Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Zeolite Related Abstracts

7 Lead Removal by Using the Synthesized Zeolites from Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

Authors: Sirirat Jangkorn, Pornsawai Praipipat

Abstract:

Sugarcane bagasse ash of sugar factories is solid wastes that the richest source of silica. The alkali fusion method, quartz particles in material can be dissolved and they can be used as the silicon source for synthesizing silica-based materials such as zeolites. Zeolites have many advantages such as catalyst to improve the chemical reactions and they can also remove heavy metals in the water including lead. Therefore, this study attempts to synthesize zeolites from the sugarcane bagasse ash, investigate their structure characterizations and chemical components to confirm the happening of zeolites, and examine their lead removal efficiency through the batch test studies. In this study, the sugarcane bagasse ash was chosen as the silicon source to synthesize zeolites, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) were used to verify the zeolite pattern structures and element compositions, respectively. The batch test studies in dose (0.05, 0.1, 0.15 g.), contact time (1, 2, 3), and pH (3, 5, 7) were used to investigate the lead removal efficiency by the synthesized zeolite. XRD analysis result showed the crystalline phase of zeolite pattern, and XRF result showed the main element compositions of the synthesized zeolite that were SiO₂ (50%) and Al₂O₃ (30%). The batch test results showed the best optimum conditions of the synthesized zeolite for lead removal were 0.1 g, 2 hrs., and 5 of dose, contact time, and pH, respectively. As a result, this study can conclude that the zeolites can synthesize from the sugarcane bagasse ash and they can remove lead in the water.

Keywords: solid wastes, Zeolite, lead, sugarcane bagasse ash

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6 Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and a Zeolite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate) in the Amelioration of Aflatoxicosis in Broilers

Authors: Ryan Stevens, Wayne L. Bryden

Abstract:

This study focused on the effects of ginger and a zeolite (toxin binder) in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens 7 to 49 days of age. The chicks were maintained normally until experimental diets were introduced on day 7 post-hatching. Nine hundred and thirty six, 7-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 18 treatment groups; each group had four replicates, each with 13 chickens. The experimental groups or diets had factorial combinations of the following; AFB1 0, 1 and 2 mg/kg diet, ginger 0 and 5g/kg diet, and zeolite 0, 15 and 30 g/kg diet. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and a starter diet was fed from 1 to 14 days, a grower diet from15 to 28 days and a finisher diet was provided from day 29 until the end of the experiment. Both dietary levels of AFB1 decreased (P<0.05) body weight and feed conversion, and increased relative liver weights. Independent dietary inclusion of ginger or zeolite restored chick performance when diets contained 1mg/kg but not at 2mg/kg. Supplementation of zeolite together with ginger improved performance of birds fed contaminated diets. Interestingly, adding ginger to the control diet that was not contaminated with AFB1 improved (P<0.05) performance. Our results suggest that toxin binders and ginger can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on performance of broiler chicks.

Keywords: Zeolite, broiler, ginger, aflatoxin

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5 Synthesis of Na-LSX Zeolite and Hydrosodalite from Polish Fly Ashes

Authors: Barbara Bialecka, Zdzislaw Adamczyk, Magdalena Cempa

Abstract:

In the work, the results of investigations into the hydrothermal zeolitization of fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Station have been presented. The chemical composition of the ash was determined by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), whereas the phases of both fly ash and the products after synthesis were identified using microscopic observations, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as well as electron scanning microscopy with measurements of the chemical compositions in micro areas (SEM/EDS). The synthesis was carried out with various concentrations of NaOH solution (3M, 4M and 6M) in the following conditions: synthesis temperature – 80ᵒC, synthesis time – 16 hours, volume of NaOH solution – 350ml, fly ash mass – 14g. The main chemical components of fly ash were SiO₂ and Al₂O₃, the contents of which reached 51.62 and 28.14%mas., respectively. The input ash contained mainly such phases as mullite, quarz, magnetite, and glass. The research results indicate that the phase composition of products after zeolitization was differentiated. The material after synthesis in 3M NaOH solution was found to contain mullite, quarz, magnetite, and Na-LSX zeolite. The products of synthesis in 4M NaOH solution were very similar to those in 3M solution (mullite, quarz, magnetite, Na-LSX zeolite), but they additionally contained hydrosodalite. The material after synthesis in 6M NaOH solution contains mullite, quarz, magnetite (similarly to synthesis in 3M and 4M NaOH solition) and additionally hydrosodalite. Therefore, the products of synthesis contain relic components from the fly ash input sample in the form of mullite, quarz, and magnetite, as well as new phases, which are Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite. It should be noted that the products of synthesis in the case of 4M NaOH solution contained both new phases (Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite), while the products from the extreme concentration of NaOH solutions (3M and 6M) contained only one of them. Observations in the scanning electron microscope revealed the new phases’ morphology. It was found that Na-LSX zeolite formed cubic crystals, whereas hydrosodalite formed characteristic aggregations. The results of investigations into the chemical composition in the micro area of phase grains in the products after synthesis reveal some dependencies, among others a characteristic increase in the content of sodium, related to the increased concentration of NaOH solution.

Keywords: fly ash, Zeolite, Na-LSX, hydrosodalite

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4 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydrosodalite by Using Ultrasounds

Authors: B. Białecka, Z. Adamczyk, M. Cempa

Abstract:

The use of ultrasounds in zeolization of fly ash can increase the efficiency of this process. The molar ratios of the reagents, as well as the time and temperature of the synthesis, are the main parameters determining the type and properties of the zeolite formed. The aim of the work was to create hydrosodalite in a short time (8h), with low NaOH concentration (3 M) and in low temperature (80°C). A zeolite material contained in fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Plant was subjected to hydrothermal alkaline synthesis. The phase composition of the ash consisted mainly of glass, mullite, quartz, and hematite. The dominant chemical components of the ash were SiO₂ (over 50%mas.) and Al₂O₃ (more than 28%mas.), whereas the contents of the remaining components, except Fe₂O₃ (6.34%mas.), did not exceed 4% mas. The hydrothermal synthesis of the zeolite material was carried out in the following conditions: 3M-solution of NaOH, synthesis time – 8 hours, 40 kHz-frequency ultrasounds during the first two hours of synthesis. The mineral components of the input ash as well as product after synthesis were identified in microscopic observations, in transmitted light, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron scanning microscopy (SEM/EDS). The chemical composition of the input ash was identified by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The obtained material apart from phases found in the initial fly ash sample, also contained new phases, i.e., hydrosodalite and NaP-type zeolite. The chemical composition in micro areas of grains indicated their diversity: i) SiO₂ content was in the range 30-59%mas., ii) Al₂O₃ content was in the range 24-35%mas., iii) Na₂O content was in the range 6-15%mas. This clearly indicates that hydrosodalite forms hypertrophies with NaP type zeolite as well as relict grains of fly ash. A small amount of potassium in the examined grains is noteworthy, which may indicate the substitution of sodium with potassium. This is confirmed by the high value of the correlation coefficient between these two components.

Keywords: fly ash, Zeolite, ultrasounds, hydrosodalite

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3 Zeolite Origin within the Pliocene Sedimentary-Pyroclastic Deposits in the Southwestern Part of Syria

Authors: Abdulsalam Turkmani, Mohammed Khaled Yezbek, Farouk Al Imadi

Abstract:

Geological surveys in the southwestern part of Syria showed the presence of sedimentary-pyroclastic deposits, volcanic tuff, to the age of the Upper Pliocene and contain the following minerals according petrographical study and XRD, SEM, XRF analysis and surface properties. X-Ray diffraction results indicate the presence of analcime, phillipsite and chabazite in in all the studied localities. There are also amorphous materials and clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. The non-zeolite constituents include olivine, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and spinel, and less of magnetite and feldspar. Some major oxides were determined through XRF geochemical analyses which include SiO₂, Al₂O₃, K₂O, Fe₂O₃, and CaO for volcanic tuff and zeolite. The formation of these depositions can be summarized in the following stages during the Pliocene: Volcanic activity at the edges of Al Rutba uplift and Jabal Al Arab depression was a rich by tuff bearing ultra basic and basic xenoliths plus second phase by scoria, during the early Pliocene. Volcanic calm with the activity of erosion and form lakes in which deposition of a set of wastes, including olivine resulting from the disintegration of xenoliths during the middle Pliocene. Zeolites minerals form later, which make up about 15-20% and increase and decrease in reverse relation with the olivine sand. Zeolite is formed from volcanic glass, and the results of SEM show that the zeolites minerals very well crystallized.

Keywords: Minerals, Zeolite, origin, pyroclastic

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2 Efficacy of a Zeolite as a Detoxifier in Broiler Feed Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

Authors: R. Stevens, W.L. Bryden

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of zeolite in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broilers. A total of 540 one-day-old Ross chicks were randomly divided into nine treatments, with four replicate pens per treatment and 15 chicks per pen. The treatments included 3 Levels of AFB1 (0,1and 2 mg/kg diet) and 3 levels of zeolite (0, 1.5 and 3 %) in a 3 ×3 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments commenced on d 7 post-hatch. A starter diet was provided from d 1 to 14, a grower diet from d 15 to 28 and a finisher diet from d 29 to d 49. Diets were based on corn and soybeans and formulated to meet the bird's requirements. The evaluated parameters were as follows: Bodyweight, daily gain, feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC), relative weights of organs (carcass, liver, heart and abdominal fat) and clinical biochemistry parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Bodyweight, daily gain and FC were significantly (P<0.05) impaired by aflatoxin. Relative weights of the liver and heart were also affected. The addition of zeolite (1.5 and 3 %) to the contaminated diets ameliorated the effects of aflatoxin, especially at the higher level of inclusion. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent (zeolite) can protect against the toxicity of AFB1in young broiler chicks.

Keywords: Toxicity, Zeolite, broiler, aflatoxin

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1 The Effect of Zeolite on Sandy-Silt Soil Mechanical Properties

Authors: Shahryar Aftabi, Saeed Fathi, Mohammad H. Aminfar

Abstract:

It is well known that cemented sand is one of the best approaches for soil stabilization. In some cases, a blend of sand, cement and other pozzolan materials such as zeolite, nano-particles and fiber can be widely (commercially) available and be effectively used in soil stabilization, especially in road construction. In this research, we investigate the effects of CaO which is based on the geotechnical characteristics of zeolite composition with sandy silt soil. Zeolites have low amount of CaO in their structures, that is, varying from 3% to 10%, and by removing the cement paste, we want to investigate the effect of zeolite pozzolan without any activator on soil samples strength. In this research, experiments are concentrated on various weight percentages of zeolite in the soil to examine the effect of the zeolite on drainage shear strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) both with and without curing. The study also investigates their liquid limit and plastic limit behavior and makes a comparative result by using Feng's and Wroth-Wood's methods in fall cone (cone penetrometer) device; in the final the SEM images have been presented. The results show that by increasing the percentage of zeolite in without-curing samples, the fine zeolite particles increase some soil's strength, but in the curing-state we can see a relatively higher strength toward without-curing state, since the zeolites have no plastic behavior, the pozzolanic property of zeolites plays a much higher role than cementing properties. Indeed, it is better to combine zeolite particle with activator material such as cement or lime to gain better results.

Keywords: Zeolite, SEM, CBR, California bearing ratio, direct shear, fall-cone, sandy silt

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