Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

xylanase Related Abstracts

11 Characterisation of Chitooligomers Prepared with the Aid of Cellulase, Xylanase and Chitosanase

Authors: Dominika Kulig, Andrzej Jarmoluk, Anna Zimoch-Korzycka


The aim of this study was to obtain chitooligosaccharides from chitosan with better functional properties using three different enzyme preparations and compare the products of enzymatic hydrolysis. Commercially available cellulase (CL), xylanase (X) and chitosanase (CS) preparations were used to investigate hydrolytic activity on chitosan (CH) with low molecular weight and DD of 75-85%. It has been reported that CL and X have side activities of other enzymes, such as β-glucanase or β-glucosidase. CS enzyme has a foreign activity of chitinase. Each preparation was used in 1000 U of activity and in the same reaction conditions. The degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan were specified using titration and viscometric methods, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of enzymes preparations on chitosan was monitored by dynamic viscosity measurement. After 4 h reaction with stirring, solutions were filtered and chitosan oligomers were isolated by methanol solution into two fractions: precipitate (A) and supernatant (B). A Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural changes of chitosan oligomers fractions and initial chitosan. Furthermore, the solubility of lyophilized hydrolytic mixture (C) and two chitooligomers fractions (A, B) of each enzyme hydrolysis was assayed. The antioxidant activity of chitosan oligomers was evaluated as DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The dynamic viscosity measured after addition of enzymes preparation to the chitosan solution decreased dramatically over time in the sample with X in comparison to solution without the enzyme. For mixtures with CL and CS, lower viscosities were also recorded but not as low as the ones with X. A and B fractions were characterized by the most similar viscosity obtained by the xylanase hydrolysis and were 15 mPas and 9 mPas, respectively. Structural changes of chitosan oligomers A, B, C and their differences related with various enzyme preparations used were confirmed. Water solubility of A fractions was not possible to filter and the result was not recorded. Solubility of supernatants was approximately 95% and was higher than hydrolytic mixture. It was observed that the DPPH radical scavenging effect of A, B, C samples is the highest for X products and was approximately 13, 17, 19% respectively. In summary, a mixture of chitooligomers may be useful for the design of edible protective coatings due to the improved biophysical properties.

Keywords: chitosan, cellulase, xylanase, chitosanase, chitooligosaccharides

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10 Immobilization Strategy of Recombinant Xylanase from Trichoderma reesei by Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates

Authors: R. A. Rahman, S. Md. Shaarani, J. Md. Jahim, R. Md. Illias


Modern developments in biotechnology have paved the way for extensive use of biocatalysis in industries. Although it offers immense potential, industrial application is usually hampered by lack of operational stability, difficulty in recovery as well as limited re-use of the enzyme. These drawbacks, however, can be overcome by immobilization. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), a versatile carrier-free immobilization technique is one that is currently capturing global interest. This approach involves precipitating soluble enzyme with an appropriate precipitant and subsequent crosslinking by a crosslinking reagent. Without ineffective carriers, CLEAs offer high enzymatic activity, stability and reduced production cost. This study demonstrated successful CLEA synthesis of recombinant xylanase from Trichoderma reesei using ethanol as aggregating agent and glutaraldehyde (2% (v/v); 100 mM) as crosslinker. Effects of additives including proteic feeder such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and poly-L-Lysine were investigated to reveal its significance in enhancing the performance of enzyme. Addition of 0.1 mg BSA/U xylanase showed considerable increment in CLEA development with approximately 50% retained activity.

Keywords: immobilization, xylanase, cross-linked, recombinant

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9 Enzyme Treatment of Sorghum Dough: Modifications of Rheological Properties and Product Characteristics

Authors: G. K. Sruthi, Sila Bhattacharya


Sorghum is an important food crop in the dry tropical areas of the world, and possesses significant levels of phytochemicals and dietary fiber to offer health benefits. However, the absence of gluten is a limitation for converting the sorghum dough into sheeted/flattened/rolled products. Chapathi/roti (flat unleavened bread prepared conventionally from whole wheat flour dough) was attempted from sorghum as wheat gluten causes allergic reactions leading to celiac disease. Dynamic oscillatory rheology of sorghum flour dough (control sample) and enzyme treated sorghum doughs were studied and linked to the attributes of the finished ready-to-eat product. Enzymes like amylase, xylanase, and a mix of amylase and xylanase treated dough affected drastically the rheological behaviour causing a lowering of dough consistency. In the case of amylase treated dough, marked decrease of the storage modulus (G') values from 85513 Pa to 23041 Pa and loss modulus (G") values from 8304 Pa to 7370 Pa was noticed while the phase angle (δ) increased from 5.6 to 10.1o for treated doughs. There was a 2 and 3 fold increase in the total sugar content after α-amylase and xylanase treatment, respectively, with simultaneous changes in the structure of the dough and finished product. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited enhanced extent of changes in starch granules. Amylase and mixed enzyme treatment produced a sticky dough which was difficult to roll/flatten. The dough handling properties were improved by the use of xylanase and quality attributes of the chapath/roti. It is concluded that enzyme treatment can offer improved rheological status of gluten free doughs and products.

Keywords: amylase, xylanase, sorghum dough, dynamic oscillatory rheology, sensory assessment

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8 Aqueous Two Phase Extraction of Jonesia denitrificans Xylanase 6 in PEG 1000/Phosphate System

Authors: Abdelaziz Messis, Nawel Boucherba, Said Benallaoua, Azzedine Bettache, Francis Duchiron


The impetus for research in the field of bioseparation has been sparked by the difficulty and complexity in the downstream processing of biological products. Indeed, 50% to 90% of the production cost for a typical biological product resides in the purification strategy. There is a need for efficient and economical large scale bioseparation techniques which will achieve high purity and high recovery while maintaining the biological activity of the molecule. One such purification technique which meets these criteria involves the partitioning of biomolecules between two immiscible phases in an aqueous system (ATPS). The Production of xylanases is carried out in 500ml of a liquid medium based on birchwood xylan. In each ATPS, PEG 1000 is added to a mixture consisting of dipotassium phosphate, sodium chloride and the culture medium inoculated with the strain Jonesia denitrificans, the mixture was adjusted to different pH. The concentration of PEG 1000 was varied: 8 to 16 % and the NaCl percentages are also varied from 2 to 4% while maintaining the other parameters constant. The results showed that the best ATPS for purification of xylanases is composed of PEG 1000 at 8.33%, 13.14 % of K2HPO4, 1.62% NaCl at pH 7. We obtained a yield of 96.62 %, a partition coefficient of 86.66 and a purification factor of 2.9. The zymogram showed that the activity is mainly detected in the top phase.

Keywords: xylanase, Jonesia denitrificans BN13, aqueous two phases system, zymogram

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7 ENDO-β-1,4-Xylanase from Thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus: Immobilization Using Matrix Entrapment Technique to Increase the Stability and Recycling Efficiency

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Zainab Bibi, Afsheen Aman


Introduction: Xylan is a heteropolysaccharide composed of xylose monomers linked together through 1,4 linkages within a complex xylan network. Owing to wide applications of xylan hydrolytic products (xylose, xylobiose and xylooligosaccharide) the researchers are focusing towards the development of various strategies for efficient xylan degradation. One of the most important strategies focused is the use of heat tolerant biocatalysts which acts as strong and specific cleaving agents. Therefore, the exploration of microbial pool from extremely diversified ecosystem is considerably vital. Microbial populations from extreme habitats are keenly explored for the isolation of thermophilic entities. These thermozymes usually demonstrate fast hydrolytic rate, can produce high yields of product and are less prone to microbial contamination. Another possibility of degrading xylan continuously is the use of immobilization technique. The current work is an effort to merge both the positive aspects of thermozyme and immobilization technique. Methodology: Geobacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from soil sample collected near the blast furnace site. This thermophile is capable of producing thermostable endo-β-1,4-xylanase which cleaves xylan effectively. In the current study, this thermozyme was immobilized within a synthetic and a non-synthetic matrice for continuous production of metabolites using entrapment technique. The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized enzyme were studied. For this purpose calcium alginate and polyacrylamide beads were prepared. Results: For the synthesis of immobilized beads, sodium alginate (40.0 gL-1) and calcium chloride (0.4 M) was used amalgamated. The temperature (50°C) and pH (7.0) optima of immobilized enzyme remained same for xylan hydrolysis however, the enzyme-substrate catalytic reaction time raised from 5.0 to 30.0 minutes as compared to free counterpart. Diffusion limit of high molecular weight xylan (corncob) caused a decline in Vmax of immobilized enzyme from 4773 to 203.7 U min-1 whereas, Km value increased from 0.5074 to 0.5722 mg ml-1 with reference to free enzyme. Immobilized endo-β-1,4-xylanase showed its stability at high temperatures as compared to free enzyme. It retained 18% and 9% residual activity at 70°C and 80°C, respectively whereas; free enzyme completely lost its activity at both temperatures. The Immobilized thermozyme displayed sufficient recycling efficiency and can be reused up to five reaction cycles, indicating that this enzyme can be a plausible candidate in paper processing industry. Conclusion: This thermozyme showed better immobilization yield and operational stability with the purpose of hydrolyzing the high molecular weight xylan. However, the enzyme immobilization properties can be improved further by immobilizing it on different supports for industrial purpose.

Keywords: reusability, immobilization, xylanase, thermozymes

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6 Evaluation of Cellulase and Xylanase Production by Micrococcus Sp. Isolated from Decaying Lignocellulosic Biomass Obtained from Alice Environment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa

Authors: Z. Mmango, U. Nwodo, L. V. Mabinya, A. I. Okoh


Cellulose and hemicellulose account for a large portion of the world‘s plant biomass. In nature, these polysaccharides are intertwined forming complex materials that requires multiple and expensive treatment processes to free up the raw materials trapped in the matrix. Enzymatic degradation remains as the preferred technique as it is inexpensive and eco-friendly. However, the insufficiencies of enzyme battery systems in the degradation of lignocellulosic complex motivate the search for effective degrading enzymes from bacterial isolates from uncommon environment. The study aimed at the evaluation of actinomycetes isolated from saw dust samples collected from wood factory under bed. Cellulase and xylanase production was screened through organism culture on carboxyl methyl cellulose agar and Birchwood xylan. Halo zone indicating lignocellose utilization was shown by an isolate identified through 16S rRNA gene as Micrococcus luteus. The optimum condition for the production of cellulase and xylanase were incubation temperature of 25 °C, fermentation medium pH 5 and 10, agitation speed of 50 and 200 (rpm) and fermentation incubation time of 96 and 84 (h) respectively. The high cellulose and xylanase activity obtained from this isolate portends industrial relevance.

Keywords: Optimization, cellulase, xylanase, carboxyl methyl cellulose, birchwood xylan, micrococcus, DNS method

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5 Assessment of cellulase and xylanase Production by chryseobacterium sp. Isolated from Decaying Biomass in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: U. Nwodo, L. V. Mabinya, A. I. Okoh, A. Nkohla


A potential source for low-cost production of value added products is the utilization of lignocellulosic materials. However, the huddle needing breaching would be the dismantlement of the complex lignocellulosic structure as to free sugar base therein. the current lignocellosic material treatment process is expensive and not eco-friendly hence, the advocacy for enzyme based technique which is both cheap and eco-friendly is highly imperative. Consequently, this study aimed at the screening of cellulose and xylan degrading bacterial strain isolated from decaying sawdust samples. This isolate showed high activity for cellulase and xylanase when grown on carboxymethyl cellulose and birtchwood xylan as the sole carbon source respectively. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the isolate showed 98% similarity with that of Chryseobacterium taichungense thus, it was identified as a Chryseobacterium sp. Optimum culture conditions for cellulase and xylanase production were medium pH 6, incubation temperature of 25 °C at 50 rpm and medium pH 6, incubation temperature of 25 °C at 150 rpm respectively. The high enzyme activity obtained from this bacterial strain portends it as a good candidate for industrial use in the degradation of complex biomass for value added products.

Keywords: cellulase, xylanase, submerged fermentation, lignocellulosic material, chryseobacterium sp

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4 Functional Cell Surface Display Using Ice Nucleation Protein from Erwina ananas on Escherischia coli

Authors: Mei Yuin Joanne Wee, Rosli Md. Illias


Cell surface display is the expression of a protein with an anchoring motif on the surface of the cell. This approach offers advantages when used in bioconversion in terms of easier purification steps and more efficient enzymatic reaction. A surface display system using ice nucleation protein (InaA) from Erwina ananas as an anchoring motif has been constructed to display xylanase (xyl) on the surface of Escherischia coli. The InaA was truncated so that it is made up of the N- and C-terminal domain (INPANC-xyl) and it has successfully directed xylanase to the surface of the cell. A study was also done on xylanase fused to two other ice nucleation proteins, InaK (INPKNC-xyl) and InaZ (INPZNC-xyl) from Pseudomonas syringae KCTC 1832 and Pseudomonas syringae S203 respectively. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified using SDS-PAGE and Western blot on the cell fractions and all anchoring motifs were successfully displayed on the outer membrane of E. coli. Upon comparison, whole-cell activity of INPANC-xyl was more than six and five times higher than INPKNC-xyl and INPZNC-xyl respectively. Furthermore, the expression of INPANC-xyl on the surface of E. coli did not inhibit the growth of the cell. This is the first report of surface display system using ice nucleation protein, InaA from E. ananas. From this study, this anchoring motif offers an attractive alternative to the current surface display systems.

Keywords: xylanase, cell surface display, Escherischia coli, ice nucleation protein

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3 Paenibacillus illinoisensis CX11: A Cellulase- and Xylanase-Producing Bacteria for Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Materials

Authors: Abeer A. Q. Ahmed, Tracey McKay


Biomass can provide a sustainable source for the production of high valued chemicals. Under the uncertain availability of fossil resources biomass could be the only available source for chemicals in future. Cellulose and hemicellulose can be hydrolyzed into their building blocks (hexsoses and pentoses) which can be converted later to the desired high valued chemicals. A cellulase- and xylanase- producing bacterial strain identified as Paenibacillus illinoisensis CX11 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was found to have the ability to saccharify different lignocellulosic materials. Cellulase and xylanase activities were evaluated by 3,5-dinitro-salicylic acid (DNS) method using CMC and xylan as substrates. Results showed that P. illinoisensis CX11 have cellulase (2.63± 0.09 mg/ml) and xylanase (3.25 ± 0.2 mg/ml) activities. The ability of P. illinoisensis CX11 to saccharify lignocellulosic materials was tested using wheat straw (WS), wheat bran (WB), saw dust (SD), and corn stover (CS). DNS method was used to determine the amount of reducing sugars that were released from lignocellulosic materials. P. illinoisensis CX11 showed to have the ability to saccharify lignocellulosic materials and producing total reducing sugars as 2.34 ± 0.12, 2.51 ± 0.37, 1.86 ± 0.16, and 3.29 ± 0.20 mg/l from WS, WB, SD, and CS respectively. According to the author's knowledge, current findings are the first to report P. illinoisensis CX11 as a cellulase and xylanase producing species and that it has the ability to saccharify different lignocellulosic materials. This study presents P. illinoisensis CX11 that can be good source for cellulase and xylanase enzymes which could be introduced into lignocellulose bioconversion processes to produce high valued chemicals.

Keywords: cellulase, xylanase, lignocellulosic materials, high valued chemicals, Paenibacillus illinoisensis CX11

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2 Enhanced Production of Endo-β-1,4-Xylanase from a Newly Isolated Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29 for Prospective Industrial Applications

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Zainab Bibi, Afsheen Aman


Endo-β-1,4-xylanases [EC] are one of the major groups of enzymes that are involved in degradation process of xylan and have several applications in food, textile and paper processing industries. Due to broad utility of endo-β-1,4-xylanase, researchers are focusing to increase the productivity of this hydrolase from various microbial species. Harsh industrial condition, faster reaction rate and efficient hydrolysis of xylan with low risk of contamination are critical requirements of industry that can be fulfilled by synthesizing the enzyme with efficient properties. In the current study, a newly isolated thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29 was used in order to attain the maximum production of endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Bacterial culture was isolated from soil, collected around the blast furnace site of a steel processing mill, Karachi. Optimization of various nutritional and physical factors resulted the maximum synthesis of endo-1,4-β-xylanase from a thermophile. High production yield was achieved at 60°C and pH-6.0 after 24 hours of incubation period. Various nitrogen sources viz. peptone, yeast extract and meat extract improved the enzyme synthesis with 0.5%, 0.2% and 0.1% optimum concentrations. Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (0.25%), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.05%), ammonium sulfate (0.05%) and calcium chloride (0.01%) were noticed as valuable salts to improve the production of enzyme. The thermophilic nature of isolate, with its broad pH stability profile and reduced fermentation time indicates its importance for effective xylan saccharification and for large scale production of endo-1,4-β-xylanase.

Keywords: Optimization, Production, xylanase, geobacillus

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1 Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes from Mycelial Fungi

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, G. Kvesitadze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, L. Kutateladze, M. Jobava, N. Zakariashvili


Multiple repeated soil-climatic zones in Georgia determines the diversity of microorganisms. Hundreds of microscopic fungi of different genera have been isolated from different ecological niches, including some extreme environments. Biosynthetic ability of microscopic fungi has been studied. Trichoderma ressei, representative of the Ascomycetes secrete cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes that act in synergy to hydrolyze polysaccharide polymers to glucose, xylose and arabinose, which can be fermented to biofuels. The other mesophilic strains producing cellulases are Allesheria terrestris, Chaetomium thermophile, Fusarium oxysporium, Piptoporus betulinus, Penicillium echinulatum, P. purpurogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. wentii, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus etc. In the majority of the cases the cellulases produced by strains of genus Aspergillus usually have high β-glucosidase activity and average endoglucanases levels (with some exceptions), whereas strains representing Trichoderma have high endo enzyme and low β-glucosidase, and hence has limited efficiency in cellulose hydrolysis. Six producers of stable cellulases and xylanases from mesophilic and thermophilic fungi have been selected. By optimization of submerged cultivation conditions, high activities of cellulases and xylanases were obtained. For enzymes purification, their sedimentation by organic solvents such as ethyl alcohol, acetone, isopropanol and by ammonium sulphate in different ratios have been carried out. Best results were obtained with precipitation by ethyl alcohol (1:3.5) and ammonium sulphate. The yields of enzyme according to cellulase activities were 80-85% in both cases. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Trichoderma viride X 33 is 126 U/g, from the strain Penicillium canescence D 85–185U/g and from the strain Sporotrichum pulverulentum T 5-0 110 U/g. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus sp. Av10 is 120 U/g, xylanase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus niger A 7-5–1155U/g and from the strain Aspergillus niger Aj 38-1250 U/g. Optimum pH and temperature of operation and thermostability, of the enzyme preparations, were established. The efficiency of hydrolyses of different agricultural residues by the microscopic fungi cellulases has been studied. The glucose yield from the residues as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis is highly determined by the ratio of enzyme to substrate, pH, temperature, and duration of the process. Hydrolysis efficiency was significantly increased as a result of different pretreatment of the residues by different methods. Acknowledgement: The Study was supported by the ISTC project G-2117, funded by Korea.

Keywords: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, microscopic fungi, cellulase, xylanase

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