95% selectivity was observed when the reactions were carried out at a catalyst bed temperature of 200 °C and flow-rate of 10 mL/h in presence of Mo(VI)/ZrO2 as catalyst. But over SO42-/ZrO2 catalyst, the yield of DPM was found to be higher. The results have been interpreted based on the variation of acidic properties and powder XRD phases of zirconia on incorporation of Mo(VI) or SO42– ions. Transesterification reactions were also carried out over powder forms of the catalytic materials and the yield of the desired phenyl ester products were compared with that of the HC coated catalytic materials. The solid acids were found to be reusable when used for at least 5 reaction cycles.

Keywords: zirconia, cordierite honeycomb, methyl phenyl malonate, vapour phase transesterification

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5 Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts

Authors: Thirasak Rirksomboon, Panumard Kaewmora, Vissanu Meeyoo

Abstract:

Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.

Keywords: Microwave, Steam reforming, Nickel, zirconia, ceria, acetic acid

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4 Effect of Primer on Bonding between Resin Cement and Zirconia Ceramic

Authors: Deog-Gyu Seo, Jin-Soo Ahn

Abstract:

Objectives: Recently, the development of adhesive primers on stable bonding between zirconia and resin cement has been on the increase. The bond strength of zirconia-resin cement can be effectively increased with the treatment of primer composed of the adhesive monomer that can chemically bond with the oxide layer, which forms on the surface of zirconia. 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) that contains phosphate ester and acidic monomer 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride(4-META) have been suggested as monomers that can form chemical bond with the surface oxide layer of zirconia. Also, these suggested monomers have proved to be effective zirconia surface treatment for bonding to resin cement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of primer treatment on the bond strength of Zirconia-resin cement by using three different kinds of primers on the market. Methods: Zirconia blocks were prepared into 60 disk-shaped specimens by using a diamond saw. Specimens were divided into four different groups: first three groups were treated with zirconiaLiner(Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Furutaka-cho, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan), Alloy primer (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Sakaju, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), and Universal primer (Tokuyama dental Corp., Taitou, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) respectively. The last group was the control with no surface treatment. Dual cured resin cement (Biscem, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) was luted to each group of specimens. And then, shear bond strengths were measured by universal tesing machine. The significance of the result was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The failure sites in each group were inspected under a magnifier. Results: Mean shear bond strength were 0.60, 1.39, 1.03, 1.38 MPa for control, Zirconia Liner (ZL), Alloy primer (AP), Universal primer (UP), respectively. Groups with application of each of the three primers showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Among the three groups with the treatment, ZL and UP showed significantly higher shear bond strength than AP (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength between ZL and UP (p < 0.05). While the most specimens of control groups showed adhesive failure (80%), the most specimens of three primer-treated groups showed cohesive or mixed failure (80%).

Keywords: zirconia, primer, resin cement, shear bond strength

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3 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Jong Kook Lee, Hyeongdo Jeong

Abstract:

Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: spray drying, zirconia, granulation, solid content

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2 Fabrication of Highly Roughened Zirconia Surface by a Room Temperature Spray Coating

Authors: Jong Kook Lee, Hyeong-Jin Kim

Abstract:

Zirconia has biological, mechanical and optical properties, so, it used as a dental implant material in human body. But, it is difficult to form directly bonding with living tissues after the procedure and induces the falling away from implanted parts of the body. To improve this phenomenon, it is essential to increase the surface roughness of zirconia implants and induce a forming-ability of strong bonds. In this study, we performed a room temperature spray coating on zirconia specimen to obtain a highly roughened zirconia surface. To get optimal surface roughness, we controlled the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, coating times and powder condition. Bonding microstructure, surface roughness, and chemical composition of the coating layer were observed by SEM, XRD and roughness tester.

Keywords: Dental, implant, zirconia, aerosoldeposition

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1 Temporal Change in Bonding Strength and Antimicrobial Effect of a Zirconia after Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment

Authors: Chan Park, Sang-Won Park, Kwi-Dug Yun, Hyun-Pil Lim

Abstract:

Purpose: Plasma treatment under various conditions has been studied to increase the bonding strength and surface sterilization of dental ceramic materials. We assessed the evolution of the shear bond strength (SBS) and antimicrobial effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment over time. Methods: Presintered zirconia specimens were manufactured as discs (diameter: 15 mm, height: 2 mm) after final sintering. The specimens then received a 30-min treatment with argon gas (Ar², 99.999%; 10 L/min) using an NTAPP device. Five post-treatment intervals were evaluated: control (no treatment), P0 (within 1 h), P1 (24 h), P2 (48 h), and P3 (72 h). This study investigated the surface characteristics, SBS of two different resin cement (RelyXTM U200 self-adhesive resin cement, Panavia F2.0 methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement), and Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Results: The SBS of RelyXTM U200 increased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days following plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2). For Panavia F 2.0, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was detected only in the group that had undergone cementation immediately after plasma treatment (P0). S. mutans adhesion decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days of plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2) compared to the control group. The P0 group displayed a lower biofilm thickness than the P1 and P2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: After NTAPP treatment of zirconia, the effects on bonding strength and antimicrobial growth persist for a limited duration. The effect of NTAPP treatment on bonding strength depends on the resin cement.

Keywords: antimicrobial effect, zirconia, SBS, NTAPP

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