Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

zebrafish Related Abstracts

12 Identification of the Most Effective Dosage of Clove Oil Solution as an Alternative for Synthetic Anaesthetics on Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: D. P. N. De Silva, N. P. P. Liyanage

Abstract:

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the family Cyprinidae, is a tropical freshwater fish widely used as a model organism in scientific research. Use of effective and economical anaesthetic is very important when handling fish. Clove oil (active ingredient: eugenol) was identified as a natural product which is safer and economical compared to synthetic chemicals like methanesulfonate (MS-222). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the most effective dosage of clove oil solution as an anaesthetic on mature Zebrafish. Clove oil solution was prepared by mixing pure clove oil with 94% ethanol at a ratio of 1:9 respectively. From that solution, different volumes were selected as (0.4 ml, 0.6 ml and 0.8 ml) and dissolved in one liter of conditioned water (dosages : 0.4 ml/L, 0.6 ml/L and 0.8 ml/L). Water quality parameters (pH, temperature and conductivity) were measured before and after adding clove oil solution. Mature Zebrafish with similar standard length (2.76 ± 0.1 cm) and weight (0.524 ± 0.1 g) were selected for this experiment. Time taken for loss of equilibrium (initiation phase) and complete loss of movements including opercular movement (anaesthetic phase) were measured. To detect the efficacy on anaesthetic recovery, time taken to begin opercular movements (initiation of recovery phase) until swimming (post anaesthetic phase) were observed. The results obtained were analyzed according to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukeys’ method using SPSS version 17.0 at 95% confidence interval (p<0.5). According to the results, there was no significant difference at the initiation phase of anaesthesia in all three doses though the time taken was varied from 0.14 to 0.41 minutes. Mean value of the time taken to complete the anaesthetic phase at 0.4 ml/L dosage was significantly different with 0.6 ml/L and 0.8 ml/L dosages independently (p=0.01). There was no significant difference among recovery times at all dosages but 0.8 ml/L dosage took longer time compared to 0.6 ml/L dosage. The water quality parameters (pH and temperature) were stable throughout the experiment except conductivity, which increased with the higher dosage. In conclusion, the best dosage need to anaesthetize Zebrafish using clove oil solution was 0.6 ml/L due to its fast initiation of anaesthesia and quick recovery compared to the other two dosages. Therefore clove oil can be used as a good substitute for synthetic anaesthetics because of its efficacy at a lower dosage with higher safety at a low cost.

Keywords: Anaesthetics, clove oil, zebrafish, Cyprinidae

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11 In vitro and in vivo Antiangiogenic Activity of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii

Authors: Syam Mohan, Venoos Iman, Suzita Mohd Noor, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin

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Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid was isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii and its structure and purity was identified by HPLC and LC-MS. Here we report that Girinimbine strongly inhibit angiogenesis activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT result showed that girinimbine inhibits cell proliferation of the HUVECS cell line in vitro. Result of endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation and wound healing assays also demonstrated significant time and does dependent inhibition by girinimbine. Moreover, girinibine mediates its anti-angiogenic activity through up- and down-regulation of angiogenic and anti-aniogenic proteins. Furthermore, anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was evidenced in vivo on zebrafish model. Girinimbine inhibited neo-vessels formation in zebrafish embryos during 24 hours exposure time. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis and strongly suggest that it might be a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.

Keywords: zebrafish, anti-angiogenic, carbazole alkaloid, girinimbine

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10 Evaluation of Immunostimulant Potential of Proteoliposomes Derived from Vibrio anguillarum Administered by Immersion in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: M. Caruffo, P. Navarrete, C. G. Feijoo, L. Sáenz

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Disease prevention through the use of vaccines has been crucial to achieve the current level of production in the salmon industry. However, vaccines have been developed based largely on inactivated bacterial formulations, using the whole pathogen. These formulations have demonstrated excellent efficacy against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However diseases with the greatest economic impacts correspond to intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens, vaccines based on these types of agents have shown a discrete effectiveness. It is for these reasons that the development of subunit vaccines based on defined antigens offers a promising solution. The main problem is that subunit vaccines offer a low immunogenicity, since they lack immunostimulatory elements, so that the development of new adjuvants platforms becomes an important challenge for this type of formulations. We evaluate the effect of a formulation based on proteoliposomes of Vibrio anguillarum administered by immersion as a new adjuvant strategy, allowing efficient stimulation of the innate immune system. Proteoliposomes physicochemical properties were evaluated in its ability to produce an inflammatory process. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model species and the transgenic line (Tg(mpx: GFP)i114) allowed us to track the neutrophil migration in real time. Additionally we evaluated the gene expression of some molecular markers involved in the development of the innate immune response characterizing the adjuvant capacity of the formulation.

Keywords: vaccine development, Innate Immunity, zebrafish, adjuvants

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9 In vivo Evaluation of LAB Probiotic Potential with the Zebrafish Animal Model

Authors: Iñaki Iturria, Pasquale Russo, Montserrat Nacher-Vázquez, Giuseppe Spano, Paloma López, Miguel Angel Pardo

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Introduction: It is known that some Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present an interesting probiotic effect. Probiotic bacteria stimulate host resistance to microbial pathogens and thereby aid in immune response, and modulate the host's immune responses to antigens with a potential to down-regulate hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, probiotic therapy is valuable against intestinal infections and may be beneficial in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Several in vitro tests are available to evaluate the probiotic potential of a LAB strain. However, an in vivo model is required to understand the interaction between the host immune system and the bacteria. During the last few years, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained interest as a promising vertebrate model in this field. This organism has been extensively used to study the interaction between the host and the microbiota, as well as the host immune response under several microbial infections. In this work, we report on the use of the zebrafish model to investigate in vivo the colonizing ability and the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic LAB. Methods: Lactobacillus strains belonging to different LAB species were fluorescently tagged and used to colonize germ-free zebrafish larvae gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some of the strains had a well-documented probiotic effect (L. acidophilus LA5); while others presented an exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing phenotype, thus allowing evaluating the influence of EPS in the colonization and immunomodulatory effect. Bacteria colonization was monitored for 72 h by direct observation in real time using fluorescent microscopy. CFU count per larva was also evaluated at different times. The immunomodulatory effect was assessed analysing the differential expression of several innate immune system genes (MyD88, NF-κB, Tlr4, Il1β and Il10) by qRT- PCR. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using a chemical enterocolitis zebrafish model. The protective effect against a pathogen was also studied. To that end, a challenge test was developed using a fluorescently tagged pathogen (Vibrio anguillarum-GFP+). The progression of the infection was monitored up to 3 days using a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Mortality rates and CFU counts were also registered. Results and conclusions: Larvae exposed to EPS-producing bacteria showed a higher fluorescence and CFU count than those colonized with no-EPS phenotype LAB. In the same way, qRT-PCR results revealed an immunomodulatory effect on the host after the administration of the strains with probiotic activity. A downregulation of proinflammatory cytoquines as well as other cellular mediators of inflammation was observed. The anti-inflammatory effect was found to be particularly marked following exposure to LA% strain, as well as EPS producing strains. Furthermore, the challenge test revealed a protective effect of probiotic administration. As a matter of fact, larvae fed with probiotics showed a decrease in the mortality rate ranging from 20 to 35%. Discussion: In this work, we developed a promising model, based on the use of gnotobiotic zebrafish coupled with a bacterial fluorescent tagging in order to evaluate the probiotic potential of different LAB strains. We have successfully used this system to monitor in real time the colonization and persistence of exogenous LAB within the gut of zebrafish larvae, to evaluate their immunomodulatory effect and for in vivo competition assays. This approach could bring further insights into the complex microbial-host interactions at intestinal level.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Immune System, zebrafish, gnotobiotic

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8 Histological Characteristics of the Organs of Adult Zebrafish as a Biomarker for the Study of New Drugs with Effect on the Snake Venom of Bothrops alternatus

Authors: Jose Carlos Tavares Carvalho, Hady Keita, Giovanna Rocha Santana, Igor Victor Ferreira Dos Santos, Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado, Ariadna Lafourcade Prada, Adriana Maciel Ferreira, Helison Oliveira

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Summary: As animal model, zebrafish can be a good opportunity to establish a profile of tissue alteration caused by Bothrops alternatus venom and to screen new anti-venom drugs. Objective: To establish tissue biomarkers from zebrafish injected by snake venom and elucidate the use of glucocorticoids in ophidic accidents. Materials and Methods: The Danio rerio fish were randomly divided into four groups: control group, venom group, Dexamethasone1h before venom injected group and Dexamethasone 1 h after venom injected group. The concentration of Bothrops alternatus venom was 0.13 mg/ml and the fish received 20µl/Fish. The Body weight measurement and histological characteristics of gills, kidneys, liver, and intestine were determinate. Results: Physical analysis shows necrosis accompanied by inflammation in animals receiving the Bothrops alternatus venom. Significant difference was observed in the variation of weight between the control group, and the groups received the venom (t student test, p < 0.05). The average histological alterations index of gill, liver, kidney or intestine was statistically higher in animals received the venom (t Student test, p < 0.05). The alterations were lower in the groups that received Dexamethasone 1h before and after venom injected compared to the group that received only the venom. Dexamethasone 1h before venom injected group had minor histopathological alterations. Conclusion: The organs of zebrafish may be a tissue biomarker of alterations from Bothrops alternatus venom and dexamethasone reduced the damage caused by this venom in the organs studied, which may suggest the use of zebrafish as animal model for research related to screening new drug against snake venom.

Keywords: Biomarker, drugs, zebrafish, snake venom

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7 Effect of Diet Inulin Prebiotic on Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Composition and Resistance to Environmental Stresses in Zebra Danio (Danio rerio)

Authors: Ehsan Ahmadifar

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In this research, the effects of different levels (control group (T0), (T1)1, (T2)2 and (T3)3 gr Inulin per Kg diet) of prebiotic Inulin as nutritional supplement on Danio rerio were investigated for 4 month. Since the beginning of feeding larvae until adult (average weight: 67.1 g, length: 4.5 cm) were fed with experimental diets. The survival rate of fish had no significant effect on rate survival (P > 0.05). The highest food conversion ratio (FCR) was in control group and the lowest was observed in T3. Treatment of T3 significantly caused the best feed conversion ratio in Zebra fish (P < 0.05). By increasing the inulin diet during the experiment, specific growth rate increased. The highest and the lowest body weight gain and condition factor were observed in T3 and control, respectively (P < 0.05). Adding 3 gr inulin in Zebra fish diet can improve the performance of the growth indices and final biomass, also this prebiotic can be considered as a suitable supplement for Cyprinidae diet. In the first sampling stage for feeding fish, fat and muscle protein was significantly higher than the second sampling stage (P < 0.05). Given that the second stage fish were full sexual maturity, the amount of fat in muscle decreased (P < 0.05). Moisture and ash levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the second stage sampling than the first stage. Overall, different stage of living affected on muscle chemical composition muscle. Reproductive performance in treatment T2 and T3 were significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). According to the results, the prebiotic inulin does not have a significant impact on the sex ratio in zebrafish (P > 0.05). Based on histology of the gonads, the use of dietary inulin accelerates the process of gonad development in zebrafish.

Keywords: Reproduction, Histology, inulin, zebrafish

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6 Antistress Effects of Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium on Net Handing Stress-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior in Zebrafish: Possible Mechanism of Action of Adrenocorticotropin Hormone (ACTH) Receptor

Authors: Lee Seungheon, Kim Ba-Ro

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In this study, the anti-stress effects of the ethanolic extract of Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium (EHDF) were investigated. To determine the effects of EHDF on physical stress, changes in the whole-body cortisol level and behaviour were monitored in zebrafish. To induce physical stress, we used the net handling stress (NHS). Fish were treated with EHDF for 6 min before they were exposed to stress, and the fish were either evaluated via behavioural tests, including a novel tank test and an open field test or sacrificed to collect body fluid from the whole body. The results indicate that increased anxiety-like behaviours in the novel tank test and open field test under stress were recovered by treatment with EHDF at 5, 10 and 20 mg/L (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the normal group, which was not treated with NHS, the whole-body cortisol level was significantly increased by treatment with NHS in the control group. Compared with the control group, pre-treatment with EHDF at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/L for 6 min significantly prevented the increase in the whole-body cortisol level induced by NHS (P < 0.05). In addition, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) challenge studies showed that EHDF completely blocked the effects of ACTH (0.2 IU/g, IP) on cortisol secretion. These results suggest that EHDF may be a good anti-stress candidate and that its mechanism of action may be related to its positive effects on cortisol release.

Keywords: zebrafish, net handling stress, hydrangeae dulcis folium, whole-body cortisol, novel tank test, open field test

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5 Antifungal Susceptibility of Saprolegnia parasitica Isolated from Rainbow Trout and Its Host Pathogen Interaction in Zebrafish Disease Model

Authors: Jehee Lee, Sangyeop Shin, D. C. M. Kulatunga, S. H. S. Dananjaya, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Mahanama De Zoysa

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Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica. In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated fungi belong to the member of S. parasitica, supported by its typical fungal features including cotton-like whitish mycelium, zoospores (primary and secondary) and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Pathogenicity of isolated S. parasitica was developed in embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult zebrafish as a disease model. Up regulation of host genes encoding ZfTnf-α, Zfc-Rel, ZfIl-12, ZfLyz-c, Zfβ-def, and ZfHsp-70 was identified in zebrafish larvae after experimental challenge of S. parasitica showing the host immune responses against the S. parasitica. Survival of the juveniles upon fungal infection might be due to the increased immune protection in the host. Investigation of antifungal susceptibility of S. parasitica with natural lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage inhibition of radial growth (PIRG %) as 200 µg/mL and 31.8%, respectively. Lawsone was able to change the membrane permeability, and cause irreversible damage and disintegration to the cellular membranes of S. parasitica which might have effect on fungi growth inhibition. Moreover, the mycelium exposed to lawsone (MIC level) changed the transcriptional responses of S. parasitica genes. Overall results indicate that lawsone could be a potential and novel anti-S. parasitica agent for controlling S. parasitica infection.

Keywords: Host-pathogen Interactions, zebrafish, lawsone, rainbow trout, Saprolegnia parasitica, Saprolegniasis

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4 Effective Removal of Tetrodotoxin with Fiber Mat Containing Activated Charcoal

Authors: Hwa Sung Shin, Min Sik Kim

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From 2013, small eel farms, which are located in Han River Estuary, South Korea suffer damage because of unknown massive perish. In the middle of discussion that the cause of perish could be environmental changes or waste water, a large amount of unknown nemertean was discovered during that time. Some nemerteans are known releasing neurotoxin substance. In this study, we isolated intestinal bacteria using selective media and conducted 16s rDNA microbial identification by gene alignment. As a result, there was a type of bacteria producing TTX, blocks sodium-channel inducing organism’s death. TTX production from the bacteria was confirmed by ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Additionally, the activated-charcoal which has an ability to absorb small molecules like toxin was applied to fibrous mesh to prevent ingestion of aquatic organisms and increase applicable area. The viability of zebrafish in the water with TTX and charcoal fiber mat were not decreased meaning it could be used for solving the perishing problem in fish farm.

Keywords: zebrafish, nemertean, TTX, fiber mat, activated charcoal

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3 Short-Term Exposing Effects of 4,4'-DDT on Mitochondrial Electron Transport Complexes in Eyes of Zebrafish

Authors: Eun Ko, Moonsung Choi, Sooim Shin

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4,4’-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4’-DDT) is colorless, odorless organochlorine and known as persistent toxic organic pollutant accumulated in organs. In this study, effects of 4,4’-DDT on activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain system was analyzed. 4,4’-DDT is directly treated to isolated mitochondria from eyes of zebrafish and then activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, IV were measured spectrophotometrically. The reaction was proceeded immediately after adding 4,4’-DDT to examine the short-term exposing effects of persistent organic pollutant. As a result, high concentration of 4,4’-DDT treated mitochondria exhibited slightly enhanced activity in all complexes than non-treated one except complex III in male. Particularly, 4,4’-DDT was more effective on enzymatic activity in mitochondria isolated from eyes of male zebrafish. These results represented that 4,4’-DDT might temporarily induce to open up ion channel on isolated mitochondria resulting in increasing the functional activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain system.

Keywords: zebrafish, electron transport chain, mitochondrial function, persistent organic pollutant, spectrophotometric assay

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2 Compensatory Increased Activities of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes from Eyes of Glucose-Immersed Zebrafish

Authors: Eun Ko, Moonsung Choi, Sooim Shin, Jisun Jun, Kitae Kim

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Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistant, mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy resulting in worsening vision and eventual blindness. In this study, eyes were enucleated from glucose-immersed zebrafish which is a good animal model to generate diabetes, and then mitochondria were isolated to evaluate activities of mitochondrial electron transfer complexes. Surprisingly, the amount of isolated mitochondria was increased in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish compared to those from non-glucose-immerged zebrafish. Spectrophotometric analysis for measuring activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, and IV revealed that mitochondria functions was even enhanced in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish. These results indicated that 3 days or 7 days glucose-immersion on zebrafish to induce diabetes might contribute metabolic compensatory mechanism to restore their mitochondrial homeostasis on the early stage of diabetes in eyes.

Keywords: Diabetes, zebrafish, glucose immersion, mitochondrial complexes

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1 Zebrafish Larvae Model: A High Throughput Screening Tool to Study Autism

Authors: Shubham Dwivedi, Raghavender Medishetti, Rita Rani, Aarti Sevilimedu, Pushkar Kulkarni, Yogeeswari Perumal

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of early onset, characterized by impaired sociability, cognitive function and stereotypies. There is a significant urge to develop and establish new animal models with ASD-like characteristics for better understanding of underlying mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to develop a cost and time effective zebrafish model with quantifiable parameters to facilitate mechanistic studies as well as high-throughput screening of new molecules for autism. Zebrafish embryos were treated with valproic acid and a battery of behavioral tests (anxiety, inattentive behavior, irritability and social impairment) was performed on larvae at 7th day post fertilization, followed by study of molecular markers of autism. This model shows a significant behavioural impairment in valproic acid treated larvae in comparison to control which was again supported by alteration in few marker genes and proteins of autism. The model also shows a rescue of behavioural despair with positive control drugs. The model shows robust parameters to study behavior, molecular mechanism and drug screening approach in a single frame. Thus we postulate that our 7 days zebrafish larval model for autism can help in high throughput screening of new molecules on autism.

Keywords: autism, Neurodevelopment, zebrafish, valproic acid, behavioral assay

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