Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Zimbabwe Related Abstracts

6 The Role of Institutions in Community Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe

Authors: Herbert Ntuli, Edwin Muchapondwa

Abstract:

This study used a sample of 336 households and community level data from 30 communities around the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe to analyse the association between ability to self-organize or cooperation and institutions on one hand and the relationship between success of biodiversity outcomes and cooperation on the other hand. Using both the ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation with heteroskedasticity-based instruments, our results confirmed that sound institutions are indeed an important ingredient for cooperation in the respective communities and cooperation positively and significantly affects biodiversity outcomes. Group size, community level trust, the number of stakeholders and punishment were found to be important variables explaining cooperation. From a policy perspective, our results show that external enforcement of rules and regulations does not necessarily translate into sound ecological outcomes but better outcomes are attainable when punishment is rather endogenized by local communities. This seems to suggest that communities should rather be supported in such a way that robust institutions that are tailor made to suit the needs of local condition will emerge that will in turn facilitate good environmental husbandry. Cooperation, training, benefits, distance from the nearest urban canter, distance from the fence, social capital average age of household head, fence and information sharing were found to be very important variables explaining the success of biodiversity outcomes ceteris paribus. Government programmes should target capacity building in terms of institutional capacity and skills development in order to have a positive impact on biodiversity. Hence, the role of stakeholders (e.g., NGOs) in capacity building and government effort should complement each other to ensure that the necessary resources are mobilized and all communities receive the necessary training and resources.

Keywords: Wildlife, Conservation, Institutions, self-organize, common pool resources, Zimbabwe

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5 Female Dis-Empowerment in Contemporary Zimbabwe: A Re-Look at Shona Writers’ Vision of the Factors and Solutions

Authors: Godwin Makaudze

Abstract:

The majority of women in contemporary Zimbabwe continue to hold marginalised and insignificant positions in society and to be accorded negative and stereotyped images in literature. In light of this, government and civic organisations and even writers channel many resources, time, and efforts towards the emancipation of the female gender. Using the Africana womanist and socio-historical literary theories and focussing on two post-colonial novels, this paper re-engages the dis-empowerment of women in contemporary Zimbabwe, examining the believed causes and suggested solutions. The paper observes that the writers whip the already whipped by blaming patriarchy, African men and cultural practices as the underlying causes of such a sorry state of affairs while at the same time celebrating war against all these, as well as education, unity among women, Christianity and single motherhood as panaceas to the problem. The paper concludes that the writers’ anger is misdirected as they have fallen trap to the very popular yet mythical victim-blame motif espoused by many writers who focus on Shona people’s problems.

Keywords: solutions, patriarchy, Zimbabwe, cultural practices, female dis-empowerment, Shona novel

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4 A Study of the Effects of Zimbabwean Youth Migration on Musina Area, South Africa

Authors: R. Chinyakata, N. R. Raselekoane

Abstract:

Migration has always been part of human history. Migration is spurred by globalisation which connects nations by encouraging the flow of goods, services, ideas and people across borders. Migration does not only involve movement of adults from one country to another. It also affects and involves the youth as they are the most mobile group. Musina area, like many other border areas, experiences a variety of challenges as a result of the influx of people from the neighbouring Zimbabwe and other African countries. Of great concern about this migration is the fact that the host country or area may become unsafe and unstable as a result of huge influx of migrants. There may also be tensions between local people and migrants over the resources. The study sought to investigate the effects of the Zimbabwean youth migration on Musina area. The study was undertaken in Musina area which is situated 18km from the Beit-Bridge border post. A qualitative research approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Non-probability quota sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The study sample consisted of sixteen female and male respondents. Thematic coding was used to analyse the data. Ethical considerations such as informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity and voluntary participation were taken into account to protect the participants. The study found that the effects of the Zimbabwean youth migration on the Musina area include, among others, tensions between locals and the Zimbabwean youth migrants over resources, job and business opportunities, overcrowding and crime. Multi-pronged strategies which involve different stakeholders should be applied to address tensions over job and business opportunities, overcrowding and crime in the Musina area.

Keywords: Migration, Youth, effects, migrant, Zimbabwe, host country, Musina

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3 Zimbabwe's Foreign Policy in Southern Africa, 1980-2013

Authors: Dylan Yanano Mangani, Theodore Nkadimeng Mahosi

Abstract:

Soon after independence on 18th April 1980, Zimbabwe’s foreign policy was shaped by the realities on the ground, which saw the country managing a sound relationship with both the Capitalist West and the Communist Eastern blocs. The post-independence foreign policy was therefore premised on security concerns illuminated by the Cold War era. This was one the reasons President Robert Mugabe adopted a policy of reconciliation and this earned his government recognition on the international platform. However, in Southern Africa apartheid South Africa was still the vanguard of capitalism and oppression such that she posed a serious threat to the newly born Zimbabwean nation which necessitated that Zimbabwe position herself both in the region and the continent to counter potential internal stability from within. Irrespective of how the international community viewed the country’s foreign policy Zimbabwe has continued to influence regional, continental and world geo-politics, especially on behalf of the developing nations. This raises a question why as a result of its foreign policy the country is now regarded a pariah state, especially some Western countries which used to applaud its political economic policies immediately after independence. Therefore, this study argues that the political economy of Zimbabwe had a far-reaching bearing on its foreign policy. For this reason, the problem necessitates the investigation of Zimbabwe’s foreign policy perspectives in Southern Africa since the turn of the 1990s. Two main theories which are Realism, Afro-centrism inform the study as an attempt to understand Zimbabwe’s foreign policy paradigm shift and perhaps provide answers to the objectives raised. The research therefore employs a qualitative approach where the conceptual nature of the study into the foreign policy of Zimbabwe is largely desktop research. However, the nature of the study will also require that oral interviews are conducted to substantiate some of the arguments advanced.

Keywords: Foreign Policy, Zimbabwe, look east policy, cold war set up, pan-africanism, post 2000 period, Southern Africa

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2 Inhibition of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. By Traditional Phytomedicines That Are Commonly Used to Treat Gastroenteritis in Zimbabwe

Authors: Constance Chivengwa, Tinashe Mandimutsira, Jephris Gere, Charles Magogo, Irene Chikanza, Jerneja Vidmar, Walter Chingwaru

Abstract:

The use of traditional methods in the management of diarrhoea has remained a common practice among the indigenous African tribes of Southern Africa. Despite the widespread use of traditional medicines in Zimbabwe, very little research validating the activities of phytomedicines against diarrhoea, as claimed by the Shona people of Zimbabwe, has been reported. This study sought to determine the efficacies of the plants that are frequently used to treat stomach complaints, namely Dicoma anomala, Cassia abbreviata, Lannea edulis and Peltophorum africanum against Escherichia coli (an indicator of faecal contamination of water, and whose strains such as EHEC (O157), ETEC and EPEC, are responsible for a number of outbreaks of diarrhoea) and Salmonella spp. Ethanol and aqueous extracts from these plants were obtained, evaporated, dried and stored. The dried extracts were reconstituted and diluted 10-fold in nutrient broth (from 100 to 0.1 microgram/mL) and tested for inhibition against the bacteria. L. edulis exhibited the best antimicrobial effect (minimum inhibition concentration = 10 microgram/mL for both extracts and microorganisms). Runners up to L. edulis were C. abbreviata (20 microgram/mL for both microorganisms) and P. africanum (20 and 30 microgram/mL respectively). Interestingly, D. anomala, which is widely considered panacea in African medicinal practices, showed low antimicrobial activity (60 and 100 microgram/mL respectively). The high antimicrobial activity of L. edulis can be explained by its content of flavonoids, tannins, alkylphenols (cardonol 7 and cardonol 13) and dihydroalkylhexenones. The antimicrobial activities of C. abbreviata can be linked to its content of anthraquinones and triterpenoids. P. africanum is known to contain benzenoids, flavanols, flavonols, terpenes, xanthone and coumarins. This study therefore demonstrated that, among the plants that are used against diarrhoea in African traditional medicine, L. edulis is a clear winner against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Activity guided extraction is encouraged to establish the complement of compounds that have antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: Phytomedicine, Mic, Escherichia coli, diarrhoea, salmonella, Zimbabwe

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1 Unlocking Tourism Value through a Tourist Experience Management Paradigm

Authors: Siphiwe P. Mandina, Tinashe Shamuyashe

Abstract:

Tourism has become a topical issue amongst academics and practitioners due to its potential to contribute significantly towards an economy’s GDP. The problem underpinning this research is the fact that the major attraction, Victoria Falls, is being marketed in neighboring countries like South Africa, Botswana and Zambia with tour operators providing just day trips to the Victoria Falls. This has deprived Zimbabwe of income from tourism with tourists making day trips and actually not spending nights in Zimbabwe. This therefore calls for cutting edge marketing strategies that are superior to or inimitable by competing nations such as South Africa and Zambia. This study proposes a shift towards an experience management paradigm in the tourism sector. A qualitative research was adopted for this study, and findings of this study were generalized across different tourism contexts, therefore making the survey based research design more appropriate. The target population for this study is tourists visiting Zimbabwe over the period 2016 and ZTA visitor database acquired from the Department of Immigration will form the sampling frame for the purposes of this study.

Keywords: Competitiveness, Zimbabwe, tourist experiences, tourist arrivals

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