Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

XRD Related Abstracts

70 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

Authors: Evaldas Serelis, Vitoldas Vaitkevičius

Abstract:

Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.

Keywords: silica fume, compressive strength, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRD

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69 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Milled Nickel Powder

Authors: O. M. Lemine

Abstract:

The effect of milling parameters on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel powder was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results did not reveal any phase change of nickel during the milling. The average crystallite size decreases with a prolongation of milling times, whereas the lattice parameters increase. The hysteresis loop reveals the intrinsic magnetic behaviour. It was observed an increase in the magnetization which can be correlated to the volume expansion showed by XRD results.

Keywords: XRD, nickel powders, nanocrystallines, VSM

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68 Electrical and Magnetoelectric Properties of (y)Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y)Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 Magnetoelectric Composites

Authors: S. U. Durgadsimi, S. Chouguleb, S. Belladc

Abstract:

(y) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 magnetoelectric composites with y = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 were prepared by a conventional standard double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the phase formation of ferrite, ferroelectric and their composites. logρdc Vs 1/T graphs reveal that the dc resistivity decreases with increasing temperature exhibiting semiconductor behavior. The plots of logσac Vs logω2 are almost linear indicating that the conductivity increases with increase in frequency i.e, conductivity in the composites is due to small polaron hopping. Dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were studied as a function of frequency in the range 100Hz–1MHz which reveals the normal dielectric behavior except the composite with y=0.1 and as a function of temperature at four fixed frequencies (i.e. 100Hz, 1KHz, 10KHz, 100KHz). ME voltage coefficient decreases with increase in ferrite content and was observed to be maximum of about 7.495 mV/cmOe for (0.1) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (0.9) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 composite.

Keywords: XRD, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, DC and AC conductivity, ME voltage coefficient

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67 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

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Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: XRD, Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, FT-IR

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66 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, T. Ibroska

Abstract:

Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).

Keywords: SEM, XRD, magnesium borate, microwave synthesis

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65 An Investigation of New Phase Diagram of Ag2SO4-CaSO4

Authors: Pravin S. Bodke, Shradha S. Binani, Ravi V. Joat, S. S. Wasnik

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A phase diagram of the Ag2SO4 - CaSO4 (Silver sulphate – Calcium Sulphate) binaries system using conductivity, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction Technique) and DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) data is constructed. The eutectic reaction (liquid -» a-Ag2SO4 + CaSO4) is observed at 10 mole% CaSO4 and 645°C. Room temperature solid solubility limit up to 5.27 mole % of Ca 2+ in Ag2SO4 is set using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results. All compositions beyond this limit are two-phase mixtures below and above the transition temperature (≈ 416°C). The bulk conductivity, obtained following complex impedance spectroscopy, is found decreasing with increase in CaSO4 content. Amongst other binary compositions, the 80AgSO4-20CaSO4 gave improved sinterability/packing density.

Keywords: Phase Diagram, Conductivity, XRD, Ag2SO4-CaSO4 binaries system, DTA

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64 Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Aliphatic Polyisocyanate

Authors: E. Ghasemi, E. Changizi, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mahdavian

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In this study, the graphene oxide was functionalized with polyisocyanate (piGO). The functionalization was carried out at 45⁰C for 24 hrs under nitrogen atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized in order to evaluate the GO functionalization. The GO and piGO stability were then investigated in polar and nonpolar solvents. Results obtained showed that polyisocyanate was successfully grafted on the surface of graphen oxide sheets through covalent bonds formation. The surface nature of the graphen oxide was changed into the hydrophobic after functionalization. Moreover, the graphen oxide sheets interlayer distance increased after modification.

Keywords: functionalization, FTIR, XRD, TGA, graphen oxide, polyisocyanate

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63 Nanocrystalline Na0.1V2O5.nH2Oxerogel Thin Film for Gas Sensing

Authors: M. S. Al-Assiri, M. M. El-Desoky, A. A. Bahgat

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline thin film of Na0.1V2O5.nH2O xerogel obtained by sol-gel synthesis was used as a gas sensor. Gas sensing properties of different gases such as hydrogen, petroleum and humidity were investigated. Applying XRD and TEM the size of the nanocrystals is found to be 7.5 nm. SEM shows a highly porous structure with submicron meter-sized voids present throughout the sample. FTIR measurement shows different chemical groups identifying the obtained series of gels. The sample was n-type semiconductor according to the thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity. It can be seen that the sensor response curves from 130°C to 150°C show a rapid increase in sensitivity for all types of gas injection, low response values for heating period and the rapid high response values for cooling period. This result may suggest that this material is able to act as gas sensor during the heating and cooling process.

Keywords: XRD, TEM, sol-gel, thermoelectric power, gas sensing

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62 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium and Strontium Doped Sulphate-Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Yi-Fan Goh, Rafaqat Hussain

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Magnesium (Mg2+), strontium (Sr2+) and sulphate ions (SO42-) were successfully substituted into hydroxyapatite (Ca10-x-y MgxSry(PO4)6-z(SO4)zOH2-z) structure through ion exchange process at cationic and anionic sites. Mg2+and Sr2+ ions concentrations were varied between (0.00-0.10), keeping concentration of SO42- ions at z=0.05. [Mg (NO3)2], [Sr (NO3)2] and (Na2SO4) were used as Mg2+, Sr2+, and SO42- sources respectively. The synthesized white precipitate were subjected to heat treatment at 500ºC and finally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the substitution of Mg2+, Sr2+ and SO42- ions into the HA lattice resulted in an increase in the broadness and reduction of XRD peaks. This confirmed that the crystallinity was reduced due to the substitution of ions. Similarly, FTIR result showed the effect of substitution on phosphate bands as well as exchange of hydroxyl group by SO42- ions to balance the charges on HA surface.

Keywords: Characterization, hydroxyapatite, FTIR, XRD, substitution

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61 Comparison of Methods for the Synthesis of Eu+++, Tb+++, and Tm+++ Doped Y2O3 Nanophosphors by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods for Bioconjugation

Authors: Ravindra P. Singh, Drupad Ram, Dinesh K. Gupta

Abstract:

Rare earth ions doped metal oxides are a class of luminescent materials which have been proved to be excellent for applications in field emission displays and cathode ray tubes, plasma display panels. Under UV irradiation Eu+++ doped Y2O3 is a red phosphor and Tb+++ doped Y 2O3 is a green phosphor. It is possible that, due to their high quantum efficiency, they might serve as improved luminescent markers for identification of biomolecules, as already reported for CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. However, for any biological applications these particle powders must be suspended in water while retaining their phosphorescence. We hereby report synthesis and characterization of Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal process using yttrium oxo isopropoxide [Y5O(OPri)13] (crystallized twice) and it’s acetyl acetone modified product [Y(O)(acac)] as precursors. Generally the sol-gel derived metal oxides are required to be annealed to the temperature ranging from 400°C-800°C in order to develop crystalline phases. However, this annealing also results in the development of aggregates which are undesirable for bio-conjugation experiments. In the hydrothermal process, we have achieved crystallinity of the nanoparticles at 300°C and the development of crystalline phases has been found to be proportional to the time of heating of the reactor. The average particle sizes as calculated from XRD were found to be 28 nm, 32 nm, and 34 nm by hydrothermal process. The particles were successfully suspended in chloroform in the presence of trioctyl phosphene oxide and TEM investigations showed the presence of single particles along with agglomerates.

Keywords: XRD, TEM, sol-gel, nanophosphors, Y2O3:Eu+3, Y2O3:Tb+3, hydrothermal method

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60 Effect of the Alloying Elements on Mechanical Properties of TWIP Steel

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat

Abstract:

The influence of the alloying element on mechanical properties and micro structures of the Fe-22Mn-0.6C-0,6Si twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel were investigated at different temperatures. This composition was fabricated by a vacuum induction melting method. This steel was homogenized at 1200◦C for 8h. After heat treatment it was hot-rolled at 1100◦C to 6 mm thickness. The hot rolled plates were cold rolled to 3 mm and annealed at 700 800 and 900 °C for 60 and 150 minute and then air-cooled. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), optic microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), hardness and tensile tests were used to analyse the relationship between mechanical properties and micro structure after annealing process. The results show that, the excellent mechanical properties were obtained after heat treatment process. The tensile strength of material was decreased and the ductility of material was improved with increasing annealing temperature. Ni element were increased the mechanical resistance of specimens and because of carbide precipitation the hardness of specimen annealed at 700 C is higher than others.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, SEM, XRD, high manganese, cold-rolling

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59 High-Temperature X-Ray Powder Diffraction of Secondary Gypsum

Authors: D. Gazdič, I. Hájková, M. Fridrichová

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This paper involved the performance of a high-temperature X-Ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) of a sample of chemical gypsum generated in the production of titanium white; this gypsum originates by neutralizing highly acidic water with limestone suspension. Specifically, it was gypsum formed in the first stage of neutralization when the resulting material contains, apart from gypsum, a number of waste products resulting from the decomposition of ilmenite by sulphuric acid. So it can be described as red titanogypsum. By conducting the experiment using XRD apparatus Bruker D8 Advance with a Cu anode (λkα=1.54184 Å) equipped with high-temperature chamber Anton Paar HTK 16, it was possible to identify clearly in the sample each phase transition in the system of CaSO4•xH2O.

Keywords: gypsum, High-temperature, Powder, XRD, anhydrite, bassanite, hematite

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58 Electrochemical Growth and Properties of Cu2O Nanostructures

Authors: A. Azizi, S. Laidoudi, G. Schmerber, A. Dinia

Abstract:

Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a well-known oxide semiconductor with a band gap of 2.1 eV and a natural p-type conductivity, which is an attractive material for device applications because of its abundant availability, non toxicity, and low production cost. It has a higher absorption coefficient in the visible region and the minority carrier diffusion length is also suitable for use as a solar cell absorber layer and it has been explored in junction with n type ZnO for photovoltaic applications. Cu2O nanostructures have been made by a variety of techniques; the electrodeposition method has emerged as one of the most promising processing routes as it is particularly provides advantages such as a low-cost, low temperature and a high level of purity in the products. In this work, Cu2O nanostructures prepared by electrodeposition from aqueous cupric sulfate solution with citric acid at 65°C onto a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates were investigated. The effects of deposition potential on the electrochemical, surface morphology, structural and optical properties of Cu2O thin films were investigated. During cyclic voltammetry experiences, the potential interval where the electrodeposition of Cu2O is carried out was established. The Mott–Schottky (M-S) plot demonstrates that all the films are p-type semiconductors, the flat-band potential and the acceptor density for the Cu2O thin films are determined. AFM images reveal that the applied potential has a very significant influence on the surface morphology and size of the crystallites of thin Cu2O. The XRD measurements indicated that all the obtained films display a Cu2O cubic structure with a strong preferential orientation of the (111) direction. The optical transmission spectra in the UV-Visible domains revealed the highest transmission (75 %), and their calculated gap values increased from 1.93 to 2.24 eV, with increasing potentials.

Keywords: nanostructure, Optical Properties, XRD, electrodeposition, Cu2O, Mott–Schottky plot

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57 Synthesis and Performance Study of Co3O4 as a Bi-Functional Next Generation Material

Authors: Shrikaant Kulkarni, Akshata Naik Nimbalkar

Abstract:

In this worki a method protocol has been developed for the synthesis of innovative Co3O4 material by using a method of chemical synthesis followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature on the morphology, structure and catalytic performance on material in question is investigated by using characterization tools like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The SEM images reveal that the morphology of the Co3O4 material undergoes a change from the rod to a beadlike shape on calcination at temperature of 700 °C. The XRD image shows that although the morphology of synthesized Co3O4 material exhibits a cubic phase but it differs in crystallinity depending upon morphology. Similarly spherical beadlike Co3O4 material has exhibited better activity than its rodlike counterpart which is reflected from electrochemical findings. Further, its performance in terms of bifunctional nature and hlods a lot much of promise as a excellent electrode material in the next generation batteries and fuel cells.

Keywords: XRD, bifunctional, next generation material, Co3O4

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56 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: to evaluate the spectral specification(IR-XRD and SEM) of nano ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and it,s characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation: to enhance the antibacterial property of nano ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin.IR spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin was sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano ciprofloxacin showes the diameter of particles equal to 90.9 nm (on the basis of scherrer equation). SEM image showes the global shape for nano ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: Nano, Antibiotic, SEM, XRD, ciprofloxacin

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55 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano-Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the spectral specification (IR-XRD and SEM) of nano-ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and its characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation enhances the antibacterial property of nano-ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin. IR spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin were sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano-ciprofloxacin shows the diameter of particles equal to 90.9nm. (on the basis of Scherer Equation). SEM image shows the global shape for nano-ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: Nano, Antibiotic, SEM, XRD, ciprofloxacin

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54 Hidrothermal Alteration Study of Tangkuban Perahu Craters, and Its Implication to Geothermal Conceptual Model

Authors: Afy Syahidan Achmad

Abstract:

Tangkuban Perahu is located in West Java, Indonesia. It is active stratovolcano type and still showing hidrothermal activity. The main purpose of this study is to find correlation between subsurface structure and hidrothermal activity on the surface. Using topographic map, SRTM images, and field observation, geological condition and alteration area was mapped. Alteration sample analyzed trough petrographic analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Altered rock in study area showing white-yellowish white colour, and texture changing variation from softening to hardening because of alteration by sillica and sulphur. Alteration mineral which can be observed in petrographic analysis and XRD analysis consist of crystobalite, anatase, alunite, and pyrite. This mineral assemblage showing advanced argillic alteration type with West-East alteration area orientation. Alteration area have correlation with manifestation occurance such as steam vents, solfatara, and warm to hot pools. Most of manifestation occured in main crater like Ratu Crater and Upas crater, and parasitic crater like Domas Crater and Jarian Crater. This manifestation indicates permeability in subsurface which can be created trough structural process with same orientation. For further study geophysics method such as Magneto Telluric (MT) and resistivity can be required to find permeability zone pattern in Tangkuban Perahu subsurface.

Keywords: pyrite, XRD, alteration, advanced argillic, Tangkuban Perahu, crystobalite, anatase, alunite

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53 Electrochemical Synthesis and Morphostructural Study of the Cuprite Thin Film

Authors: B. Bakiz, A. Benlhachemi, L. Bazzi, M. El Hajji, A. Hallaoui, O. Jbara, A. Tara, M. Hilali, Lh. Bazzi

Abstract:

The cathodic electro deposition of the cuprite Cu2O by chrono potentiometry is performed on two types of electrodes "titanium and stainless steel", in a basic medium containing the precursor of copper. The plot produced vs SCE, shows the formation of a brown layer on the electrode surface. The chrono potentiometric recording made between - 0.2 and - 1 mA/cm2, has allowed us to have a deposit having different morphologies and structural orientation obtained as a function of the variation of many parameters. The morphology, the size of crystals, and the phase of the deposits produced were studied by conventional techniques of analysis of the solid, particularly the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) and quantitative chemical analysis (EDS). The results will be presented and discussed, they show that the majority of deposits are pure and uniform.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, cathodic electrodeposition, cuprite Cu2O, EDS analysis

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52 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anticancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein

Abstract:

Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, syn-thesis of nano-composites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nano tubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work Sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures.Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diag-nosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, TEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs)

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51 Study Of Cu Doped Zns Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: H. Merzouka, D. T. Talantikitea, S. Fettouchib, L. Nessarkb

Abstract:

Recently New nanosized materials studies are in huge expansion worldwide. They play a fundamental role in various industrial applications thanks their unique and functional properties. Moreover, in recent years, a great effort has been made in design and control fabrication of nano-structured semiconductors such as zinc sulphide. In recent years, much attention has been accorded in doped and co-doped ZnS to improve the ZnS films quality. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. Nanoparticles ZnS and Cu doped ZnS films are prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), for various dopant concentrations. Thin films are deposed onto commercial microscope glass slides substrates. Thiourea is used as sulfide ion source, zinc acetate as zinc ion source and copper acetate as Cu ion source in alkaline bath at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are carried out at room temperature on films and powders with a powder diffractometer, using CuK radiation. The average grain size obtained from the Debye–Scherrer’s formula is around 10 nm. Films morphology is examined by scanning electron microscopy. IR spectra of representative sample are recorded with the FTIR between 400 and 4000 cm-1. The transmittance is more than 70 % is performed with the UV–VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range 200–800 nm. This value is enhanced by Cu doping.

Keywords: Thin Films, Nanostructured, FTIR, XRD, Cu doped ZnS, CBD

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50 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav

Abstract:

Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, nanocomposite, degradation, XRD, photocatalyst

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49 Bioremediation of Disposed X-Ray Film for Nanoparticles Production

Authors: Essam A. Makky, Siti H. Mohd Rasdi, J. B. Al-Dabbagh, G. F. Najmuldeen

Abstract:

The synthesis of silver nano particles (SNPs) extensively studied by using chemical and physical methods. Here, the biological methods were used and give benefits in research field in the aspect of very low cost (from waste to wealth) and safe time as well. The study aims to isolate and exploit the microbial power in the production of industrially important by-products in nano-size with high economic value, to extract highly valuable materials from hazardous waste, to quantify nano particle size, and characterization of SNPs by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Disposal X-ray films were used as substrate because it consumes about 1000 tons of total silver chemically produced worldwide annually. This silver is being wasted when these films are used and disposed. Different bacterial isolates were obtained from various sources. Silver was extracted as nano particles by microbial power degradation from disposal X-ray film as the sole carbon source for ten days incubation period in darkness. The protein content was done and all the samples were analyzed using XRD, to characterize of silver (Ag) nano particles size in the form of silver nitrite. Bacterial isolates CL4C showed the average size of SNPs about 19.53 nm, GL7 showed average size about 52.35 nm and JF Outer 2A (PDA) showed 13.52 nm. All bacterial isolates partially identified using Gram’s reaction and the results obtained exhibited that belonging to Bacillus sp.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bioremediation, Nanotechnology, Waste, XRD, disposal X-ray film

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48 Synthesis of AgInS2–ZnS at Low Temperature with Tunable Photoluminescence for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Nitu Chhikaraa, S. B. Tyagia, Kiran Jainb, Mamta Kharkwala

Abstract:

The I–III–VI2 semiconductor Nanocrystals such as AgInS2 have great interest for various applications such as optical devices (solar cell and LED), cellular Imaging and bio tagging etc. we synthesized the phase and shape controlled chalcopyrite AgInS2 (AIS) colloidal nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of metal xanthate at low temperature in an organic solvent’s containing surfactant molecules. Here we are focusing on enhancements of photoluminescence of AgInS2 Nps by coating of ZnS at low temperature for application of optical devices. The size of core shell Nps was less than 50nm.by increasing the time and temperature the emission of the wavelength of the Zn coated AgInS2 Nps could be adjusted from visible region to IR the QY of the AgInS2 Nps could be increased by coating of ZnS from 20 to 80% which was reasonably good as compared to those of the previously reported. The synthesized NPs were characterized by PL, UV, XRD and TEM.

Keywords: XRD, TEM

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47 Structural and Vibrational Studies of Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 Ferrites

Authors: Kamel Taıbı, Abdelmadjid Rais

Abstract:

Nickel–Aluminium ferrites with the general formula Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were studied using X-ray diffraction, Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy. XRD diffraction patterns and their Reitveld refinements show that all samples have a pure single-phase cubic spinel structure. From these patterns, the lattice parameters of these samples have been calculated and compared with those predicted theoretically. Most of the values were found to decrease with increasing Al content. Infra Red spectra showed two significant absorption bands. The high band corresponds to tetrahedral (A) sites and the lower band to octahedral [B] sites, thus confirming the single phase spinel structure. For all compositions, Raman spectra show the five active modes A1g + E1g + 3 T2g of the motion of O2- ions and both the A-site and B-site ions. The Raman frequencies trend with aluminium concentration show a blue shift for all modes consistent with the replacement of Fe3+ by lower mass Al3+. Composition dependence of the Raman frequency modes is discussed in relationship with the cations distribution among the A-sites and B-sites.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, XRD, Ni-Al ferrites, spinel structure

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46 Impact of Natural Degradation of Low Density Polyethylene on Its Morphology

Authors: Meryem Imane Babaghayou, Asma Abdelhafidi, Salem Fouad Chabira, Mohammed Sebaa

Abstract:

A challenge of plastics industries is the realization of materials that resist the degradation in its application environment, and that to guarantee a longer life time therefore an optimal time of use. Blown extruded films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) supplied by SABIC SAUDI ARABIA blown and extruded in SOFIPLAST company in Setif ALGERIA , have been subjected to climatic ageing in a sub-Saharan facility at Laghouat (Algeria) with direct exposure to sun. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques after prescribed amounts of time up to 8 months. It has been shown via these two techniques the impact of UV irradiation on the morphological development of a plastic material, especially the crystallinity degree which increases with exposure time. The reason of these morphological changes is related to photooxidative reactions leading to cross linking in the beginning and to chain scissions for an advanced stage of ageing this last ones are the first responsible. The crystallinity degree change is essentially controlled by the secondary crystallization of the amorphous chains whose mobility is enhanced by the chain scission processes. The diffusion of these short segments integrates the surface of the lamellae increasing in this way their thicknesses. The results presented highlight the complexity of the involved phenomena.

Keywords: Ageing, Crystallinity, XRD, DSC, Low Density poly (Ethylene)

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45 Design of Low-Cost Water Purification System Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Ramakar Jha, Nayan Kishore Giri

Abstract:

Water is a major element for the life of all the mankind in the earth. India’s surface water flows through fourteen major streams. Indian rivers are the main source of potable water in India. In the eastern part of India many toxic hazardous metals discharged into the river from mining industries, which leads many deadly diseases to human being. So the potable water quality is very significant and vital concern at present as it is related with the present and future health perspective of the human race. Consciousness of health risks linked with unsafe water is still very low among the many rural and urban areas in India. Only about 7% of total Indian people using water purifier. This unhealthy situation of water is not only present in India but also present in many underdeveloped countries. The major reason behind this is the high cost of water purifier. This current study geared towards development of economical and efficient technology for the removal of maximum possible toxic metals and pathogen bacteria. The work involves the design of portable purification system and purifying material. In this design Coconut shell granular activated carbon(GAC) and polypropylene filter cloths were used in this system. The activated carbon is impregnated with Iron(Fe). Iron is used because it enhances the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. The thorough analysis of iron impregnated activated carbon(Fe-AC) is done by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) , BET surface area test were done. Then 10 ppm of each toxic metal were infiltrated through the designed purification system and they were analysed in Atomic absorption spectrum (AAS). The results are very promising and it is low cost. This work will help many people who are in need of potable water. They can be benefited for its affordability. It could be helpful in industries and other domestic usage.

Keywords: Potable water, SEM, XRD, AAS, coconut shell GAC, polypropylene filter cloths, BET

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44 Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Aluminate Electrolyte Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: Onkar Nath Verma, Nitish Kumar Singh, Raghvendra, Pravin Kumar, Prabhakar Singh

Abstract:

The perovskite type electrolyte material LaAlO3 was prepared by solution based auto-combustion method using Al (NO3)3.6H2O, La2O3 with dilute nitrate acid (HNO3) as precursors and citric acid (C6H8O7.H2O) as a fuel. The synthesis protocol gave an easy processing of the LaAlO3 nano-particles. The XRD measurement revealed that the material has single phase with space group R-3c (rhombohedral). Thermal behavior was measured by simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The compact pellet density was determined. Also, the surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity of LaAlO3 was measured employing LCR meter and found to increase with increasing temperature. This increase in conductivity may be attributed to increased mobility of oxide ion.

Keywords: SEM, perovskite, XRD, SOFC, LaAlO3, DTA-TGA

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43 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Due to annealing the average grain size increased by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium

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42 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad

Abstract:

Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, kaolinite, alkali, swell potential

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41 The Effects of Addition of Chloride Ions on the Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Electrochemical Deposition

Authors: A. Azizi, L. Mentar, O. Baka

Abstract:

Zinc oxide as a wide band semiconductor materials, especially nanostructured materials, have potential applications in large-area such as electronics, sensors, photovoltaic cells, photonics, optical devices and optoelectronics due to their unique electrical and optical properties and surface properties. The feasibility of ZnO for these applications is due to the successful synthesis of diverse ZnO nanostructures, including nanorings, nanobows, nanohelixes, nanosprings, nanobelts, nanotubes, nanopropellers, nanodisks, and nanocombs, by different method. Among various synthesis methods, electrochemical deposition represents a simple and inexpensive solution based method for synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures. In this study, the electrodeposition method was used to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate as TCO from chloride bath. We present a systematic study on the effects of the concentration of chloride anion on the properties of ZnO. The influence of KCl concentrations on the electrodeposition process, morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures was examined. In this research electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanostructures is investigated using conventional electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and Mott-Schottky), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The potentials of electrodeposition of ZnO were determined using the cyclic voltammetry. From the Mott-Schottky measurements, the flat-band potential and the donor density for the ZnO nanostructure are determined. SEM images shows different size and morphology of the nanostructures and depends greatly on the KCl concentrations. The morphology of ZnO nanostructures is determined by the corporated action between [Zn(NO3)2] and [Cl-].Very netted hexagonal grains are observed for the nanostructures deposited at 0.1M of KCl. XRD studies revealed that the all deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with wurtzite phase. The electrodeposited thin films are found to have preferred oriented along (002) plane of the wurtzite structure of ZnO with c-axis normal to the substrate surface for sample at different concentrations of KCl. UV-Visible spectra showed a significant optical transmission (~80%), which decreased with low Cl-1 concentrations. The energy band gap values have been estimated to be between 3.52 and 3.80 eV.

Keywords: ZnO, SEM, XRD, electrodeposition, chloride ions, Mott-Schottky

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