Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

zinc Related Abstracts

48 Determination of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Different Cigarette Brands in Yemen by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Ali A. Mutair


The concentration levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different cigarette brands commonly produced and sold in Yemen were determined. Convenient sample treatment for cigarette tobacco of freshly opened packs was achieved by a sample preparation method based on dry digestion, and the concentrations of the analysed metals were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The mean values obtained for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in different Yemeni cigarette tobacco were 311, 52.2, 10.11, 1.71 and 4.06 µg/g dry weight, respectively. There is no more significant difference among cigarette brands tested. It was found that Fe was at the highest concentration, followed by Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.77% to 19.34%. The accuracy and precision of the results were checked by blank and recovery tests. The results show that Yemeni cigarettes contain heavy metal concentration levels that are similar to those in foreign cigarette brands reported by other studies in the worldwide.

Keywords: Tobacco, Iron, Copper, cadmium, zinc, lead, Yemeni cigarette brands, atomic absorption spectrometry

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47 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Salman, Mustafa Midilli, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci


This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: Performance, Phosphorus, broiler, phytase, zinc

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46 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid


This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: Experimental diabetes, rats, Oxidative Stress, zinc, vitamin C

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45 Zinc Contaminate on Urban Roadside in Rush Hour, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In


This research aims to study the Zinc (Zn) concentration in fine particulate matter on Rajchawithee roadside in rush hour. 30 Samples were collected in Jun to August 2013 by 8 stage non-avaible cascade impactor. Each samples (filter paper) were digest with nitric acid and analyed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zinc determination. The highest value for the mean fraction (18.00 ± 9.28 %) is the size 9.0 – 110.0 micron follow by the range 3.3 – 4.7 micron (14.77 ± 14.66 %) and 1.1 – 2.1 micron (14.01 ± 11.77 %) .The concentration of Zn in the particulate matter of range 0.43 – 0.7 μm, 0.7 – 1.1 μm, 1.1 – 2.1 μm, 2.1 – 3.3 μm, 3.3 – 4.7 μm, 4.7 – 5.8 μm, 5.8 – 9.0 μm, 9.0 – 10.0 μm, were 41.56 – 217.62 μg/m3 (175.86 ± 32.25 μg/m3), 152.60 – 217.24 μg/m3 (187.71 ± 17.42 μg/m3), 142.90 – 214.67 μg/m3 (180.95 ± 18.71 μg/m3), 155.48 – 218.19 μg/m3 (183.22 ± 19.94 μg/m3), 151.72 – 217.39 μg/m3 (181.85 ± 17.57 μg/m3), 133.86 – 220.17 μg/m3 (178.78 ± 23.45 μg/m3), 160.00 – 220.35 μg/m3 (182.58 ± 18.08 μg/m3), 153.30 – 226.70 μg/m3 (181.52 ± 20.05 μg/m3), repectively. The Zn concentration in each size of particulate matter was not statistically significant different (p > .005)

Keywords: Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, zinc, size distribution

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44 Role of Zinc in Catch-Up Growth of Low-Birth Weight Neonates

Authors: M. A. Abdel-Wahed, Nayera Elmorsi Hassan, Safaa Shafik Imam, Ola G. El-Farghali, Khadija M. Alian


Low-birth-weight is a challenging public health problem. Aim: to clarify role of zinc on enhancing catch-up growth of low-birth-weight and find out a proposed relationship between zinc effect on growth and the main growth hormone mediator, IGF-1. Methods: Study is a double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled trial conducted on low-birth-weight-neonates delivered at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. It comprised 200 Low-birth-weight-neonates selected from those admitted to NICU. Neonates were randomly allocated into one of the following two groups: group I: low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on oral zinc therapy at dose of 10 mg/day; group II: Low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on placebo. Anthropometric measurements were taken including birth weight, length; head, waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps and sub-scapular skin-fold thicknesses. Results: At 12-month-old follow-up visit, mean weight, length; head (HC), waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps; also, infant’s proportions had values ≥ 10th percentile for weight, length and HC were significantly higher among infants of group I when compared to those of group II. Oral zinc therapy was associated with 24.88%, 25.98% and 19.6% higher proportion of values ≥ 10th percentile regarding weight, length and HC at 12-month-old visit, respectively [NNT = 4, 4 and 5, respectively]. Median IGF-1 levels measured at 6 months were significantly higher in group I compared to group II (median (range): 90 (19 – 130) ng/ml vs. 74 (21 – 130) ng/ml, respectively, p=0.023). Conclusion: Oral zinc therapy in low-birth-weight neonates was associated with significantly more catch-up growth at 12-months-old and significantly higher serum IGF-1 at 6-month-old.

Keywords: neonates, zinc, low-birth-weight, catch-up growth

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43 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit


Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: rats, Nickel, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, zinc, GOT, GPT

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42 Antioxidants Reveal Protection against the Biochemical Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Blood Profiles after Clindamycin/Ibuprofen Administration in Dental Patients

Authors: Marwa I. Shabayek, Heba A. Awida, Gouda K. Helal, Heba A. El-Ramly


The adverse effects of Clindamycin (Clind.) / Ibuprofen (Ibu.) combination on liver, kidney, blood elements and the significances of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and Zinc) against these effects were evaluated. The study includes: Group I; control n=30, Group II; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg twice daily for a week n=30, Group III; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+N-acetylcysteine 200mg twice daily for a week n=15 and Group IV; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Zinc50mg twice daily for a week n=15. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Applying one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey Kramer post test, Group II showed significant increase in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and decrease in Hb, RBCs, platelets than Group I. Group III showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN than Group II. Moreover, Group IV showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and increase in Hb, RBCs, and platelets than Group II. Conclusively, Adding Zinc or N-acetylcysteine buffer the oxidative stress and improve the therapeutic outcome of Clindamycin/Ibuprofen combination.

Keywords: Adverse Effects, antioxidant, zinc, clindamycin, ibuprofen, N-acetylcysteine

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41 The Effect of Double Fortification of Iron and Zinc of Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Growth of Rat

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Endri Yuliati, Narendra Yoga Hendarta, Moh. Darussalam, Maharani Jibbriella, Fauziah Oktavira Hayati Fakhruddin, Faisal Hanin


Background: Both of iron and zinc has vital role in growth. The prebiotics fermentation by probiotics lower the acidity of intestine thus increase mineral absorption. Objective: To know the effect of double fortification of synbiotic fermented milk on growth. Methods: An Indonesian local isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used in making synbiotic fermented milk. It, then was double fortified with 100 ppm Fe and 50 ppm Zn. A total of 15 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and given: synbiotic fermented milk (CO), synbiotic fermented milk with NaFeEDTA and Zn acetate (NZ) and synbiotic fermented milk with Fe gluconate and Zn acetate (FZ) every day for one month. Body weight and body length were measured before, every week and after intervention. Results: Body weight and body length were similar at baseline among three groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed similar growth after intervention, from 62,40 + 6,1 to 109,0 + 9,0; 62,0 + 7,9 to 110,3 + 14,2; and 64,40 + 4,7 to 115,1 + 7,7 g for CO, NZ, and FZ, respectively (p > 0.05). The body length after intervention was also similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Fortification of iron and zinc did not modify effect of synbiotic fermented milk on growth.

Keywords: Growth, Probiotics, Prebiotics, Iron, zinc

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40 Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals by Phragmites Australis at Oeud Meboudja Annaba Algeria

Authors: Berrebbah Houria, Kleche Myriam, Ziane Nadia, Djebar Mohammed Reda


The Phytoremediation has now become a necessity. Thus, in our work, we are interested in the biological wastewater treatment of Oued Meboudja. The physicochemical analysis of water after treatment showed a significant reduction of suspended matter, COD and BOD5 and rate of metals in roots for example iron and zinc. We also highlighted some significant changes in biometric and physiological parameters such as increasing the number of roots and increased respiratory metabolism through the oxygen consumption in isolated roots of Phragmites australis, placed in a polluted environment.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Iron, Roots, zinc, phragmites australis

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39 Effect of Organic Zinc in Supplement Diet on Some Reproryductive Hormones and Fertility in Laboratory Mice

Authors: Azade Sedigh, Mehrdad Modaresi, Akbar Pirestani


Appropriate nutrition is necessary today for desire reproduction and profitable livestock industry. Minerals including zinc element are from nutritional factors. Studies show that zinc plays an important role in reproduction process and secretion of reproductive hormones. This study was carried out to determine the effects of organic zinc on some reproductive hormones, fertility of male mice. The study was done as completely randomized design with one control and six treatment groups. Seventy male mature mice were kept for 35 days to adapt to environment and then divided in seven groups with ten replications. Samples received zinc (organic) daily in 50,100, and 150 ppm doses of each type for 35 days. At the end, blood samples were taken to measure LH, FSH, and testosterone hormones. Meanwhile, fertility rates were measured. Results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and means were compared using Duncan multiple ranges test at 5% probability level. According to results, LH concentration of all groups except 50 ppm was increased significantly (p<0.05). FSH amount was increased significantly (p<0.05) in 100 ppm mineral group and reduced in 50 ppm mineral but was not changed in other groups.

Keywords: Reproductive Hormones, Fertility, zinc, organic supplements

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38 Treatment of a Galvanization Wastewater in a Fixed-Bed Column Using L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata Macroalgae as Natural Cation Exchangers

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Maria A. P. Cechinel, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar.


Two brown macroalgae, Laminaria hyperborea and Pelvetia canaliculata, were employed as natural cation exchangers in a fixed-bed column for Zn(II) removal from a galvanization wastewater. The column (4.8 cm internal diameter) was packed with 30-59 g of previously hydrated algae up to a bed height of 17-27 cm. The wastewater or eluent was percolated using a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The effluent used in each experiment presented similar characteristics: pH of 6.7, 55 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand and about 300, 44, 186 and 244 mg/L of sodium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions, respectively. The main difference was nitrate concentration: 20 mg/L for the effluent used with L. hyperborean and 341 mg/L for the effluent used with P. canaliculata. The inlet zinc concentration also differed slightly: 11.2 mg/L for L. hyperborean and 8.9 mg/L for P. canaliculata experiments. The breakthrough time was approximately 22.5 hours for both macroalgae, corresponding to a service capacity of 43 bed volumes. This indicates that 30 g of biomass is able to treat 13.5 L of the galvanization wastewater. The uptake capacities at the saturation point were similar to that obtained in batch studies (unpublished data) for both algae. After column exhaustion, desorption with 0.1 M HNO3 was performed. Desorption using 9 and 8 bed volumes of eluent achieved an efficiency of 100 and 91%, respectively for L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata. After elution with nitric acid, the column was regenerated using different strategies: i) convert all the binding sites in the sodium form, by passing a solution of 0.5 M NaCl, until achieve a final pH of 6.0; ii) passing only tap water in order to increase the solution pH inside the column until pH 3.0, and in this case the second sorption cycle was performed using protonated algae. In the first approach, in order to remove the excess of salt inside the column, distilled water was passed through the column, leading to the algae structure destruction and the column collapsed. Using the second approach, the algae remained intact during three consecutive sorption/desorption cycles without loss of performance.

Keywords: zinc, biosorption, galvanization wastewater, packed-bed column

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37 Brown Macroalgae L. hyperborea as Natural Cation Exchanger and Electron Donor for the Treatment of a Zinc and Hexavalent Chromium Containing Galvanization Wastewater

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


The electroplating industry requires a lot of process water, which generates a large volume of wastewater loaded with heavy metals. Two different wastewaters were collected in a company’s wastewater treatment plant, one after the use of zinc in the metal plating process and the other after the use of chromium. The main characteristics of the Zn(II) and Cr(VI) wastewaters are: pH = 6.7/5.9; chemical oxygen demand = 55/<5 mg/L; sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions concentrations of 326/28, 4/28, 11/7 and 46/37 mg/L, respectively; zinc(II) = 11 mg/L and Cr(VI) = 39 mg/L. Batch studies showed that L. hyperborea can be established as a natural cation exchanger for heavy metals uptake mainly due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in the surface of the biomass. Beyond that, L. hyperborea can be used as a natural electron donor for hexavalent chromium reduction to trivalent chromium at acidic medium through the oxidation of the biomass, and Cr(III) can be further bound to the negatively charged functional groups. The uptake capacity of Cr(III) by the oxidized biomass after Cr(VI) reduction was higher than by the algae in its original form. This can be attributed to the oxidation of the biomass during Cr(VI) reduction, turning other active sites available for Cr(III) binding. The brown macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea was packed in a fixed-bed column in order to evaluate the feasibility of the system for the continuous treatment of the two galvanization wastewaters. The column, with an internal diameter of 4.8 cm, was packed with 59 g of algae up to a bed height of 27 cm. The operation strategy adopted for the treatment of the two wastewaters consisted in: i) treatment of the Zn(II) wastewater in the first sorption cycle; ii) desorption of pre-loaded Zn(II) using an 1.0 M HCl solution; iii) treatment of the Cr(VI) wastewater, taking advantage of the acidic conditions of the column after the desorption cycle, for the reduction of the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), in the presence of the electrons resulting from the biomass oxidation. This cycle ends when all the oxidizing groups are used.

Keywords: Chromium, zinc, biosorption, brown marine macroalgae

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36 Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Grifoni, A. Pera


The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: Pathogens, Sanitation, Copper, zinc, biological sludge, Ca(OH)2

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35 Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, Maha Mohamed Hady Ali


Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.

Keywords: Iron, Copper, Selenium, Egypt, camel, zinc, feed stuff

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34 Impact of Zinc on Heavy Metals Content, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Faba Bean in Milk Ripeness

Authors: M. Timoracká, A. Vollmannová., D.S. Ismael, J. Musilová


We investigated the effect of targeted contaminated soil by Zn model conditions. The soil used in the pot trial was uncontaminated. Faba beans (cvs Saturn, Zobor) were harvested in milk ripeness. With increased doses applied into the soil the strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and Zn amount in seeds of both of faba bean cultivars was confirmed. Despite the high Zn doses applied into the soil in model conditions, in all variants the determined Zn amount in faba bean cv. Saturn was just below the maximal allowed content in foodstuffs given by the legislative. In cv. Zobor the determined Zn content was higher than maximal allowed amount (by 2% and 12%, respectively). Faba bean cvs. Saturn and Zobor accumulated (in all variants higher than hygienic limits) high amounts of Pb and Cd. The contents of all other heavy metals were lower than hygienic limits. With increased Zn doses applied into the soil the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity determined in seeds of both cultivars Saturn and Zobor were increased. The strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity in seeds of faba bean cultivars was confirmed.

Keywords: polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity, zinc, faba bean

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33 Acute Toxic Effects of Zn(SO4) on Gill and Liver Tissues of Fresh Water Catfish Clarias batrachus (L.)

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Muneesh Kumar, Sangeeta Devi


Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Zn(SO4) toxicity on gill and liver tissues of catfish (Clarias batrachus) within the period of 96 h. Totally, 140 fishes with mean weight 50±10 g were stocked in 12 aquariums with capacity of 200 L water and divided in to 3 trails including control, 4 ppm and 8 ppm of Zn with 3 replicates. Tissue samples were fixed by bouin’s solution and sectioned in 7 μm based on histological regular method and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) method for microscopic study within the period of 96 h. Results showed some damaged such as hyperplasia, telangiectasis and edema, necrosis of second filaments, jerky movement, aneurism, hyperemia and fusion of second filaments in gills; and cell atrophy, necrosis, fatty degeneration, hyperemia and bile stagnation at different treatments in comparison with control. Gill and liver tissue damages were severed with the increase of Zn concentration and days. Therefore, Zn had acute toxicity effects on gill and liver tissues in Catfish at 5 and 10 ppm concentrations.

Keywords: Liver, Histopathology, zinc, gill, Clarias batrachus

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32 Concurrent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Lactating Mothers and Their Infants 6-23 Months of Age in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Rural Ethiopia

Authors: Tefera Belachew, Kedir Teji Roba, Thomas P. O’Connor, Nora M. O’Brien


Micronutrient deficiencies of ferritin, zinc and haemoglobin are prevalent among the mothers and their infants in developing countries. But little attention has been given to these vulnerable groups. No study has been done on co-existence of the deficiencies among lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants in two different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected from 162 lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants (aged 6-23 months) who were living in two different agro-ecological zones. The data were collected via a structured interview, anthropometric measurements, and blood test for Zinc, ferritin and anaemia. Correlation and Chi square test were used to determine the association among nutritional status and agro ecological zones. Results: Iron deficiency was found in 44.4% of the infants and 19.8% of the mothers. Zinc deficiency was found in 72.2% of the infants and 67.3% of the mothers. Of the study subject 52.5% of the infants and 19.1% of the mothers were anaemic, and 29.6% of the infants and 10.5% of the mothers had iron deficiency anaemia. Among the mothers with iron deficiency, 81.2% and 56.2% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron respectively. Similarly, among the zinc deficient mothers, 75.2% and 45.3% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron. There was a strong correlation between the micronutrient status of the mothers and the infants on status of ferritin, zinc and anaemia (P < 0.001). There is also statistically significant association between micronutrient deficiency and agro-ecological zones among the mothers (p < 0.001) but not with their infants. Deficiency in one, two, or three, micronutrients was observed in 48.1%, 16.7% and 9.9% of the mothers and 35.8%, 29.0%, and 23.5%, of their infants respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that iron and zinc deficiencies are the prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among the lactating mothers and their infants, with variation of the magnitude across the agro-ecological zones. This finding calls for a need to design effective preventive public health nutrition programs to address both the mothers’ and their infants’ needs.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Agroecology, zinc, anaemia, ferritin/iron

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31 Removal of Nickel and Zinc Ions from Aqueous Solution by Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide Functionalized Glycine

Authors: M. Rajabi, O. Moradi


In this study, removal of Nickel and Zinc by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces was examined. Amino group was added to surface of graphene oxide to produced functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin. Effect of contact time and initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions were studied. Results showed that with increase of initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity was increased. After 50 min has not a large change at adsorption capacity therefore, 50 min was selected as optimaze time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy spectra used for the analysis confirmed the successful fictionalization of the Graphene oxide surface. Adsorption experiments of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces fixed at 298 K and pH=6. The Pseudo Firs-order and the Pseudo Second-order (types I, II, III and IV) kinetic models were tested for adsorption process and results showed that the kinetic parameters best fits with to type (I) of pseudo-second-order model because presented low X2 values and also high R2 values.

Keywords: Adsorption, Graphene Oxide, Nickel, zinc, kinetic, gelaycin

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30 Nanoparticle Based Green Inhibitor for Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Acidic Medium

Authors: Neha Parekh, Divya Ladha, Poonam Wadhwani, Nisha Shah


Nano scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion inhibitor due to their high surface area on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. This work presents a new method to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles with white sesame seeds extract (nano-green inhibitor) for corrosion protection of zinc in acidic medium. The morphology of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor was determined by Gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Gravimetric measurements suggested that nano-green inhibitor is more effective than green inhibitor. Furthermore, with the increasing temperature, inhibition efficiency increases for both the inhibitors. In addition, it was established the Temkin adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data for both the inhibitors. The effect of temperature and Temkin adsorption isotherm revealed Chemisorption mechanism occurring in the system. The activation energy (Ea) and other thermodynamic parameters for inhibition process were calculated. The data of EIS showed that the charge transfer controls the corrosion process. The surface morphology of zinc metal (specimen) in absence and presence of green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The outcomes indicated a formation of a protective layer over zinc metal (specimen).

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Corrosion, zinc, green inhibitor

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29 The Influence of Zinc Applications from Soil and Foliar at Different Levels on Some Quality Characteristics of Sultana Raisins

Authors: Aydın Akın, Harun Çoban


In this study, the effects of different dose zinc application from soil and foliar on drying yield and some quality characters of raisins ‘Sultana’ were investigated. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications, zinc treatment was used at one time (before pre- bloom) and from foliar in three times (pre-bloom, fruit set, and veraison). At harvest, both soil and foliar zinc sulphate applications increased the amount of fresh grapes per vine. Fresh grapes were dried on the drying place. However, the most efficient applications for drying yield and quality of raisins were observed from foliar. Therefore, it was preferred that foliar application dosage level at 0.10 %.

Keywords: zinc, raisins, soil application, foliar application, sultana, expertise value

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28 Antimicrobial Properties of SEBS Compounds with Zinc Oxide and Zinc Ions

Authors: Douglas N. Simões, Michele Pittol, Vanda F. Ribeiro, Daiane Tomacheski, Ruth M. C. Santana


The increasing demand of thermoplastic elastomers is related to the wide range of applications, such as automotive, footwear, wire and cable industries, adhesives and medical devices, cell phones, sporting goods, toys and others. These materials are susceptible to microbial attack. Moisture and organic matter present in some areas (such as shower area and sink), provide favorable conditions for microbial proliferation, which contributes to the spread of diseases and reduces the product life cycle. Compounds based on SEBS copolymers, poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene, are a class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), fully recyclable and largely used in domestic appliances like bath mats and tooth brushes (soft touch). Zinc oxide and zinc ions loaded in personal and home care products have become common in the last years due to its biocidal effect. In that sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc as antimicrobial agent in compounds based on SEBS/polypropylene/oil/ calcite for use as refrigerator seals (gaskets), bath mats and sink squeegee. Two zinc oxides from different suppliers (ZnO-Pe and ZnO-WR) and one masterbatch of zinc ions (M-Zn-ion) were used in proportions of 0%, 1%, 3% and 5%. The compounds were prepared using a co-rotating double screw extruder (L/D ratio of 40/1 and 16 mm screw diameter). The extrusion parameters were kept constant for all materials. Tests specimens were prepared using the injection molding machine. A compound with no antimicrobial additive (standard) was also tested. Compounds were characterized by physical (density), mechanical (hardness and tensile properties) and rheological properties (melt flow rate - MFR). The Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) Z 2801:2010 was applied to evaluate antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT) NBR 15275:2014 were used to evaluate antifungal properties against Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans), Candida albicans (C. albicans), and Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum). The microbiological assay showed a reduction over 42% in E. coli and over 49% in S. aureus population. The tests with fungi showed inconclusive results because the sample without zinc also demonstrated an inhibition of fungal development when tested against A. pullulans, C. albicans and P. chrysogenum. In addition, the zinc loaded samples showed worse results than the standard sample when tested against A. niger. The zinc addition did not show significant variation in mechanical properties. However, the density values increased with the rise in ZnO additives concentration, and had a little decrease in M-Zn-ion samples. Also, there were differences in the MFR results in all compounds compared to the standard.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, zinc, SEBS, home device

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27 The Effect of Taking Heavy Metal on Gastrointestinal Peptides

Authors: Nurgül Şenol, Melda Azman


In this study, the rate of release of gastrointestinal peptides heavy metal compounds applied to a certain extent (gastrin/CCK) on immunohistochemical aimed to determine the effect. This study was supported by TÜBİTAK. Subjects were randomly grouped into three. Group I; iron (Fe), Group II; zinc (Zn), Group III; control; gavage technique was applied to each group once a day throughout 30 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and their stomach-intestine tissues removed, Peroxidase anti peroxidase method was applied following the routine histological follow-ups. According to the control group, in the stomach, had more positive cell density of gastrin in Fe groups, it was observed that group followed by Zn. It was found between the groups in the stomach and intestinal gastrin, gastrin-positive cell density decreases towards the intestines from the stomach. Although CCK differences in staining were observed in the control group, the intensity of staining intensity between the two groups in positive cells was determined to be more than the stomach. The group in the intestines, there is no change in terms of positivity CCK. Consequently, there is no significant effect on gastrointestinal peptides in Zn application. It has been identified Fe application has a significant effect on the releasing of CCK/gastrin peptides.

Keywords: Iron, zinc, CCK, gastrin, alimentary canal

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26 An Analysis of Heavy Metal Pollution by Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) in Different Cities of Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Shakoor


The levels of metal pollution (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) were investigated in the leaves of Dalbergia sisso in urban areas of the Sahiwal and Faisalabad City. For this purpose, three habitats were selected for sampling (roads, residential areas and parks). High concentration of metal was found in roadside samples as compared to residential areas and parks. In Sahiwal city the mean concentration of Copper (7.68µgg-¹) Zinc (43.55µgg-¹) and lead (4.79µgg-¹) were detected. Similarly, concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in leaves of Faisalabad city ranged from 14.4-11.3µgg-¹, 49.7-49.5µgg-¹,138.7-47.1µgg-¹. Highest concentration of heavy metals was detected in Faisalabad as compared to Sahiwal city and level of heavy metals was below the threshold limits, therefore, the concentration of heavy metals was not high in Dalbergia sissoo.

Keywords: Copper, cadmium, zinc, lead

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25 Comparative Study on the Influence of Different Drugs against Aluminium- Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Toqa M. Elnahhas, Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh


Background: Environmental pollution with the different aluminium (Al) containing compounds especially those in industrial waste water exposes people to higher than normal levels of Al that represents an environmental risk factor. Cosmetics, Al ware, and containers are also sources of Al besides some foods and food additives. In addition to its known neurotoxicity, Al affects other body structures like skeletal system, blood cells, liver and kidney. Accumulation of Al in kidney and liver induces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a pseudo-vitamin substance primarily present in the mitochondria. It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as radical scavenger. Wheat grass is a natural product that contains carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and cardiovascular protection activities. Cocoa is an excellent source of iron, potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. Vinpocetine is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory while zinc is an essential trace element involved in cell division and its deficiency is observed in many types of liver disease. Objective: To evaluate and compare the potency of different drugs (CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc) against nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. Methods: Rats were divided to seven groups and received daily for three weeks either saline for control group or AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups. Five groups of Al-toxicity model (treated groups) were orally received together with Al each of the following; CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg), cocoa powder (24mg/kg), vinpocetine (20mg/kg) or zinc (32mg/kg). Biochemical changes in the serum level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea were measured. Liver and kidney specimens from all groups were also collected for the assessment of hepatic and nephrotic level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3, oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO) and DNA fragmentation. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also evaluated. Results: Three weeks of AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) exposure induced nephro- and hepato-toxicity in rats. Treatment by the all used drugs showed protection against hazards of AlCl3. The protective effects were indicated by the significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels which were increased by Al. Liver and kidney of the treated groups showed decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation which were increased by Al, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC which were decreased by Al. The protection against both nephro- and hepato-toxicity was more pronounced especially with CoQ10 and wheat grass than the other used drugs. Histopathological examinations confirmed the biochemical results of toxicity and of protection. Conclusion: Protection from nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and the consequent degenerations induced by Al can be achieved by using different drugs as CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc, but CoQ10 as well as wheat grass possesses the most superior protection.

Keywords: Aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, zinc, coenzyme Q10, cocoa, wheatgrass, vinpocetine

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24 Effect of Phosphate and Zinc Biofertilizers on Seed Yield and Molar Ratio of Phytic Acid to Zinc in Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Authors: M. Mohammadi


In order to evaluate the effect of phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers on the yield, phytic acid (PA), Zn concentration and PA/Zn molar ratio in bean, a field experiment was carried out for two years. The treatments included two cultivars of bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of P (P0, P1: 100 kg ha-1 triple super phosphate (TSP), P2: 50 kg ha-1 TSP + phosphate bio-fertilizer, P3: phosphate bio-fertilizer), three levels of Zn (Zn0, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4, Zn2: Zn bio-fertilizer). Phosphate bio-fertilizer consisted of inoculum of mycorrhizal fungus and Azotobacter and Zn bio-fertilizer consisted of Pseudomonas bacteria. The results revealed that there was significant difference between yield and Zn concentration between years. The effect of cultivar was significant on studied parameters. The lowest content of PA and PA/Zn were obtained from Talash. P treatment caused to significant difference on parameters in which P2 caused to increase yield, P and Zn concentration, and decrease PA and PA/Zn by 21.8%, 38.2%, 33.4%, 17.4% and 38.6% respectively. Zn treatment caused to significant difference on studied parameters. The maximum number of parameters were obtained from Zn1 and Zn2. The higher Zn concentration led to lower content of PA and PA/Zn. Using of P and Zn bio–fertilizers were caused to increasing nutrient uptake, improving growth condition and reducing PA and PA/Zn molar ratio.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Phosphorus, zinc, mycorrhizae

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23 Effect of Zinc Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-3Al Alloy

Authors: Erkan Koç, Mehmet Ünal, Ercan Candan


In this study, the effect of zinc content (0.5-3.0 wt.%) in as-cast Mg-3Al alloy which were fabricated with high-purity raw materials towards the microstructure and mechanical properties was studied. Microstructure results showed that increase in zinc content changed the secondary phase distribution of the alloys. Mechanical test results demonstrate that with the increasing Zn addition the enhancement of the hardness value by 29%, ultimate tensile strength by 16% and yield strength by 15% can be achieved as well as decreasing of elongation by 33%. The improvement in mechanical properties for Mg-Al–Zn alloys with increasing Zn content up to 3% of weight may be ascribed to second phase strengthening.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Magnesium, zinc, Mg17Al12

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22 Air Classification of Dust from Steel Converter Secondary De-dusting for Zinc Enrichment

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer


The off-gas from the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), where pig iron is converted into steel, is treated in the primary ventilation system. This system is in full operation only during oxygen-blowing when the BOF converter vessel is in a vertical position. When pig iron and scrap are charged into the BOF and when slag or steel are tapped, the vessel is tilted. The generated emissions during charging and tapping cannot be captured by the primary off-gas system. To capture these emissions, a secondary ventilation system is usually installed. The emissions are captured by a canopy hood installed just above the converter mouth in tilted position. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of Zn and other components on the particle size of BOF secondary ventilation dust. Because of the high temperature of the BOF process it can be expected that Zn will be enriched in the fine dust fractions. If Zn is enriched in the fine fractions, classification could be applied to split the dust into two size fractions with a different content of Zn. For this air classification experiments with dust from the secondary ventilation system of a BOF were performed. The results show that Zn and Pb are highly enriched in the finest dust fraction. For Cd, Cu and Sb the enrichment is less. In contrast, the non-volatile metals Al, Fe, Mn and Ti were depleted in the fine fractions. Thus, air classification could be considered for the treatment of dust from secondary BOF off-gas cleaning.

Keywords: Recycling, zinc, air classification, converter dust

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21 Interaction of between Cd and Zn in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Plant for Phytoextraction Method

Authors: S. Adiloğlu, K. Bellitürk, Y. Solmaz, A. Adiloğlu


The aim of this research is to remediation of the cadmium (Cd) pollution in agricultural soils by using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plant. For this purpose, a pot experiment was done in greenhouse conditions. Cadmium (100 mg/kg) as CdSO4.8H2O forms was applied to each pot and incubated during 30 days. Then Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelate was applied to each pot at five doses (0, 3, 6, 8 and 10 mmol/kg) 20 days before harvesting time of the barley plants. The plants were harvested after two months planting. According to the pot experiment results, Cd and Zn amounts of barley plant increased with increasing EDTA application and Zn and Cd contents of barley 20,13 and 1,35 mg/kg for 0 mmol /kg EDTA; 58,61 and 113,24 mg/kg for 10 mmol/kg EDTA doses, respectively. On the other hand, Cd and Zn concentrations of experiment soil increased with EDTA application to the soil samples. Zinc and Cd concentrations of soil 0,31 and 0,021 mg/kg for 0 mmol /kg EDTA; 2,39 and 67,40 mg/kg for 10 mmol/kg EDTA doses, respectively. These increases were found to be statistically significant at the level of 1 %. According to the results of the pot experiment, some heavy metal especially Cd pollution of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plant province can be remediated by the phytoextraction method.

Keywords: Soil pollution, cadmium, zinc, barley, phytoextraction, Hordeum vulgare L

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20 The Potential Role of Some Nutrients and Drugs in Providing Protection from Neurotoxicity Induced by Aluminium in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Karema Abu-Elfotuh, Shaimaa S. Hussein, Hanan A. Abd El-Samea


Background: Aluminium (Al) represents an environmental risk factor. Exposure to high levels of Al causes neurotoxic effects and different diseases. Vinpocetine is widely used to improve cognitive functions, it possesses memory-protective and memory-enhancing properties and has the ability to increase cerebral blood flow and glucose uptake. Cocoa bean represents a rich source of iron as well as a potent antioxidant. It can protect from the impact of free radicals, reduces stress as well as depression and promotes better memory and concentration. Wheatgrass is primarily used as a concentrated source of nutrients. It contains vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, amino acids and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an intracellular antioxidant and mitochondrial membrane stabilizer. It is effective in improving cognitive disorders and has been used as anti-aging. Zinc is a structural element of many proteins and signaling messenger that is released by neural activity at many central excitatory synapses. Objective: To study the role of some nutrients and drugs as Vinpocetine, Cocoa, Wheatgrass, CoQ10 and Zinc against neurotoxicity induced by Al in rats as well as to compare between their potency in providing protection. Methods: Seven groups of rats were used and received daily for three weeks AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups except for the control group which received saline. All groups of Al-toxicity model except one group (non-treated) were co-administered orally together with AlCl3 the following treatments; Vinpocetine (20mg/kg), Cocoa powder (24mg/kg), Wheat grass (100mg/kg), CoQ10 (200mg/kg) or Zinc (32mg/kg). Biochemical changes in the rat brain as acetyl cholinesterase (ACHE), Aβ, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β), oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC) were estimated for all groups besides histopathological examinations in different brain regions. Results: Neurotoxicity and neurodegenerations in the rat brain after three weeks of Al exposure were indicated by the significant increase in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, DNA fragmentation together with the significant decrease in SOD, TAC, BDNF and confirmed by the histopathological changes in the brain. On the other hand, co-administration of each of Vinpocetine, Cocoa, Wheatgrass, CoQ10 or Zinc together with AlCl3 provided protection against hazards of neurotoxicity and neurodegenerations induced by Al, their protection were indicated by the decrease in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, DNA fragmentation together with the increase in SOD, TAC, BDNF and confirmed by the histopathological examinations of different brain regions. Vinpocetine and Cocoa showed the most pronounced protection while Zinc provided the least protective effects than the other used nutrients and drugs. Conclusion: Different degrees of protection from neurotoxicity and neuronal degenerations induced by Al could be achieved through the co-administration of some nutrients and drugs during its exposure. Vinpocetine and Cocoa provided the most protection than Wheat grass, CoQ10 or Zinc which showed the least protective effects.

Keywords: rats, Aluminum, zinc, neurotoxicity, coenzyme Q10, cocoa, vinpocetine, wheat grass

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19 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová


The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: Sorption, zinc, lead, blast furnace sludge

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