Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

zeta potential Related Abstracts

16 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: R. Zakaria, Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro


In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Essential Oil, electrophoretic mobility, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tween 80, zeta potential

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15 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumine on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek


Preparation of nano-particles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumine on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nano-particles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumine adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nano-particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am=118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumine on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nano-particles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: Adsorption, albumin, zeta potential, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles

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14 Analysis of Dust Particles in Snow Cover in the Surroundings of the City of Ostrava: Particle Size Distribution, Zeta Potential and Heavy Metal Content

Authors: Roman Marsalek


In this paper, snow samples containing dust particles from several sampling points around the city of Ostrava were analyzed. The pH values of sampled snow were measured and solid particles analyzed. Particle size, zeta potential and content of selected heavy metals were determined in solid particles. The pH values of most samples lay in the slightly acid region. Mean values of particle size ranged from 290.5 to 620.5 nm. Zeta potential values varied between -5 and -26.5 mV. The following heavy metal concentration ranges were found: copper 0.08-0.75 mg/g, lead 0.05-0.9 mg/g, manganese 0.45-5.9 mg/g and iron 25.7-280.46 mg/g. The highest values of copper and lead were found in the vicinity of busy crossroads, and on the contrary, the highest levels of manganese and iron were detected close to a large steelworks. The proportion between pH values, zeta potentials, particle sizes and heavy metal contents was established. Zeta potential decreased with rising pH values and, simultaneously, heavy metal content in solid particles increased. At the same time, higher metal content corresponded to lower particle size.

Keywords: Dust, Heavy Metals, zeta potential, snow, particles size distribution

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13 Comparative Analysis of in vitro Release profile for Escitalopram and Escitalopram Loaded Nanoparticles

Authors: Rashi Rajput, Manisha Singh


Escitalopram oxalate (ETP), an FDA approved antidepressant drug from the category of SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and is used in treatment of general anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD).When taken orally, it is metabolized to S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT) in the liver with the help of enzymes CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Hence, causing side effects such as dizziness, fast or irregular heartbeat, headache, nausea etc. Therefore, targeted and sustained drug delivery will be a helpful tool for increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects. The present study is designed for formulating mucoadhesive nanoparticle formulation for the same Escitalopram loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and characterization of the optimised formulation was done by zeta average particle size (93.63nm), zeta potential (-1.89mV), TEM (range of 60nm to 115nm) analysis also confirms nanometric size range of the drug loaded nanoparticles along with polydispersibility index of 0.117. In this research, we have studied the in vitro drug release profile for ETP nanoparticles, through a semi permeable dialysis membrane. The three important characteristics affecting the drug release behaviour were – particle size, ionic strength and morphology of the optimised nanoparticles. The data showed that on increasing the particle size of the drug loaded nanoparticles, the initial burst was reduced which was comparatively higher in drug. Whereas, the formulation with 1mg/ml chitosan in 1.5mg/ml tripolyphosphate solution showed steady release over the entire period of drug release. Then this data was further validated through mathematical modelling to establish the mechanism of drug release kinetics, which showed a typical linear diffusion profile in optimised ETP loaded nanoparticles.

Keywords: zeta potential, ionic gelation, mucoadhesive nanoparticle, semi-permeable dialysis membrane

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12 Cationic Surfactants Influence on the Fouling Phenomenon Control in Ultrafiltration of Latex Contaminated Water and Wastewater

Authors: Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi


The goal of the present study was to minimize the ultrafiltration fouling of latex effluent using Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Hydrophilic Polysulfone and Ultrafilic flat heterogeneous membranes, with MWCO of 60,000 and 100,000, respectively, as well as hydrophobic Polyvinylidene Difluoride with MWCO of 100,000, were used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of latex solution. In addition, a Polycarbonate flat membrane with uniform pore size of 0.05 µm was also used. The effect of CTAB on the latex particle size distribution was investigated at different concentrations, various treatment times, and diverse agitation duration. The effects of CTAB on the zeta potential of latex particles and membrane surfaces were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the particle size distribution of treated latex effluent showed noticeable shifts in the peaks toward a larger size range due to the aggregation of particles. As a consequence, the mass of fouling contributing to pore blocking and the irreversible fouling were significantly reduced. The optimum results occurred with the addition of CTAB at the critical micelle concentration of 0.36 g/L for 10 minutes with minimal agitation. Higher stirring rate had a negative effect on membrane fouling minimization.

Keywords: ultrafiltration, zeta potential, cationic surfactant, latex particles, membrane fouling

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11 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: Fathiah Mohamed Zuki, Robert George Edyvean


Electrostatic interaction energy (∆EEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (∆EVDW) and acid base (∆EAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential, however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focuses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: Mineral, zeta potential, XDLVO, electrostatic interaction energy, P. putida

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10 Rheological Characterization of Polysaccharide Extracted from Camelina Meal as a New Source of Thickening Agent

Authors: Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito)


Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop currently used for the production of biofuels. However, the low price of diesel and gasoline has made camelina an unprofitable crop for farmers, leading to declining camelina production in the US. Hence, the ability to utilize camelina byproduct (defatted meal) after oil extraction would be a pivotal factor for promoting the economic value of the plant. Camelina defatted meal is rich in proteins and polysaccharides. The great diversity in the polysaccharide structural features provides a unique opportunity for use in food formulations as thickeners, gelling agents, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. There is currently a great degree of interest in the study of novel plant polysaccharides, as they can be derived from readily accessible sources and have potential application in a wide range of food formulations. However, there are no published studies on the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal, and its potential industrial applications remain largely underexploited. Rheological properties are a key functional feature of polysaccharides and are highly dependent on the material composition and molecular structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal at different conditions to obtain insight on the molecular characteristics of the polysaccharide. Flow and dynamic mechanical behaviors were determined under different temperatures (5-50°C) and concentrations (1-6% w/v). Additionally, the zeta potential of the polysaccharide dispersion was measured at different pHs (2-11) and a biopolymer concentration of 0.05% (w/v). Shear rate sweep data revealed that the camelina polysaccharide displayed shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior, which is typical of polymer systems. The polysaccharide dispersion (1% w/v) showed no significant changes in viscosity with temperature, which makes it a promising ingredient in products requiring texture stability over a range of temperatures. However, the viscosity increased significantly with increased concentration, indicating that camelina polysaccharide can be used in food products at different concentrations to produce a range of textures. Dynamic mechanical spectra showed similar trends. The temperature had little effect on viscoelastic moduli. However, moduli were strongly affected by concentration: samples exhibited concentrated solution behavior at low concentrations (1-2% w/v) and weak gel behavior at higher concentrations (4-6% w/v). These rheological properties can be used for designing and modeling of liquid and semisolid products. Zeta potential affects the intensity of molecular interactions and molecular conformation and can alter solubility, stability, and eventually, the functionality of the materials as their environment changes. In this study, the zeta potential value significantly decreased from 0.0 to -62.5 as pH increased from 2 to 11, indicating that pH may affect the functional properties of the polysaccharide. The results obtained in the current study showed that camelina polysaccharide has significant potential for application in various food systems and can be introduced as a novel anionic thickening agent with unique properties.

Keywords: Rheology, zeta potential, polysaccharide, Camelina meal

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9 Effect of Humic Acids on Agricultural Soil Structure and Stability and Its Implication on Soil Quality

Authors: Omkar Gaonkar, Indumathi Nambi, Suresh G. Kumar


The functional and morphological aspects of soil structure determine the soil quality. The dispersion of colloidal soil particles, especially the clay fraction and rupture of soil aggregates, both of which play an important role in soil structure development, lead to degradation of soil quality. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of the behaviour of soil colloids on the agricultural soil structure and quality. The effect of commercial humic acid and soil natural organic matter on the electrical and structural properties of the soil colloids was also studied. Agricultural soil, belonging to the sandy loam texture class from northern part of India was considered in this study. In order to understand the changes in the soil quality in the presence and absence of humic acids, the soil fabric and structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrical properties of natural soil colloids in aqueous suspensions were assessed by zeta potential measurements at varying pH values with and without the presence of humic acids. The influence of natural organic matter was analyzed by oxidizing the natural soil organic matter with hydrogen peroxide. The zeta potential of the soil colloids was found to be negative in the pH range studied. The results indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatment leads to deflocculation of colloidal soil particles. In addition, the humic acids undergoes effective adsorption onto the soil surface imparting more negative zeta potential to the colloidal soil particles. The soil hydrophilicity decreased in the presence of humic acids which was confirmed by surface free energy determination. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of humic acids altered the soil fabric and structure, thereby affecting the soil quality. This study assumes significance in understanding soil aggregation and the interactions at soil solid-liquid interface.

Keywords: Soil Quality, humic acids, zeta potential, natural organic matter

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8 Effect of Anionic Lipid on Zeta Potential Values and Physical Stability of Liposomal Amikacin

Authors: Muhammad Amin, Yulistiani, Fasich


A surface charge of the nanoparticle is a very important consideration in pulmonal drug delivery system. The zeta potential (ZP) is related to the surface charge which can predict stability of nanoparticles as nebules of liposomal amikacin. Anionic lipid such as 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) is expected to contribute to the physical stability of liposomal amikacin and the optimal ZP value. Suitable ZP can improve drug release profiles at specific sites in alveoli as well as their stability in dosage form. This study aimed to analyze the effect of DPPG on ZP values and physical stability of liposomal amikacin. Liposomes were prepared by using the reserved phase evaporation method. Liposomes consisting of DPPG, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol and amikacin were formulated in five different compositions 0/150/5/100, 10//150/5/100, 20/150/5/100, 30/150/5/100 and 40/150/5/100 (w/v) respectively. A chloroform/methanol mixture in the ratio of 1 : 1 (v/v) was used as solvent to dissolve lipids. These systems were adjusted in the phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Nebules of liposomal amikacin were produced by using the vibrating nebulizer and then characterized by the X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and scanning electron microscope. Amikacin concentration from liposome leakage was determined by the immunoassay method. The study revealed that presence of DPPG could increase the ZP value. The addition of 10 mg DPPG in the composition resulted in increasing of ZP value to 3.70 mV (negatively charged). The optimum ZP value was reached at -28.780 ± 0.70 mV and particle size of nebules 461.70 ± 21.79 nm. Nebulizing process altered parameters such as particle size, conformation of lipid components and the amount of surface charges of nanoparticles which could influence the ZP value. These parameters might have profound effects on the application of nebules in the alveoli; however, negatively charge nanoparticles were unexpected to have a high ZP value in this system due to increased macrophage uptake and pulmonal clearance. Therefore, the ratio of liposome 20/150/5/100 (w/v) resulted in the most stable colloidal system and might be applicable to pulmonal drug delivery system.

Keywords: Stability, zeta potential, anionic lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, liposomal amikacin

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7 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni


This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: Microfluidics, zeta potential, electrokinetic, COMSOL Multiphysics®, electroosmotic

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6 Effect of Acid and Alkali Treatment on Physical and Surface Charge Properties of Clayey Soils

Authors: Nikhil John Kollannur, Dali Naidu Arnepalli


Most of the surface related phenomena in the case of fine-grained soil are attributed to their unique surface charge properties and specific surface area. The temporal variations in soil behavior, to some extent, can be credited to the changes in these properties. Among the multitude of factors that affect the charge and surface area of clay minerals, the inherent system chemistry occupies the cardinal position. The impact is more profound when the chemistry change is manifested in terms of the system pH. pH plays a significant role by modifying the edge charges of clay minerals and facilitating mineral dissolution. Hence there is a need to address the variations in physical and charge properties of fine-grained soils treated over a range of acidic as well as alkaline conditions. In the present study, three soils (two soils commercially procured and one natural soil) exhibiting distinct mineralogical compositions are subjected to different pH environment over a range of 2 to 13. The soil-solutions prepared at a definite liquid to solid ratio are adjusted to the required pH value by adding measured quantities of 0.1M HCl/0.1M NaOH. The studies are conducted over a range of interaction time, varying from 1 to 96 hours. The treated soils are then analyzed for their physical properties in terms of specific surface area and particle size characteristics. Further, modifications in surface morphology are evaluated from scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. Changes in the surface charge properties are assessed in terms of zeta potential measurements. Studies show significant variations in total surface area, probably because of the dissolution of clay minerals. This observation is further substantiated by the morphological analysis with SEM imaging. The zeta potential measurements on soils indicate noticeable variation upon pH treatment, which is partially ascribed to the modifications in the pH-dependant edge charges and partially due to the clay mineral dissolution. The results provide valuable insight into the role of pH in a clay-electrolyte system upon surface related phenomena such as species adsorption, fabric modification etc.

Keywords: zeta potential, specific surface area, acid and alkali treatment, mineral dissolution

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5 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin


Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity, zeta potential, chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering

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4 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan


In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: Contact angle, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential, celestite, suspension stability

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3 Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity

Authors: Ali Kara, Vural Bütün, Asim Olgun, Pelin Sevinc, Merve Gungor, Orhan Ornek


In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.

Keywords: Adsorption, zeta potential, isotherms, Orange 16

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2 Characterizing the Diffused Double Layer Properties of Clay Minerals

Authors: N. Saranya


The difference in characteristic behavior of clay minerals for different electrolyte solution is dictated by the corresponding variation occurring at its diffused double layer thickness (DDL). The diffused double layer of clay mineral has two distinct regions; the inner region is termed as ‘Stern layer’ where ions are strongly attached to the clay surface. In the outer region, the ions are not strongly bonded with the clay surface, and this region is termed as ‘diffuse layer’. Within the diffuse layer, there is a plane that forms a boundary between the moving ions and the ions attached to the clay surface, which is termed as slipping or shear plane, and the potential of this plane is defined as zeta potential (ζ). Therefore, the variation in diffused double layer properties of clay mineral for different electrolyte solutions can be modeled if the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential are computed. In view of this, the present study has attempted to characterize the diffused double layer properties of three different clay minerals interacting with different pore fluids by measuring the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential. Further, the obtained variation in the diffused double layer property is compared with the Gouy-Chapman model, which is the widely accepted theoretical model to characterize the diffused double layer properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: surface potential, zeta potential, surface charge, DDL

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1 Strontium and Selenium Doped Bioceramic Incorporated Hydrogel for Faster Apatite Growth and Bone Regeneration Applications

Authors: Anuj KUMAR, Davinder Singh, Nonita Sarin, K.J.Singh


Polymeric 3D hydrogels have pivotal role in bone tissue regeneration applications. Hydrogels behave similar to the living tissues because they have large water imbibing capacity in swollen state and adjust their shape according to the tissues during tissue formation after implantation. On the other hand, hydrogels are very soft, fragile and lack mechanical strength. Incorporation of bioceramics can improve mechanical strength. Furthermore, bioceramics synthesized by sol gel technique may enhance the apatite formation and degradation rates which can lead to the increase in faster rates for new bone and tissue regeneration. Simulated body fluid (SBF) induces the poly-condensation of silanol groups which leads to formation of silica matrix and provide active sites for the precipitation of Ca2+ and PO43- ions to form apatite layer which is similar to mineral form of bone. Therefore, authors have synthesized bioceramic incorporated Polyacrylamide-carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels by free radical polymerization and bioceramic compositions of xSrO-(36-x)CaO-45SiO2-ySeO3-(12-y)P2O5-7MgO (where x=0,4 and y=0,2 mol%) were synthesized by sol gel technique. Bioceramics incorporated in polymer matrix induces quicker apatite formation during immersion in SBF by raising the pH with the release of alkaline ions during ion exchange process and the apatite formation takes place in alkaline medium. The behavior of samples PABC-0 (without bioceramics) and PABC-20 (with 20 wt% bioceramics) were evaluated by X-Ray Diffraction and FTIR. In term of bioactivity, it was observed that PABC-20 has shown hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on 1st day of immersion whereas, PABC-0 was shown apatite formation on 7th day of immersion in SBF. The rapid rate of HA growth on 1st day of immersion in SBF signifies easy regeneration of damaged bone tissues. Degradation studies have been undertaken in Phosphate Buffer Saline and PABC-20 exhibited slower degradation rate up to 9%as compared to PABC-0 up to 18%. Slower degradation rate is suitable for new tissue regeneration and cell attachment. Also, Zeta potential studies have been employed to check the surface charge and it has been observed that samples carry negative charge when immersed in SBF. In addition, the swelling test of the samples have been performed and relative swelling ratio % observed for PABC-0 is 607% and PABC-20 is 305%. This indicates that the incorporation of bioceramics leads to the filling up of the voids in between the polymer matrix which in result reduces porosity and increase the mechanical strength by filling the voids. The porosity of PABC-0 is 84% and PABC-20 is 72%. PABC-20 sample demonstrates that bioceramics incorporation reduce the porosity and improves mechanical strength. Also, maximum in vitro cell viability up to 98% with MG63 cell line has been observed which indicate that the bioceramic incorporated hydrogel(PABC-20) provide the alkaline medium which is suitable environment for cell growth.

Keywords: Hydrogels, hydroxyapatite, zeta potential, MG63 cell line

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