Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Youth Related Abstracts

63 Inquiry of Gender Discrimination in Contrast Emotions: A Study on Perception of Gender of Youth University

Authors: Duygu Alptekin

Abstract:

Patriarchal social structure is based on a gender-based discrimination. Due to confrontational nature of discrimination; in a patriarchal society men and women exists in a based on contrasts and inequalities interaction patterns and this situation continues as socio-cultural with dominant gender perception in society. In this context gender perception of youth is a required vision tool for multidimensional understanding and resolving of gender discrimination problem and making projections about future. The aim of the study is explaining the gender discrimination by helping of Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and hostile benevolent sexism which are subdimensions of (ASI). Additionally the sexism perception of youth will be try to analyse ın the context of conflict of conventionalism and modernism. For that purpose survey have carried aout with the participation of students at the Selcuk University and the conclusions revealed that reached ampirically Young people's perceptions about the hierarchy of power revealed between men and women; sexual, economic and occupational segregation by pointing to statements about male-female relationships commitment, guardianship, gratitude, expressions containing highlights the superiority of socio-psychological (ASI) where results are determined by the application. The results of the factor analysis performed in this direction with the detection of the previous studies were evaluated by blending.

Keywords: Youth, Conventionalism, Gender Discrimination, ambivalent sexism inventory

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62 The Role of ICT in Engaging Youth in Agricultural Transformation of Africa

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 percent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youth and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths to agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information.

Keywords: Agriculture, ICT, Youth, Africa, tool

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61 Engaging African Youth in Agribusiness through ICT

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 per cent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youths and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. The youth is vibrant, energetic, creative, and innovative and has the potential to play a significant role sustainable agriculture. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths in agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information. ICT has become a key factor in economic development in most developing countries. The exchange of information is essential for stakeholders in the agricultural sector, as it is the tool to establish, develop and manage efforts to improve performance, productivity and economic competitiveness in local and international markets. In this regard, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is a powerful tool, fast and innovative to facilitate the exchange of information among all stakeholders in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Agriculture, ICT, Youth, Africa, tool

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60 A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior on Emergency Contraception among Higher Secondary and Bachelor Level Youth Students of Lekhnath Municipality, Nepal

Authors: Gokul Pathak, Dilip Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Background: Unsafe/unprotected and early sexual relations are highly responsible for the problems of unwanted pregnancy, child birth and other adverse consequences. Emergency contraception (EC) refers to methods that women can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, method failure or incorrect use. Aim and Objective: The objective of this research study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior on emergency contraception among youth students of Lekhnath Municipality. Methodology: This institution based descriptive study was carried out in August-October 2012 on Lekhnath Municipality, Nepal. Multistage simple random sampling procedure with pretested semi structured questionnaire following self administered technique was used to collect information. Collected data was coded and entered in the EpiData 3.1 ® and exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS®) version 20.0 for analysis. Chi-square test and Spearman correlation was applied wherever required. Results: A total of 641 students (87.6 %), youth students participated in this study which incorporates 354 male and 287 female youth students, of them 54.3% were from Higher Secondary level and 45.7% were from Undergraduate level. The awareness of EC among respondents was found only 64.7%. 25.8% respondents were found to have fair knowledge level where as 74.2% had poor knowledge level. Level of knowledge was significantly associated with age, educational level, faculty and educational status of mother. The study showed 82.4% respondent’s favorable attitude towards use of EC. 21.1% respondents were found to be sexually active (29.7% male and 10.5% female) and only 28.1% of sexually active respondents had ever used any method of EC. Conclusion: Knowledge about EC was found quiet low among youth. There was significant lack of knowledge about exact time limit of using devices of EC. Similarly several misconceptions regarding EC were found very high among youth. Health education initiatives should target students as they are more likely to be sexually active.

Keywords: Knowledge, Youth, emergency contraception, unsafe/unprotected sexual intercourse, attitude and behavior

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59 An excessive Screen Time of High School Students in Their Free Time Promotes Our Young People’s Risk of Obesity

Authors: Susana Aldaba Yaben, Marga Echauri Ozcoidi, Rosario Osinaga Cenoz

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It was decided to make a diagnosis with students of Berriozar High School between 12 and 15 years (both included) for their lifestyles in relation to eating habits, BMI (Body Mass Index), physical activity, drugs, interpersonal relationships and screen time. The aim of this survey is identifying needs of this population and depending on the results, we could program socio-educational activities. This action is part of the Community Health Promotion Programme and healthy lifestyles in childhood and youth of Berriozar. The eating habits, a lack of physical activity and an excessive screen time are causes of 26,75% of obese or overweight young people. First of all, many of them have got a diet enriched in saturated fats and sugars. Secondly, most of them do not practise physical exercise daily and finally, their screen time are higher than the recommendation (until 2 hours a day).

Keywords: Education, Physical Activity, diet, Youth, Lifestyle, BMI, screen time

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58 Safe School Program in Indonesia: Questioning Whether It Is Too Hard to Succeed

Authors: Ida Ngurah

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Indonesia is one of the most prone disaster countries, which has earthquake, tsunami or high wave, flood and landslide as well as volcano eruption and drought. Disaster risk reduction has been developing extensively and comprehensively, particularly after tsunami hit in 2004. Yet, saving people live including children and youth from disaster risk is still far from succeed. Poor management of environment, poor development of policy and high level of corruption has become challenges for Indonesia to save its people from disaster impact. Indonesia is struggling to ensure its future best investment, children and youth to have better protection when disaster strike in school hours and have basic knowledge on disaster risk reduction. The program of safe school is being initiated and developed by Plan Indonesia since 2010, yet this effort still needs to be elaborated. This paper is reviewing sporadic safe school programs that have been implemented or currently being implemented Plan Indonesia in few areas of Indonesia, including both rural and urban setting. Methods used are in-depth interview with dedicated person for the program from Plan Indonesia and its implementing patners and analysis of project documents. The review includes program’s goal and objectives, implementation activity, result and achievement as well as its monitoring and evaluation scheme. Moreover, paper will be showing challenges, lesson learned and best practices of the program. Eventually, paper will come up with recommendation for strategy for better implementation of safe school program in Indonesia.

Keywords: Children, Programs, Youth, disaster impact, safe school

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57 The Role of the Youth in Rebranding Nigeria

Authors: Hamzah Kamil Adeyemi, Oyesikun Abayomi Nathaniel

Abstract:

The plural nature of Nigeria state has created a leadership gap in the 21st century. The leadership problem encapsulated socio-economic system has called for a reorientation in youth to channel a programme that will redeem the image (OT) the country among the committee of nations and chart a way forward in bailing the country out of bad governance unemployment corruption and other anti-development policies. The touth need to raise up to the challenges of nation building. This study engaged theoretical analysis, both written records was used to add value to its quality and recommendation was made with conclusion.

Keywords: Education, Youth, Nigeria, rebranding, unempolyment

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56 Innovations in International Trauma Education: An Evaluation of Learning Outcomes and Community Impact of a Guyanese trauma Training Graduate Program

Authors: Jeffrey Ansloos

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International trauma education in low and emerging economies requires innovative methods for capacity building in existing social service infrastructures. This study details the findings of a program evaluation used to assess the learning outcomes and community impact of an international trauma-focused graduate degree program in Guyana. Through a collaborative partnership between Lesley University, the Government of Guyana, and UNICEF, a 2-year low-residency masters degree graduate program in trauma-focused assessment, intervention, and treatment was piloted with a cohort of Guyanese mental health professionals. Through an analytical review of the program development, as well as qualitative data analysis of participant interviews and focus-groups, this study will address the efficacy of the programming in terms of preparedness of professionals to understand, evaluate and implement trauma-informed practices across various child, youth, and family mental health service settings. Strengths and limitations of this international trauma-education delivery model will be discussed with particular emphasis on the role of capacity-building interventions, community-based participatory curriculum development, innovative technological delivery platforms, and interdisciplinary education. Implications for further research and subsequent program development will be discussed.

Keywords: Child, Youth, Mental health education, Innovations in education, mental health promotion, global health promotion, trauma education

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55 Attitudes toward Work-Life Balance among Japanese Youth

Authors: Tomoko Adachi

Abstract:

Although, thirty years have passed since the enactment of Equal Employment Opportunity Law, contemporary Japanese citizens still have difficulties in balancing work and life responsibilities. Not a few women give up their professional career after childbirth, meanwhile, men spend longer hours at work and have minimal time for their families. One of the reasons should be attributed to the traditional gender role ideas which have been entrenched even among younger generations. In an attempt to explore the psychological factors which enable work-life balance, the current study investigated attitudes of Japanese youth toward work-life balance and their relationships with gender role attitudes. Participants were 948 Japanese (165 men and 783 women) with the average age of 19.60 (SD=1.18). As for measure, a scale developed and modified by the author was used to assess attitudes toward work-life balance and Short form of the Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitudes (SESRA-S) was used to assess traditional vs. egalitarian gender role attitudes. The results showed clear gender differences as follows. First, examination of attitudes toward work-life balance showed that more than 90% of men preferred to continue their work without child care interruption. Meanwhile, women showed various attitudes, with around 50% wanted to have child care interruption, 40% wanted to continue working without it, while, 10% wanted to work until childbirth. Secondly, gender comparison of egalitarian gender role attitudes showed that women possessed equal ideas on gender roles than men. Thirdly, relationships between gender role attitudes and attitudes for work-life balance were examined. No significant relationship between the two was found among men, which implies that regardless of the gender role attitudes, most of the men thought that continuing work without child care interruption was the ideal path for them. On the other hand, the effects of gender role attitudes were apparent among women, showing that women with egalitarian attitudes preferred to continue their professional career even after childbirth. The present study revealed gender difference in the idea about work-life balance with men possessing traditional ideas of 'men should be a bread winner'. Implications for support on young adults to reconcile work and family responsibilities were discussed.

Keywords: Youth, career path, gender role attitudes, work-life balance

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54 The Role of Social Networking in Activating the Participation of Youth in the Community

Authors: Raya Hamed Hial Al Maamari

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The gulf societies have been undergoing radical changes because of the technology transfer. It altered the humanities attitudes. Especially, youth habits so they become a fond of using social networking. This study aimed to find out the ratio of social networking in Directing youth to participate with government institutions in decision-making and improving their societies. The study considered a descriptive study, social survey method was used on a sample of 100 young men from different gulf countries, using an electronic questionnaire, with some interviews with famous leaders of youth groups. Finally, the researchers suggested many effective views to activate youth efforts using social networks as an effective manner to plan for the development policy and Implemented accurately in the community. The findings illustrated that social networks play a vital role in encouraging youth to participate Enthusiastically in providing the service. As it notices these networks contain large numbers of youth. Therefore, the influences become widely and feasible. Moreover, the study indicated the fact that most of youth teamwork started in these social networks. Then, it has been growing to the real society.

Keywords: Community, Social Work, Youth, volunteering

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53 Prediction of Marijuana Use among Iranian Early Youth: an Application of Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

Authors: Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Farzad Jalilian

Abstract:

Background: Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults, which can cause numerous complications. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, motivation use, and factors related to marijuana use among Iranian youths based on the integrative model of behavioral prediction Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 174 youths marijuana user in Kermanshah County and Isfahan County, during summer 2014 which was selected with the convenience sampling for participation in this study. A self-reporting questionnaire was applied for collecting data. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations and linear regression statistical tests. Results: The mean marijuana use of respondents was 4.60 times at during week [95% CI: 4.06, 5.15]. Linear regression statistical showed, the structures of integrative model of behavioral prediction accounted for 36% of the variation in the outcome measure of the marijuana use at during week (R2 = 36% & P < 0.001); and among them attitude, marijuana refuse, and subjective norms were a stronger predictors. Conclusion: Comprehensive health education and prevention programs need to emphasize on cognitive factors that predict youth’s health-related behaviors. Based on our findings it seems, designing educational and behavioral intervention for reducing positive belief about marijuana, marijuana self-efficacy refuse promotion and reduce subjective norms encourage marijuana use has an effective potential to protect youths marijuana use.

Keywords: Marijuana, Youth, Iran, integrative model of behavioral prediction

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52 Sexual Health and Sexual Risk Behavior of the Youth with HIV Positive in Northeastern Part, Thailand

Authors: Orathai Srithongtham, Ubonsri Thabuddha

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The youth with HIV positive is not difference from the general youth in term of sexual needs. Sexual health is crucial the most to support the youth with HIV positive to be sexual well-being. This study aims to elucidate the sexual health on protection from STDs (Sexual Transmitted Diseases) and HIV transmission and to explain sexual risk behavior of the youth with HIV positive. The target group was the youth with HIV positive about 23 cases from two provinces in northeastern part of Thailand. Qualitative method was applied for collecting data by in-depth interview. Content analysis was use for data analysis. The youth with HIV positive was protection from STDs and HIV transmission by using the condom during sexual activity. The reason to deny the condom use were ashamed, condom is not a part of life, no have fit size, and the youth fear to stigmatized as a mental disorder and fear to stigmatized as going to fuck someone. The youth who trust with nurse in clinic was dare to request the condom by face. Sexual activity without condom use is sexual risk behavior. The major causes were couple trust and the sexual enjoyment first and sexual active competition with friend without condom use. The concern on HIV was the boyfriend or girlfriend not accepts the HIV positive people, worry about the HIV transmutation, and finally not compliance to ARV drug. The youth with HIV positive was lacking of the knowledge on sexual health on the issues of access to condom and the concern to keep on relationship with the boyfriend or girlfriend. This concern issues was led to the non-adherence of ARV drug and HIV distribution. To provide the sexual health service is more essential to the youth with HIV positive.

Keywords: HIV, Youth, Sexual Health, sexual risk behavior

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51 The Use of Substances and Sports Performance among Youth: Implications for Lagos State Sports

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Adesanya Adebisi Joseph, Omolade Akinmade Olatunde

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The focus of this study was to determine the factors associated with the use of substances for sport performance of youth in Lagos state sport. Questionnaire was the instrument used for the study. Descriptive research method was used. The estimated population for the study was 2000 sport men and women. The sample size was 200 respondents for purposive sampling techniques were used. The instrument was validated in it content and constructs value. The instrument was administered with the assistance of the coaches. Same 200 copies administered were returned. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and chi-square (x2) for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The finding reveal that sport injuries exercise induced and anaphylaxis and asthma and feeling of loss of efficacy associated with alcohol used on sport performance among the users of substances. Alcohol users are recommended to partake in sport like swimming, basketball and volleyball because they have space of time for resting while at play. Government should be fully in charge of the health of sport men and women.

Keywords: Youth, implications, sports performance, Lagos state, substances

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50 Decoding Socio-Cultural Trends in Indian Urban Youth Using Ogilvy 3E Model

Authors: Falguni Vasavada, Pradyumna Malladi

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The research focuses on studying the ecosystem of the youth using Ogilvy's 3E model, Ethnography and Thematic Analysis. It has been found that urban Indian youth today is an honest generation, hungry for success, living life by the moment, fiercely independent, are open about sex, sexuality and embrace individual differences. Technology and social media dominate their life. However, they are also phobic about commitments, often drifting along life and engage in unsubstantiated brave-talk.

Keywords: Culture, Buyer Behavior, Youth, ethnography, track

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49 Youth and Employment: An Outlook on Challenges of Demographic Dividend

Authors: Vidya Yadav

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India’s youth bulge is now sharpest at the critical 15-24 age group, even as its youngest, and oldest age groups begin to narrow. As the ‘single year, age data’ for the 2011 Census releases the data on the number of people at each year of age in the population. The data shows that India’s working age population (15-64 years) is now 63.4 percent of the total, as against just short of 60 percent in 2001. The numbers also show that the ‘dependency ratio’ the ratio of children (0-14) and the elderly (65 above) to those in the working age has shrunk further to 0.55. “Even as the western world is in ageing situation, these new numbers show that India’s population is still very young”. As the fertility falls faster in urban areas, rural India is younger than urban India; while 51.73 percent of rural Indians are under the age of 24 and 45.9 percent of urban Indians are under 24. The percentage of the population under the age of 24 has dropped, but many demographers say that it should not be interpreted as a sign of the youth bulge is shrinking. Rather it is because of “declining fertility, the number of infants and children reduces first, and this is what we see with the number of under age 24. Indeed the figure shows that the proportion of children in the 0-4 and 5-9 age groups has fallen in 2011 compared to 2001. For the first time, the percentage of children in the 10-14 age group has also fallen, as the effect of families reducing the number of children they have begins to be felt. The present paper key issue is to examine that “whether this growing youth bulge has the right skills for the workforce or not”. The study seeks to examine the youth population structure and employment distribution among them in India during 2001-2011 in different industrial category. It also tries to analyze the workforce participation rate as main and marginal workers both for male and female workers in rural and urban India by utilizing an abundant source of census data from 2001-2011. Result shows that an unconscionable number of adolescents are working when they should study. In rural areas, large numbers of youths are working as an agricultural labourer. Study shows that most of the youths working are in the 15-19 age groups. In fact, this is the age of entry into higher education, but due to economic compulsion forces them to take up jobs, killing their dreams of higher skills or education. Youths are primarily engaged in low paying irregular jobs which are clearly revealed by census data on marginal workers. That is those who get work for less than six months in a year. Large proportions of youths are involved in the cultivation and household industries works.

Keywords: Work, Youth, main, marginal

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48 A Study of the Effects of Zimbabwean Youth Migration on Musina Area, South Africa

Authors: R. Chinyakata, N. R. Raselekoane

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Migration has always been part of human history. Migration is spurred by globalisation which connects nations by encouraging the flow of goods, services, ideas and people across borders. Migration does not only involve movement of adults from one country to another. It also affects and involves the youth as they are the most mobile group. Musina area, like many other border areas, experiences a variety of challenges as a result of the influx of people from the neighbouring Zimbabwe and other African countries. Of great concern about this migration is the fact that the host country or area may become unsafe and unstable as a result of huge influx of migrants. There may also be tensions between local people and migrants over the resources. The study sought to investigate the effects of the Zimbabwean youth migration on Musina area. The study was undertaken in Musina area which is situated 18km from the Beit-Bridge border post. A qualitative research approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Non-probability quota sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The study sample consisted of sixteen female and male respondents. Thematic coding was used to analyse the data. Ethical considerations such as informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity and voluntary participation were taken into account to protect the participants. The study found that the effects of the Zimbabwean youth migration on the Musina area include, among others, tensions between locals and the Zimbabwean youth migrants over resources, job and business opportunities, overcrowding and crime. Multi-pronged strategies which involve different stakeholders should be applied to address tensions over job and business opportunities, overcrowding and crime in the Musina area.

Keywords: Migration, Youth, effects, migrant, Zimbabwe, host country, Musina

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47 Role of Community Youths in Conservation of Forests and Protected Areas of Bangladesh

Authors: Obaidul Fattah Tanvir, Zinat Ara Afroze

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Community living adjacent to forests and Protected Areas, especially in South Asian countries, have a common practice in extracting resources for their living and livelihoods. This extraction of resources, because the way it is done, destroys the biophysical features of the area. Deforestation, wildlife poaching, illegal logging, unauthorized hill cutting etc. are some of the serious issues of concern for the sustainability of the natural resources that has a direct impact on environment and climate as a whole. To ensure community involvement in conservation initiatives of the state, community based forest management, commonly known as Comanagement, has been in practice in 6 South Asian countries. These are -India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Involving community in forestry management was initiated first in Bangladesh in 1979 and reached as an effective co-management approach through a several paradigm shifts. This idea of Comanagement has been institutionalized through a Government Order (GO) by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of Bangladesh on November 23, 2009. This GO clearly defines the structure and functions of Co-management and its different bodies. Bangladesh Forest Department has been working in association with community to conserve and manage the Forests and Protected areas of Bangladesh following this legal document. Demographically young people constitute the largest segment of population in Bangladesh. This group, if properly sensitized, can produce valuable impacts on the conservation initiatives, both by community and government. This study traced the major factors that motivate community youths to work effectively with different tiers of comanagement organizations in conservation of forests and Protected Areas of Bangladesh. For the purpose of this study, 3 FGDs were conducted with 30 youths from the community living around the Protected Areas of Cox’s bazar, South East corner of Bangladesh, who are actively involved in Co-management organizations. KII were conducted with 5 key officials of Forest Department stationed at Cox’s Bazar. 2 FGDs were conducted with the representatives of 7 Co-management organizations working in Cox’s Bazar region and approaches of different community outreach activities conducted for forest conservation by 3 private organizations and Projects have been reviewed. Also secondary literatures were reviewed for the history and evolution of Co-management in Bangladesh and six South Asian countries. This study found that innovative community outreach activities that are financed by public and private sectors involving youths and community as a whole have played a pivotal role in conservation of forests and Protected Areas of the region. This approach can be replicated in other regions of Bangladesh as well as other countries of South Asia where Co-Management exists in practice.

Keywords: Forests, Conservation, Community, Youth, Protected Areas, co-management

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46 Mental Health in Young People Living Poverty in Southeastern Mexico

Authors: Teresita Castillo, Concepción Campo, Carlos Carrillo

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Attention, comprehension and solution of poverty can be worked considering a socioeconomic approach; but it also can be attended from a multidimensional perspective that allows considering other dimensions including psychological variables manifested in behaviors, thoughts and feelings concerning this phenomenon. Considering the importance of research regarding psychology and poverty, this paper presents results about psychosocial impacts of poverty on young people related to mental health issues and its relation to fatalism. These results are part of a bigger transcultural study done in collaboration with the Federal University of Ceará, in Brazil. Participants were 101 young men and women, between 12 and 29 years old, living in two emarginated suburbs in Mérida, Mexico, located in the southeastern zone of the country. Participants responded the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ- 20), with 20 items dichotomous presence/absence that assess anxious and depressive issues and the Fatalism Scale, with 30 items Likert five-point spread over five factors. Results show that one third of participants mentioned to get easily frightened, feeling nervous, tense or worried as well as unhappy, difficulty on making decisions, and troubles in thinking clearly. About 20% mentioned to have headaches, to sleep badly, to cry more than usual and to feel tired all the time. Regarding Fatalism, results show there is a greater internal allocation and lower external attribution in young participants, but they have some symptoms regarding poor mental health. Discussion is in terms of possible explanations about the results and emphasizes the importance of holistic approaches for a better understanding of the psychosocial impacts of poverty on young people and strengthening the resilience to increase positive mental health in emarginated contexts, where Community Psychology could have an important duty in community health promotion.

Keywords: Poverty, Mental Health, Youth, fatalism

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45 The Nexus between Social Entrepreneurship and Youth Empowerment

Authors: Aaron G. Laylo

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This paper mainly assumes that social entrepreneurship contributes significantly to youth empowerment i.e., work and community engagement. Two questions are thus raised in order to establish this hypothesis: 1) First, how does social entrepreneurship contribute to youth empowerment?; and 2) secondly, why is social entrpreneurship significantly incremental to youth empowerment? This research aims a) to investigate on the social aspect of entrepreneurship; b) to explore challenges in youth empowerment particularly in respect to work and community engagement; and c) to inquire into whether social enterprises have truly served as a catalyst for, thus an effective response to, youth empowerment. It must be emphasized that young people, which comprise 1.8 billion in a world of seven billion are an asset; Apparently, how to maximize that potential is crucial. By utilizing exploratory research design, the paper endeavors to generate new ideas in regards to both components, develop tentative theories on social entrepreneurship, and refine certain issues that are under observation and seek scholarly attention— a rather emerging phenomenon vis a vis the challenge to empower a significant cluster of the society. Case studies will be utilized as an approach in order to comparatively analyze youth-driven social enterprises in the Philippines that have been widely recognized as successful insofar as social impact is concerned. As most scholars attested, social entrepreneurship is still at its infancy stage. Youth empowerment, meanwhile, is yet a vast area to explore insofar as academic research is concerned. Programs and projects that advocate the pursuit of these components abound. However, academic research is yet to be undertaken to see and understand their social and economic relevance. This research is also an opportunity for scholars to explore, understand, and make sense of the promise that lies in social entrepreneurship research and how it can serve as a catalyst for youth empowerment. Youth-driven social enterprises can be an influential tool in sustaining development across the globe as they intend to provide opportunities for optimal economic productivity that recognizes social inclusion. Ultimately, this study should be able to contribute to both research and development-in-practice communities for the greater good of the society. By establishing the nexus between these two components, the research may contribute to fostering greater exploration of the benefits that both may yield to human progress as well as the gaps that have to be filled in by various policy stakeholders relevant to these units.

Keywords: Youth, Social Inclusion, Empowerment, social entpreneurship

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44 Voluntary Work Monetary Value and Cost-Benefit Analysis with 'Value Audit and Voluntary Investment' Technique: Case Study of Yazd Red Crescent Society Youth Members Voluntary Work in Health and Safety Plan for New Year's Passengers

Authors: Hamed Seddighi Khavidak

Abstract:

Voluntary work has a lot of economic and social benefits for a country, but the economic value is ignored because it is voluntary. The aim of this study is reviewing Monetary Value of Voluntary Work methods and comparing opportunity cost method and replacement cost method both in theory and in practice. Beside monetary value, in this study, we discuss cost-benefit analysis of health and safety plan in the New Year that conducted by young volunteers of Red Crescent society of Iran. Method: We discussed eight methods for monetary value of voluntary work including: Alternative-Employment Wage Approach, Leisure-Adjusted OCA, Volunteer Judgment OCA, Replacement Wage Approach, Volunteer Judgment RWA, Supervisor Judgment RWA, Cost of Counterpart Goods and Services and Beneficiary Judgment. Also, for cost benefit analysis we drew on 'value audit and volunteer investment' (VIVA) technique that is used widely in voluntary organizations like international federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. Findings: In this study, using replacement cost approach, voluntary work by 1034 youth volunteers was valued 938000000 Riyals and using Replacement Wage Approach it was valued 2268713232 Riyals. Moreover, Yazd Red Crescent Society spent 212800000 Riyals on food and other costs for these volunteers. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, using cost benefit analysis method that is Volunteer Investment and Value Audit (VIVA), VIVA rate showed that for every Riyal that the Red Crescent Society invested in the health and safety of New Year's travelers in its volunteer project, four Riyals returned, and using the wage replacement approach, 11 Riyals returned. Therefore, New Year's travelers health and safety project were successful and economically, it was worthwhile for the Red Crescent Society because the output was much bigger than the input costs.

Keywords: Youth, voluntary work, monetary value, red crescent society

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43 The Management of Media Literacy Development for Thai Students

Authors: Supranee Wattanasin

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The purpose of this research was to enhance student’s media literacy. The process was divided into 4 periods: the first phase was to hold the meeting for 100 representatives from various institutions in Thailand; the second phase allowed them to design activities to be used in their institutions; the third implemented activities to reach other target groups; and the last phase was to summarize results. It was found that the participants had clear understanding on media literacy. They knew well about the media. In other words, they knew the difference between creative media and bad ones. Students could use analytical process when searching for information. Thus, the project enabled the students to use analytical thinking skills in designing new activities. Therefore, they could creatively integrate Thai folk song with short movies and cartoons. To increase students’ media literacy, there should be chances for them to gain first-hand experience.

Keywords: Youth, Media literacy, mechanism development, project radio-television

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42 An Interaction Model of Communication Skills and Participation in Social Work among Youth

Authors: Mohd Yusri Ibrahim

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Youth participation in social work is essential in social and community development. Although many studies have been conducted to identify the determinant of youth involvement, few studies were discussed interaction between communication skills and youth participation in volunteerism. This article will discuss a cross-sectional study that was conducted to identify the relationship between communication skills and youth participation in social work. The results were successfully developed an interaction model of communication skills as predictor to participation criteria among youth. Finally, the article was suggested several ways to encourage youth participation in community by developing their communication skill in various stages.

Keywords: Social Work, Participation, Youth, communication skill

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41 Fast-Tracking University Education for Youth Employment: Empirical Evidence from University Graduates in Rwanda

Authors: Fred Alinda, Marjorie Negesa, Gerald Karyeija

Abstract:

Like elsewhere in the world, youth unemployment remains a big problem more so to the most educated youth and female. In Rwanda, unemployment is estimated at 13.2% among youth graduates compared to 10.9% and 2.6 among secondary and primary graduates respectively. Though empirical evidence elsewhere associate youth unemployment with education level, relevance of skills and access to business support opportunities, mixed evidence still exist on the significance of these factors to youth employment. As youth employment strategies in countries like Rwanda continue to recognize the potential role university education can play to enhance employment, there is a need to understand the catalysts or barriers. This paper, therefore, draws empirical evidence from a survey on the influence of education qualification, skills relevance and access to business support opportunities on employment of the youth university graduates in Masaka sector, Rwanda. The analysis tested four hypotheses; access to university education significantly affects youth employment, Relevance of university education significantly contributes to youth employment; access to business support opportunities significantly contributes to youth employment, and significant gender differences exist in the employment of youth university graduates. A cross-section survey was used in lieu of the need to explore the prevailing status of youth employment and contributing factors across the sector. A questionnaire was used to collect data on a large sample of 269 youth to allow statistical analysis. This was beefed up with qualitative views of leaders and technical officials in the sector. The youth University graduates were selected using simple random sampling while the leaders and technical officials were selected purposively. Percentages were used to describe respondents in line with the variables under while a regression model for youth employment was fitted to determine the significant factors. The model results indicated a significant influence (p<0.05) of gender, education level and access to business support opportunities on employment of youth university graduates. This finding was also affirmed by the qualitative views of key informants. Qualitative views pointed to the fact that university education generally equipped the youth with skills that enabled their transition into employment mainly for a salary or wage. The skills were, however, deficient in technical and practical aspects. In addition, the youth generally lacked limited access to business support opportunities particularly guarantees for loans, business advisory, and grants for business as well as training in business skills that would help them gain salaried employment or transit into self-employment. The study findings bear an implication on the strategy for catalyzing youth employment through university education. The findings imply that university education should be embraced but with greater emphasis on or supplementation with specialized training in practical and technical skills as well as extending business support opportunities to the youth. This will accelerate the contribution of university education to youth employment.

Keywords: Education, Employment, Youth, Self-Employment

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40 Suicide, Help-Seeking and LGBT Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Elizabeth McDermott, Elizabeth Hughes, Victoria Rawlings

Abstract:

Globally, suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15–29 year-olds. Young people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have elevated rates of suicide and self-harm. Despite the increased risk, there is a paucity of research on LGBT help-seeking and suicidality. This is the first national study to investigate LGBT youth help-seeking for suicidal feelings and self-harm. We report on a UK sequential exploratory mixed method study that employed face-to-face and online methods in two stages. Stage one involved 29 online (n=15) and face-to-face (n=14) semi-structured interviews with LGBT youth aged under 25 years old. Stage two utilized an online LGBT youth questionnaire employing a community-based sampling strategy (n=789). We found across the sample that LGBT youth who self-harmed or felt suicidal were reluctant to seek help. Results indicated that participants were normalizing their emotional distress and only asked for help when they reached crisis point and were no longer coping. Those who self-harmed (p<0.001, OR=2.82), had attempted or planned suicide (p<0.05, OR=1.48), or had experience of abuse related to their sexuality or gender (p<0.01, OR=1.80), were most likely to seek help. There were a number of interconnecting reasons that contributed to participants’ problems accessing help. The most prominent of these were: negotiating norms in relation to sexuality, gender, mental health and age; being unable to talk about emotions, and coping and self-reliance. It is crucial that policies and practices that aim to prevent LGBT youth suicide recognize that norms and normalizing processes connected to sexual orientation and gender identity are additional difficulties that LGBT youth have accessing mental health support.

Keywords: Youth, Suicide, LGBT, help-seeking

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39 Developing Measurement Model of Interpersonal Skills of Youth

Authors: Mohd Yusri Ibrahim

Abstract:

Although it is known that interpersonal skills are essential for personal development, the debate however continues as to how to measure those skills, especially in youths. This study was conducted to develop a measurement model of interpersonal skills by suggesting three construct namely personal, skills and relationship; six function namely self, perception, listening, conversation, emotion and conflict management; and 30 behaviours as indicators. This cross-sectional survey by questionnaires was applied in east side of peninsula of Malaysia for 150 respondents, and analyzed by structural equation modelling (SEM) by AMOS. The suggested constructs, functions and indicators were consider accepted as measurement elements by observing on regression weight for standard loading, average variance extracted (AVE) for convergent validity, square root of AVE for discriminant validity, composite reliability (CR), and at least three fit indexes for model fitness. Finally, a measurement model of interpersonal skill for youth was successfully developed.

Keywords: Youth, Interpersonal Communication, communication skill, interpersonal skill

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38 The Impact of Life Satisfaction on Substance Abuse: Delinquency as a Mediator

Authors: Mahadzirah Mohamad, Morliyati Mohammad, Nor Azman Mat Ali, Zainudin Awang

Abstract:

Globally, youth substance abuse has been identified as the problem that causes substantial damage not only to individuals, but also to families and communities. In addition, substance abuse youths have become unproductive resources that would play lesser roles in the nation’s development. The increasing trend of substance abuse among youths has raised a lot of concern among various quarters in Malaysia. It has also been reported that Malay youths are the majority group involved in substance abuse. However, it was noted that life satisfaction had been found to be an important mitigating factor that addressed substance abuse. The objectives of the study were twofold: firstly, to ascertain the effect of life satisfaction on substance abuse among Malay youth. Secondly, to identify the role of delinquency on the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 500 Malay youths at the youth programmes using a two-step sampling technique: area sampling and systematic sampling. The research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significance relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. There is a significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction and delinquency. Moreover, delinquency has a positive significant influence on substance abuse. The use of Bootstrapping analysis proved that delinquency plays a full mediating role in the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study suggested that life satisfaction has no effect on youth substance abuse. In order to reduce substance abuse, efforts should be undertaken to reduce delinquency behaviour by increasing youth life satisfaction.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Youth, Delinquency, Life Satisfaction

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37 The Role of Social Media in Activating Youth Participation in the Community

Authors: Raya Hamed Hilal Al Maamari

Abstract:

The Gulf societies have been undergoing radical changes due to the technology transfer. It altered the humanities attitudes, especially, youth habits as they have become an addicted to using social media. This study aimed to find out the ratio of social media in guiding youth to participate with government’s institutions in decision-making and developing their societies. The study considered a descriptive study, social survey method was used on a sample of 100 young from different gulf countries, using an electronic questionnaire, as well as, some interviews with famous leaders of youth groups. Finally, the researcher suggested some effective ways activate youth efforts using social media in an effective manner to plan for the development policy in the community. The findings illustrated that social media plays a vital role in encouraging youth to participate enthusiastically in providing services. Noticeably, social media contains large numbers of youth. Therefore, the influences will be widely and feasible. Moreover, the study indicated the fact that most of the youth teamwork started in social media. Then, it has been growing in the real society.

Keywords: Social Media, Community, Participation, Youth

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36 Examining How Youth Use Mobile Devices for Health Information: Preliminary Findings of a Survey Study with High School Students in Croatia

Authors: Sung Un Kim, Ivana Martinović, Snježana Stanarević Katavić

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As more and more youth use mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones, for information seeking in their everyday lives, the purpose of this study is to understand the behaviors of youth seeking health information on mobile devices. The specific objective of this study is to examine 1) for what health issues youth use mobile devices, 2) for what reasons youth use mobile devices to obtain health information, 3) in what ways youth use mobile devices for health information, and 4) the features of health applications that youth find useful. The researchers devised a questionnaire for this study. Four hundred eight students from two high schools, located in Osijek, Croatia, participated by answering the questionnaire (281 girls and 127 boys). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results show that among all participants, about 85 percent (n = 344) reported having used mobile devices for health information. The most frequent health topic for which they had been using mobile devices is physical activity (n = 273), followed by eating issues and nutrition (n = 224), mental health (n = 160), sexual health (n = 157), alcohol, drugs, and tobacco (n = 125), safety (n = 96) and particular diseases (n = 62). They use mobile devices to obtain health information due to the ease of use (n = 342), the ease of sharing health information (n = 281), portability (n = 215), timeliness (n = 162), and the ease of tracking/recording/monitoring health status (n = 147). Of those who have used mobile devices for health information, three-quarters (n = 261) use mobile devices to search health information, while 32.8% (n =113) use applications and 31.7% (n =109) browse information. Those who have used applications for health information (n = 113) consider the alert feature (n=107) as the most useful, followed by the tracking/recording/monitoring feature (n =92), the customized information feature (n = 86), the video feature (n = 58), and the sharing feature (n =39). It is notable that although health applications have been actively developed and studied, a majority of the participants search for or browse information on mobile devices, instead of using applications. The researchers will discuss reasons that some of them did not use mobile devices to obtain health information, students’ concerns about using health applications, and features that they wish to have in health applications.

Keywords: mobile devices, Health Information, Youth, Croatia, information seeking behaviors

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35 Visual Construction of Youth in Czechoslovak Press Photographs: 1959-1989

Authors: Jana Teplá

Abstract:

This text focuses on the visual construction of youth in press photographs in socialist Czechoslovakia. It deals with photographs in a magazine for young readers, Mladý svět, published by the Socialist Union of Youth of Czechoslovakia. The aim of this study was to develop a methodological tool for uncovering the values and the ideological messages in the strategies used in the visual construction of reality in the socialist press. Two methods of visual analysis were applied to the photographs, a quantitative content analysis and a social semiotic analysis. The social semiotic analysis focused on images representing youth in their free time. The study shows that the meaning of a socialist press photograph is a result of a struggle for ideological power between formal and informal ideologies. This struggle takes place within the process of production of the photograph and also within the process of interpretation of the photograph.

Keywords: Ideology, Youth, press photography, socialist regime, social semiotics

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34 Youth Participation in Peace Building and Development in Northern Uganda

Authors: Eric Awich Ochen

Abstract:

The end of the conflict in Northern Uganda in 2006 brought about an opportunity for the youth to return to their original home and contribute to the peace building and development process of their communities. Post-conflict is used here to refer to the post-armed conflict situation and activities of rebels of Joseph Kony in northern Uganda. While the rebels remain very much active in the Sudan and Central African Republic, in Uganda the last confrontations occurred around 2006 or earlier, and communities have returned to their homes and began the process of rebuilding their lives. It is argued that socio-economic reconstruction is at the heart of peacebuilding and sustenance of positive peace in the aftermath of conflict, as it has a bearing on post-conflict stability and good governance. We recognize that several post-conflict interventions within Northern Uganda have targeted women and children with a strong emphasis on family socio-economic empowerment and capacity building, including access to micro finance. The aim of this study was to examine the participation of the youth in post-conflict peace building and development in Northern Uganda by assessing the breadth and width of their engagement and the stages of programming cycle that they are involved in, interrogating the space for participation and how they are facilitating or constraining participation. It was further aimed at examining the various dimensions of participation at play in Northern Uganda and where this fits within the conceptual debates on peace building and development in the region. Supporting young people emerging out of protracted conflict to re-establish meaningful socio-economic engagements and livelihoods is fundamental to their participation in the affairs of the community. The study suggests that in the post-conflict development context of Northern Uganda, participation has rarely been disaggregated or differentiated by sectors or groups. Where some disaggregation occurs, then the main emphasis has always been on either women or children. It appears therefore that little meaningful space has thus been created for young people to engage and participate in peace building initiatives within the region. In other cases where some space is created for youth participation, this has been in pre-conceived programs or interventions conceived by the development organizations with the youth or young people only invited to participate at particular stages of the project implementation cycle. Still within the implementation of the intervention, the extent to which young people participate is bounded, with little power to influence the course of the interventions or make major decisions. It is thus visible that even here young people mainly validate and legitimize what are predetermined processes only act as pawns in the major chess games played by development actors (dominant peace building partners). This paper, therefore, concludes that the engagement of the youth in post-conflict peace building has been quite problematic and tokenistic and has not given the adequate youth space within which they could ably participate and express themselves in the ensuing interventions.

Keywords: Conflict, Participation, Youth, Peace Building

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