Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Yield Related Abstracts

72 Thermochemical Conversion: Jatropha Curcus in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

Thermo-chemical conversion of non-edible biomass offers an efficient and economically process to provide valuable fuels and prepare chemicals derived from biomass in the context of developing countries. Pyrolysis has advantages over other thermochemical conversion techniques because it can convert biomass directly into solid, liquid and gaseous products by thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The present paper aims to focus on the slow thermochemical conversion processes for non-edible Jatropha curcus seed cake. The present discussion focuses on the effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on products composition (wt %). In addition, comparative analysis has been performed for different mesh size for product composition. Result shows that, slow pyrolysis experiments of Jatropha curcus seed cake in fixed bed reactor yield the bio-oil 18.42 wt % at a pyrolysis temperature of 500°C, particle size of -6+8 mesh number and nitrogen gas flow rate of 150 ml/min.

Keywords: pyrolysis, Yield, Product composition, Jatropha curcus, thermo-chemical

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71 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Fateh Chand Oad, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Sharifh Kharidah, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Shahram Soltani

Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were: growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted at 38oC+2 (day) and 22oC+2 (night) for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashsemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr receiving heat stress during booting stage. In all growing conditions and growth stages, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion and flag leaf length. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield slightly decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. Similar results were found in all other exotic cultivars recording to lower grain yield in the heat stress condition during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: Morphology, Growth, stress, Heat, temperature, Rice, Yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
70 Effect of Plant Density and Planting Pattern on Yield and Quality of Single Cross 704 Silage Corn (Zea mays L.) in Isfahan

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Ali Zahedi

Abstract:

This field experiment was conducted in Isfahan in 2011 in order to study the effect of plant density and planting pattern on growth, yield and quality of silage corn (SC 704) using a randomized complete block design with split plot layout and four replications. The main plot consisted of three planting patterns (60 and 75 cm single planting row and 75 cm double planting row referred to as 60S, 75S and 75T, respectively). The subplots consisted of four levels of plant densities (65000, 80000, 95000 and 110000 plants per hectare). Each subplot consisted of 7 rows, each with 10m length. Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of plants at silking and hard dough stages (when the plants were harvested for silage) were evaluated. Results of variance analysis showed that the effects of planting pattern and plant density were significant on leaf area per plant, leaf area index (at silking), plant height, stem diameter, dry weights of leaf, stem and ear in silking and harvest stages and on fresh and dry yield, dry matter percentage and crude protein percentage at harvest. There was no planting pattern × plant density interaction for these parameters. As row space increased from 60 cm with single planting to 75 cm with single planting, leaf area index and plant height increased, but leaf area per plant, stem diameter, dry weight of leaf, stem and ear, dry matter percentage, dry matter yield and crude protein percentage decreased. Dry matter yield reduced from 24.9 to 18.5 t/ha and crude protein percentage decreased from 6.11 to 5.60 percent. When the plant density increased from 65000 to 110000 plant per hectare, leaf area index, plant height, dry weight of leaf, stem and ear and dry matter yield increased from 19.2 to 23.3 t/ha, whereas leaf area per plant, stem diameter, dry matter percentage and crude protein percentage decreased from 6.30 to 5.25. The best results were obtained with 60 cm row distance with single planting and 110000 plants per hectare.

Keywords: Yield, silage corn, plant density, planting pattern

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69 Effects of Drought Stress on Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars during Post-Flowering Growth Stage

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari, Amin Abbasi

Abstract:

A pot experiment conducted to evaluate the response of two red bean cultivars, Sayad and Derakhshan, to water deficit stress during post-flowering growth stage and recovery potential of plants after stress. Treatments were included regular irrigation or control, water deficit during flowering stage, water deficit during pod formation and water deficit during pod filling period. Results showed that plant height had positive effects on yield of cultivars so that, the tall cultivar, ‘Sayad’, had higher yields. Stress application during flowering stage showed the highest negative impact on plant height and subsequently yield. The longest and the higher number of pods as well as the greatest number of seeds in pods were recorded in control treatment in ‘Sayad’. Stress application during pod formation resulted in the minimum amount of all studied traits in both cultivars. Stress encountered during seed filling period had the least effect on number and length of pods and seed/pod. However, 100 seeds weight significantly decreased. The highest amount for 100 seeds weight was record in control plants in ‘Derakhshan’. Under all treatments, ‘Sayad’ had higher biologic and seed yield compared to ‘Derakhshan’. The least amount of yield was recorded during stress application in pod formation and flowering period for ‘Sayad’ and ‘Derakhshan’ respectively. Harvest index of ‘Sayad’ was more affect by stress application. Data related to photosynthetic rate showed that during stress application, ‘Derakhshan’ owned rapid decline in photosynthesis. Beyond stress alleviation and onset of irrigation, recovery potential of ‘Sayad’ was higher than ‘Derakhshan’ and this cultivar was able to rapidly restore the photosynthesis rate of stress faced plants near control ones. In total, stress had lower impacts on photosynthetic rate of ‘Sayad’ cultivar.

Keywords: Yield, yield components, common bean, water stress, photosynthetic rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
68 The Effect of Sowing Time on Phytopathogenic Characteristics and Yield of Sunflower Hybrids

Authors: Adrienn Novák

Abstract:

The field research was carried out at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen in Eastern-Hungary, on the area of the aeolain loess of the Hajdúság. We examined the effects of the sowing time on the phytopathogenic characteristics and yield production by applying various fertilizer treatments on two different sunflower genotypes (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We applied three different sowing times (early, optimal, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control = no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection). During our investigations, the studied cropyears were of different sowing time optimum in terms of yield amount (2012: early, 2013: average). By Pearson’s correlation analysis, we have found that delaying the sowing time pronouncedly decreased the extent of infection in both crop years (Diaporthe: r=0.663**, r=0.681**, Sclerotinia: r=0.465**, r=0.622**). The fungicide treatment not only decreased the extent of infection, but had yield increasing effect too (2012: r=0.498**, 2013: r=0.603**). In 2012, delaying of the sowing time increased (r=0.600**), but in 2013, it decreased (r= 0.356*) the yield amount.

Keywords: Yield, Sunflower, fungicide treatment, genotypes, sowing time

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
67 Examination of the Water and Nutrient Utilization of Maize Hybrids on Chernozem Soil

Authors: L. G. Karancsi

Abstract:

The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the yield, the yield production per 1kg NPK fertilizer and the water and nutrient utilization of hybrid PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013. We found that PR37N01 produced the most yield at the level of N120+P (17,476kg ha-1) while PR37M81 reached the highest yield at level N150+PK (16,754kg ha-1). Studies related to yield production per 1kg NPK indicated that the best results were achieved at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. Yield production per 1kg NPK was17.6kg kg-1 by P37N01 and 44.2kg kg-1 by PR37M81. By comparing the water utilization of hybrids we found that the worst water utilization results were reached in the control treatment (PR37N01: 26.2kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5kg mm-1). The best water utilization values were produced at level N120+PK in the case of hybrid PR37N01 (32.1kg mm-1) and at N150+PK in the case of hybrid PR37M81 (30.8kg mm-1). We established the values of the nutrient reaction and the fertilizer optimum of hybrids. We discovered a strong relationship between the amount of fertilizer applied and the yield produced (r2= 0.8228–0.9515). The best nutrient response was induced by hybrid PR37N01, while the weakest results were reached by hybrid PR37M81.

Keywords: Hybrid, nutrient, Yield, maize, water utilization

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66 Determining Water Use Efficiency of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) under Arid Climatic Conditions

Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mostafa Muhammad Selim, Ali Abdullah Alderfasi

Abstract:

Water limitation is undoubtedly a critical environmental constraint limiting the crop production under arid and semiarid areas. Mung bean is susceptible to both drought and water logging stresses. Therefore, present study was conducted to assess the water deficit stress consequences of yield components and water use efficiency in Mung bean. A field experiment was conducted at Educational Farm, Crop Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Kind Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Trail comprised of four irrigation levels — total amount of irrigation divided into irrigation intervals — (3, 5, 7 and 9 days interval) and three Mung bean genotypes; Kawmay-1, VC-2010 and King from Egypt, Thailand and China respectively. Experiment was arranged under split plot design having irrigation as main while genotype as subplot treatment, and replicated thrice. Plant height, 100 seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency were recorded at harvesting. Results revealed that decrease in irrigation have significantly hampered all the studied parameters. Mung bean genotypes have also shown significant differences for all parameters, whereas irrigation genotype interaction was highly significant for seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency (WUE) while it was significant for biological yield. Plant height and 100 seed weight were recorded non-significant for irrigation genotype interaction. A statistically highly significant correlation among recorded parameters was observed. Minimum irrigation interval (3 days) significantly produced maximum values while VC-2010 comparatively performed better under low irrigation levels. It was concluded that Mung bean may be successfully adopted under Saudi Arabian climate but it needs high water or frequent irrigation, however, genotypic differences are a hope to develop some improved varieties with high water use efficiency.

Keywords: Yield, water use efficiency, genotypes, mung bean, irrigation intervals

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
65 Effect of Tillage Techniques on the Performance of Kharif Rice Varieties

Authors: Mahua Banerjee, Debtanu Maiti

Abstract:

Zero-tillage cultivation is a farming practice that reduces costs while maintaining harvests and protecting the environment. Innovative partnerships among researchers, farmers, and other actors in the agricultural value chain have enabled the adoption of zero-tillage to sow rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, increasing farmers' incomes, fostering more sustainable use of soil and water, and providing a platform for cropping diversification and the introduction of other resource-conserving practices. A field experiment was conducted in the farmer’s field of Ausgram I Block, Burdwan, West Bengal, India under sandy loam soil with soil pH of 5.2, which is low in Nitrogen, medium in Phosphorus and Potassium. There were three techniques of tillage-T1: Zero tillage in Rice, T2: conventional tillage in Rice, T3: Rice grown with Drum seeder and three varieties namely V1: MTU 7029 V2-MTU 1010, V3: Pratikha thus making nine treatment combinations which were replicated thrice and the experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomised Block Design. Among the three varieties, rice variety MTU 7029 gave higher yield in all the tillage techniques. The highest yield was obtained under Zero tillage followed by conventional tillage. From economic analysis it was revealed that the benefit:cost ratio was higher in Zero tillage and rice cultivation by drum seeder. Zero-till is increasingly being adopted because it gives more yield at less cost, saves labour and farmer time. Farmers will be interested in this technology once they overcome their tillage biases.

Keywords: Economics, Rice, Yield, Indo-Gangetic plain, zero tillage

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64 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Salinity, salicylic acid, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
63 Soil Properties and Yam Performance as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Tillage on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Adeleye

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage techniques and poultry manure application on the soil properties and yam (Dioscorea rotundata) performance in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria for two farming seasons. Five soil tillage techniques, namely ploughing (P), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and zero-tillage (ZT) each combined with and without poultry manure at the rate of 10 tha-1 were investigated. Data were obtained on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam. Soil moisture content, bulk density, total porosity and post harvest soil chemical characteristics were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage-manure treatments. Addition of poultry manure to the tillage techniques in the study increased soil total porosity, soil moisture content and reduced soil bulk density. Poultry manure improved soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable Ca, k, leaf nutrients content of yam, yam growth and tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that the possible deleterious effect of tillage on soil properties, growth and yield of yam on an alfisol in southwestern Nigeria can be reduced by combining tillage with poultry manure.

Keywords: tillage, Yield, Soil Chemical Properties, poultry manure

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62 Effects of Tillage and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Yam Performance on Alfisol in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Adeleye Ebenezer Omotayo

Abstract:

The main effects of tillage, poultry manure and interaction effects of tillage-poultry manure combinations on soil characteristics and yam yield were investigated in a factorial experiment involving four tillage techniques namely (ploughing (p), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and poultry manure at two levels 0 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 arranged in split-plot design. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute Package. Soil moisture content, bulk density and total porosity were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage techniques. Manually heaped and ridged plots had the lowest soil bulk density, moisture content and highest total porosity. The soil total N, exchangeable Mg, k, base saturation and CEC were better enhanced in manually tilled plots. Soil nutrients status declined at the end of the second cropping for all the tillage techniques in the order PH>P>MH>MR. Yam tuber yields were better enhanced in manually tilled plots than mechanically tilled plots. Poultry manure application reduced soil bulk density, temperature, increased total porosity and soil moisture content. It also improved soil organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable Mg, Ca, K and lowered exchange acidity. It also increased yam tuber yield significantly. Tillage techniques plots amended with poultry manure enhanced yam tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that yam production on alfisol in Southwest Nigeria requires loose soil structure for tuber development and that the use of poultry manure in combination with tillage is recommended as it will ensure stability of soil structure, improve soil organic matter status, nutrient availability and high yam tuber yield. Also, it will help to reduce the possible deleterious effects of tillage on soil properties and yam performance.

Keywords: Yield, ploughing, poultry manure, yam

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
61 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Mike Dennett, Saad Howladar

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Salinity, salicylic acid, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
60 Gamma Irradiated Sodium Alginate and Phosphorus Fertilizer Enhances Seed Trigonelline Content, Biochemical Parameters and Yield Attributes of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

Authors: Moinuddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Tariq Ahmad Dar

Abstract:

There is considerable need in enhancing the content and yield of active constituents of medicinal plants keeping in view their massive demand worldwide. Different strategies have been employed to enhance the active constituents of medicinal plants and the use of phytohormones has been proved effective in this regard. Gamma-irradiated Sodium alginate (ISA) is known to elicit an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. Considering the medicinal importance, a pot experiment was conducted to explore the effect of ISA and phosphorus on growth, yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). ISA spray treatments (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1) were applied alone and in combination with 40 kg P ha-1 (P40). Crop performance was assessed in terms of plant growth characteristics, physiological attributes, seed yield and the content of seed trigonelline. Of the ten-treatments, P40 + 80 mg L−1 of ISA proved the best. The results showed that foliar spray of ISA alone or in combination with P40 augmented the plant vegetative growth, enzymatic activities, trigonelline content, trigonelline yield and economic yield of fenugreek. Application of 80 mg L−1 of ISA applied with P40 gave the best results for almost all the parameters studied compared to control or to 80 mg L−1 of ISA applied alone. This treatment increased the total content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, leaf -N, -P and -K and trigonelline compared to the control by 24.85 and 27.40%, 15 and 23.52%, 18.70 and 16.84%, 15.88 and 18.92%, 12 and 14.44%, at 60 and 90 DAS respectively. The combined application of 80 mg L−1 of ISA along with P40 resulted in the maximum increase in seed yield, trigonelline content and trigonelline yield by146, 34 and 232.41%, respectively, over the control. Gel permeation chromatography revealed the formation of low molecular weight fractions in ISA samples, containing even less than 20,000 molecular weight oligomers, which might be responsible for plant growth promotion in this study. Trigonelline content was determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with C-18 column.

Keywords: HPLC, Yield, Phosphorus, gamma-irradiated sodium alginate, gel permeation chromatography, trigonelline content

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59 Cleaner Production Framework for an Beverage Manufacturing Company

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Ignatio Madanhire

Abstract:

This study explores to improve the resource efficiency, waste water reduction and to reduce losses of raw materials in a beverage making industry. A number of cleaner production technologies were put across in this work. It was also noted that cleaner production technology practices are not only desirable from the environmental point of view, but they also make good economic sense, in their contribution to the bottom line by conserving resources like energy, raw materials and manpower, improving yield as well as reducing treatment/disposal costs. This work is a resource in promoting adoption and implementation of CP in other industries for sustainable development.

Keywords: Energy, Cleaner Production, Beverages, Yield, Resource Efficiency, reduce losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
58 Effect of Sowing Dates on Growth, Agronomic Traits and Yield of Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.)

Authors: Amira Racha Ben Yakoub, Ali Ferchichi

Abstract:

In order to investigate the impact of sowing time on growth parameters, the length of the development cycle and yield of tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), a field experiment was conducted from March to May 2011 at the Laboratoire d’Aridoculture et Cultures Oasiennes, ‘Institut des Régions Arides de Médénine’, Tunisia. Results of the experiment revealed that the early sowing (the middle of March, the beginning of April) induced a cycle of more than 100 days to reach the stage maturity and generates a marked drop in production. This period of plantation affects plant development and leads to a sharp drop in performance marked primarily by a reduction in growth, number and size of leaves, number of flowers and pods and weight of different parts of plant. Sowing from the end of April seems appropriate for shortening the development cycle and better profitability than the first two dates. Seeding of C. olitorius during May enhance the development of plants more dense, which explains the superiority of production marked by the increase of seed yield and leaf fresh and dry weight of this leafy vegetables.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, sowing date, tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L)

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57 How Does Vicia faba-rhizobia Symbiosis Improve Its Performance under Low Phosphorus Availability?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, M. Mouradi, A. Kabbadj, M. Farissi, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam

Abstract:

This work focuses on the responses of Vicia fabarhizobia symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency and their contribution to tolerate this constraint. The study was carried out on four faba bean varieties, Aguadulce, Alfia, Luz Otono, and Reina Mora submitted to two phosphorus treatments, deficient and sufficient and cultivated under field and greenhouse hydroaeroponic culture. Plants were harvested at flowering stage for growth, nodulation and phosphorus content assessment. Phosphatases in nodules and rhizospheric soil were analyzed. The impact of phosphorus deficiency on yield component was assessed at maturity stage. Under field conditions, phosphorus deficiency affected negatively nodule biomass and nodule phosphorus content with Alfia and Reina Mora showing the highest biomass reduction. The phosphatase activities in nodules and rhizospheric soil were increased under phosphorus deficiency. At maturity stage, under soil low available phosphorus, the pods number and 100 seeds weight were reduced. The genotypic variation was evident for almost all tested parameters.

Keywords: Yield, Phosphorus, rhizobia, faba bean

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56 Assessment of Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Soybean under Deficit Irrigation

Authors: Meysam Abedinpour

Abstract:

Water limitation is the main challenge for crop production in a semi-arid environment. Deficit irrigation is a strategy that allows a crop to sustain some degree of water deficit in order to reduce costs and potentially increase income. For this goal, a field experimental carried out at Asrieh fields of Gorgan city in the north of Iran, during summer season 2011. The treatments imposed were different irrigation water regimes (i.e. W1:70, W2:80, W3:90, and W4:100) percent of field capacity (FC). The results showed that there was Significant difference between the yield and (WUE) under different levels of irrigation, excepting of soil moisture content at field capacity (W4) and 90% of field capacity (W3) on yield and water use efficiency (WUE). The seasonal irrigation water applied were (i.e. 375, 338, 300, and 263 mm ha-1) under different irrigation water treatments (100, 90, 80, 80 and 70%) of FC, respectively. Grain yield productions under treatments were 4180, 3955, 3640, and 3355 (kg ha-1) respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that water use efficiency (WUE) at different treatments were 7.67, 7.79, 7.74, and 7.75 Kg mm ha-1 for (100, 90, 80, and 70) per cent of field capacity, therefore the 90 % of FC treatment (W3) is recommended for Soybean irrigation for water saving. Furthermore, the result showed that the treatment of 90 % of filed capacity (W3) seemed to be better adapted to product a high crop yield with acceptable yield coupling with water use efficiency in Golestan province.

Keywords: Yield, soybean, deficit irrigation, water use efficiency

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55 The Transport of Radical Species to Single and Double Strand Breaks in the Liver’s DNA Molecule by a Hybrid Method of Type Monte Carlo - Diffusion Equation

Authors: H. Oudira, A. Saifi

Abstract:

The therapeutic utility of certain Auger emitters such as iodine-125 depends on their position within the cell nucleus . Or diagnostically, and to maintain as low as possible cell damage, it is preferable to have radionuclide localized outside the cell or at least the core. One solution to this problem is to consider markers capable of conveying anticancer drugs to the tumor site regardless of their location within the human body. The objective of this study is to simulate the impact of a complex such as bleomycin on single and double strand breaks in the DNA molecule. Indeed, this simulation consists of the following transactions: - Construction of BLM -Fe- DNA complex. - Simulation of the electron’s transport from the metastable state excitation of Fe 57 by the Monte Carlo method. - Treatment of chemical reactions in the considered environment by the diffusion equation. For physical, physico-chemical and finally chemical steps, the geometry of the complex is considered as a sphere of 50 nm centered on the binding site , and the mathematical method used is called step by step based on Monte Carlo codes.

Keywords: Dna, Yield, Concentration, bleomycin, excitation, radical species

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
54 Some Agricultural Characteristics of Cephalaria syriaca Lines Selected from a Population and Developed as Winter Type

Authors: Rahim Ada, Ahmet Tamkoç

Abstract:

The research was conducted in the “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications in research field of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. In study, a total of 9 Cephalaria syriaca promised lines (9, 37, 38, 42, Beyaz 4, 5 Beyaz, 13 Beyaz, 27 Beyaz, Başaklar 2), which were taken from Sivas population, and 1 population were evaluated in two growing seasons (2012-13 and 2013-14). According to the results, the highest plant height, first branch height, first head height, number of branches per plant, number of head per plant, head diameter,1000 seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were obtained respectively from Başaklar 2 (68.37 cm), Başaklar 2 (37.80 cm), Başaklar 2 (54.83 cm), 37 (7.73 number/plant), 42 (18.03 number/plant), 9 (10.30 mm), Başaklar 2 (19.33 g), 27 Beyaz (1254.2 kg ha-1), Başaklar 2 (28.77%), and 27 Beyaz (357.9 kg ha-1).

Keywords: Population, Oil, Yield, Cephalaria syriaca

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
53 Agronomic Manipulation in Cultivation Practices of Scented Rice: For Sustainable Crop Production

Authors: Damini Thawait, S. K. Dwivedi, Amit K. Patel, Samaptika Kar

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the optimum planting patterns for scented rice cultivation. The treatment (T2) planting of two to three seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm from plant to plant and 25 cm from row to row recorded significantly good grain quality i.e. higher head rice recovery (41.41) along with higher gain length (8.05).

Keywords: Quality, Rice, Yield, scented

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
52 Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practice on Cultivation Scented Rice Varieties- a Better Approach for Resource Conservation

Authors: Damini Thawait, Amit Kumar Patel, M. C. Bhambri, Srishti Pandey

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out at Raipur during rainy season of 2012. The experiment revealed that the performance of Dubraj was comparatively better than that of badshah bhog, Vishnu bhog and bisni. The number of grains panicle-1, number of filled grains panicle-1 were comparable in Dubraj and badshah bhog. Among the different nutrient, application of 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave better performance in all the above characters. It is revealed that the variety Dubraj fertilized with 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave the good yield attributing characters along with highest yield.

Keywords: chemical fertilizers, Yield, scented rice, organic manures, varieties

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
51 Effect of Planting Date on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Different Bread Wheat and Durum Cultivars

Authors: Mahdi Nasiri Tabrizi, A. Dadkhah, M. Khirkhah

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of planting on yield, yield components and quality traits in bread and durum wheat varieties, a field split-plot experiment based on complete randomized design with three replications was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Razavi Khorasan located in city of Mashhad during 2013-2014. Main factor were consisted of five sowing dates (first October, fifteenth December, first March, tenth March, twentieth March) and as sub-factors consisted of different bread wheat (Bahar, Pishgam, Pishtaz, Mihan, Falat and Karim) and two durum wheat (Dena and Dehdasht). According to results of analysis variance the effect of planting date was significant on all examined traits (grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, number of grain per spike, thousands kernel weight, number of spike per square meter, plant height, the number of days to heading, the number of days to maturity, during the grain filling period, percentage of wet gluten, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, percentage of protein). By delay in planting, majority of traits significantly decreased, except quality traits (percentage of wet gluten, percentage of dry gluten and percentage of protein). Results of means comparison showed, among planting date the highest grain yield and biological yield were related to first planting date (Octobr) with mean of production of 5/6 and 1/17 tons per hectare respectively and the highest bread quality (gluten index) with mean of 85 and percentage of protein with mean of 13% to fifth planting date also the effect of genotype was significant on all traits. The highest grain yield among of studied wheat genotypes was related to Dehdasht cultivar with an average production of 4.4 tons per hectare. The highest protein percentage and bread quality (gluten index) were related to Dehdasht cultivar with 13.4% and Falat cultivar with number of 90 respectively. The interaction between cultivar and planting date was significant on all traits and different varieties had different trend for these traits. The highest grain yield was related to first planting date (October) and Falat cultivar with an average of production of 6/7 tons per hectare while in grain yield did not show a significant different with Pishtas and Mihan cultivars also the most of gluten index (bread quality index) and protein percentage was belonged to the third planting date and Karim cultivar with 7.98 and Dena cultivar with 7.14% respectively.

Keywords: Wheat, Yield, cultivar, yield component, quality traits, planting date

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50 Response of Onion to FTM and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Lateritic Soil of Konkan

Authors: Rupali Thorat, S. B. Dodake, V. N. Palsande, S. D. Patil

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted to study the “Response of onion to FYM and inorganic fertilizers application on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in lateritic soil of Konkan” at the farm of Pangari block of Irrigation of Scheme, Central Experimentation Station, Wakawali during Rabi 2009-10. There were 12 treatment combinations, comprising of 3 levels of NPK fertilizers (C1 ,C2-125 kg N, 62.5 kg P205 and 62.5 kg K20 ha-1 and C3-150 kg N, 75 kg P205 and 75 kg K20 ha-1) and 4 levels of FYM (F1-10 t FYM ha-1, F2 - 15 t FYM ha-1, F3-20 t FYM ha-1, F4-25 t FYM ha-1) replicated thrice using Factorial Randomized Block Design. The observations on plant height, number of leaves, girth of plant, polar and equatorial diameter of bulb as well as dry matter yield, onion bulb yield recorded during the course of field study were subjected to statistical analysis. Similarly nutrient content and uptake, quality parameters of bulb and soil properties were also determined and their data were also analyzed statistically. It is revealed from the study that the growth attributes, dry matter yield, onion bulb yield, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, quality parameters were improved significantly due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1(C3F3). Application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1 (C3F3) registered highest onion bulb yield (t ha-1). The quality of onion as well as availability of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the soil was improved due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 and FYM @ 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: Yield, onion, FYM, nutrient uptake and fertilizer

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49 Response of Briquettes Application with Different Coating Materials on Yield and Quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]

Authors: V. N. Palsande, H. B. Torane, M. C. Kasture, S. S. Prabhudesai, P. B. Sanap, J. J. Palkar

Abstract:

The present investigation entitled “Response of briquettes application with different coating materials on yield and quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]” was conducted at Central Experiment Center, Wakawali during kharif season 2013. The field experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replicate. The four coating materials viz., Co – Non coating, C1 – Wax coating, C2 – Jaggary coating, and C3 – Tar coating was applied to Konkan Annapurna Briquette along with three sub treatments of application time i.e B1 – ½ at sowing, B2 - ½ at sowing and ½ at 30 days after sowing and B3 - 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 at 60 days after sowing. It was observed that the application of tar coated Konkan Annapurna Briquettes (KAB) in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing was found promising to enhancing the cucumber fruit yield, higher vine length, number of fruits vine-1, girth of fruit, length of fruit. It was also observed that the quality of the cucumber fruit increased in terms of ascorbic acid. UB-Godavari forms of briquettes .i.e. are promising source of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers as compared to straight fertilizers for enhancing green cucumber fruit yield of Sheetal variety of cucumber in lateritic soil. Amongst the three types of coated briquettes, the tar coated briquettes application was found to be superior for increasing cucumber fruit yield applied in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing @ 5 briquettes per plant at an interval of 30 days after sowing.

Keywords: Coating, Yield, Tar, briquettes, wax and quality

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48 Site Specific Nutrient Management Need in India Now

Authors: N. P. Singh, A. H. Nanher, Shashidhar Yadav, Sachin Tyagi

Abstract:

Agricultural production system is an outcome of a complex interaction of seed, soil, water and agro-chemicals (including fertilizers). Therefore, judicious management of all the inputs is essential for the sustainability of such a complex system. Precision agriculture gives farmers the ability to use crop inputs more effectively including fertilizers, pesticides, tillage and irrigation water. More effective use of inputs means greater crop yield and/or quality, without polluting the environment the focus on enhancing the productivity during the Green Revolution coupled with total disregard of proper management of inputs and without considering the ecological impacts, has resulted into environmental degradation. To evaluate a new approach for site-specific nutrient management (SSNM). Large variation in initial soil fertility characteristics and indigenous supply of N, P, and K was observed among Field- and season-specific NPK applications were calculated by accounting for the indigenous nutrient supply, yield targets, and nutrient demand as a function of the interactions between N, P, and K. Nitrogen applications were fine-tuned based on season-specific rules and field-specific monitoring of crop N status. The performance of SSNM did not differ significantly between high-yielding and low-yielding climatic seasons, but improved over time with larger benefits observed in the second year Future, strategies for nutrient management in intensive rice systems must become more site-specific and dynamic to manage spatially and temporally variable resources based on a quantitative understanding of the congruence between nutrient supply and crop demand. The SSNM concept has demonstrated promising agronomic and economic potential. It can be used for managing plant nutrients at any scale, i.e., ranging from a general recommendation for homogenous management of a larger domain to true management of between-field variability. Assessment of pest profiles in FFP and SSNM plots suggests that SSNM may also reduce pest incidence, particularly diseases that are often associated with excessive N use or unbalanced plant nutrition.

Keywords: nutrient, Pesticide, Yield, Crop

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
47 Yield, Economics and ICBR of Different IPM Modules in Bt Cotton in Maharashtra

Authors: N. K. Bhute, B. B. Bhosle, D. G. More, B. V. Bhede

Abstract:

The field experiments were conducted during kharif season of the year 2007-08 at the experimental farm of the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Studies on evaluation of different IPM modules for Bt cotton in relation to yield economics and ICBR revealed that MAU and CICR IPM modules proved superior. It was, however, on par with chemical control. Considering the ICBR and safety to natural enemies, an inference can be drawn that Bt cotton with IPM module is the most ideal combination. Besides reduction in insecticide use, it is also expected to ensure favourable ecological and economic returns in contrast to the adverse effects due to conventional insecticides. The IPM approach, which takes care of varying pest situation, appears to be essential for gaining higher advantage from Bt cotton.

Keywords: Economics, Yield, ICBR, IPM Modules, Bt cotton

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46 Evaluation of Superabsorbent Application on Corn Yield under Deficit Irrigation

Authors: Davoud Khodadadi Dehkordi

Abstract:

This research was planned in order to study the effect of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent and their effect on grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index. In this study, 3 different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent effects of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on biologic and grain yield of corn were significant. In addition, independent effect of irrigation treatments at 5% level on harvest index was significant. But independent effect of Superabsorbent treatments on harvest index was not significant.

Keywords: Yield, corn, deficit irrigation, superabsorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
45 Effect of Three Sand Types on Potato Vegetative Growth and Yield

Authors: Shatha A. Yousif, Qasim M. Zamil, Hasan Y. Al Muhi, Jamal A. Al Shammari

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the major vegetable crops that are grown world wide because of its economic importance. This experiment investigated the effect of local sands (River Base, Al-Ekader and Karbala) on number and total weight of mini tubers. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences among sand cultures in number of stem/plant, chlorophyll index and tubers dry weight. River Base sand had the highest plant height (74.9 cm), leaf number/plant number (39.3), leaf area (84.4 dcm2⁄plant), dry weight/plant (26.31), tubers number/plant (8.5), tubers weight/plant (635.53 gm) and potato tuber yields/trove (28.60 kg), whereas the Karbala sand had lower performance. All the characters had positive and significant correlation with yields except the traits number of stem and tuber dry weight.

Keywords: correlation, Yield, potato, sand culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
44 Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Winter Wheat under Different Levels of Irrigation

Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Alghamdi

Abstract:

Field experiment were carried out to investigate the effect of the plant growth regulator on vegetative growth and yield components of reduced height isogenic lines of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mercia. The Field experiment compared the growth regulator response of seven isogenic lines of Mercia. Growth regulators reduced plant height significantly in all lines. Growth regulator decreased total dry matter and grain yield with greatest reduction generally for the control and Rht8 lines. Rht1 was the least affected. There were few significant effects of growth regulator on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence but the trend was for greater values with growth regulator. In this field experiment, a rate of 2.0 l ha-1 applied just before the third node detectable stage under non water stressed and water stressed conditions gave slight increases in yield of up to 14% except for line Rht10 which increased significantly in non-stressed conditions. In the second glasshouse experiment, a rate of 2.5 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation under 30% FC and 100% FC gave reductions in yield up to 16% for the growth regulator and 55% under water stress. In the field experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation gave reductions in yield up to 20% mainly through individual seed weight. In the final glasshouse experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at 6 leaves unfolded and 1st node detectable both reduced grain yield.

Keywords: irrigation, Yield, growth regulator, isogenic lines, winter wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
43 Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L.

Authors: Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi, Fereshteh Ghanepasand, Mohammad Taghi Darzi

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure application on the seed yield and yield components in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). The experiment was carried out at the RAN Research Station in Firouzkouh in 2012. A 4×4 factorial experiment, arranged in a randomized complete blocks designed with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 level of nitrogen fixing bacteria (control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Azotobacter + Azospirillum) and 4 level of manure (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ton ha-1). The present results have shown that the highest height, 1000 seeds weight, seed number per follicle, follicle yield, seed yield and harvest index were obtained after using Azotobacter and Azospirillum, simultaneously. Manure application only affects on follicle yield and by 5ton manure ha-1 the highest follicle yield obtained. Results of this investigation showed that the maximum seed yield obtained when Aotobacter+Azospirillum inoculated with black cumin seeds and 5 ton manure ha-1 applied. Combined application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure can be helpful in developing of production and yield in Black cumin.

Keywords: Yield, yield components, black cumin, azotobacter, azospirillum

Procedia PDF Downloads 280