Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

X-rays Related Abstracts

4 Enhancement of X-Rays Images Intensity Using Pixel Values Adjustments Technique

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Razan Manofely, Rajab M. Ben Yousef


X-Ray images are very popular as a first tool for diagnosis. Automating the process of analysis of such images is important in order to help physician procedures. In this practice, teeth segmentation from the radiographic images and feature extraction are essential steps. The main objective of this study was to study correction preprocessing of x-rays images using local adaptive filters in order to evaluate contrast enhancement pattern in different x-rays images such as grey color and to evaluate the usage of new nonlinear approach for contrast enhancement of soft tissues in x-rays images. The data analyzed by using MatLab program to enhance the contrast within the soft tissues, the gray levels in both enhanced and unenhanced images and noise variance. The main techniques of enhancement used in this study were contrast enhancement filtering and deblurring images using the blind deconvolution algorithm. In this paper, prominent constraints are firstly preservation of image's overall look; secondly, preservation of the diagnostic content in the image and thirdly detection of small low contrast details in diagnostic content of the image.

Keywords: Enhancement, X-rays, MATLAB, pixel intensity values

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3 Radioprotective Effects of Selenium and Vitamin-E against 6Mv X-Rays in Human Volunteers Blood Lymphocytes by Micronuclei Assay

Authors: Vahid Changizi, Aram Rostami, Akbar Mosavi


Purpose of study: Critical macromolecules of cells such as DNA are in exposure to damage of free radicals that induced from interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems. Selenium and vitamin-E are natural compound that has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo/in vitro radioprotective effect of selenium and vitamin-E separately and synergistically against genotoxicity induced by 6MV x-rays irradiation in cultured blood lymphocytes from 15 human volunteers. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were divided in three groups include A, B and C. These groups were given slenium(800 IU), vitamin-E(100 mg) and selenium(400 IU) + vitamin-E(50 mg), respectively. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each group before(0 hr) and 1, 2 and 3 hr after selenium and vitamin-E administration (separately and synergistically). Then the blood samples were irradiated to 200 cGy of 6 Mv x-rays. After that, lymphocyte samples were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the chromosomal aberrations wih micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: The lymphocytes in the blood samples collected at 1 hr after ingestion selenium and vitamin-E, exposed in vitro to x-rays exhibited a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei, compared with control group at 0 hr. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei(50%) was observed at 1 hr after administration of selenium and vitamin-E synergistically. Conclusion: The data suggest that ingestion of selenium and vitamin-E as a radioprotector substances before exposures may reduce genetic damage caused by x-rays irradiation.

Keywords: X-rays, Selenium, micronuclei, vitamin-e, lymphocyte

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2 Contrast-to-Noise Ratio Comparison of Different Calcification Types in Dual Energy Breast Imaging

Authors: Vaia N. Koukou, Niki D. Martini, George P. Fountos, Christos M. Michail, Athanasios Bakas, Ioannis S. Kandarakis, George C. Nikiforidis


Various substitute materials of calcifications are used in phantom measurements and simulation studies in mammography. These include calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminum. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values of the different calcification types using the dual energy method. The constructed calcification phantom consisted of three different calcification types and thicknesses: hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate of 100, 200, 300 thicknesses. The breast tissue equivalent materials were polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate slabs simulating adipose tissue and glandular tissue, respectively. The total thickness was 4.2 cm with 50% fixed glandularity. The low- (LE) and high-energy (HE) images were obtained from a tungsten anode using 40 kV filtered with 0.1 mm cadmium and 70 kV filtered with 1 mm copper, respectively. A high resolution complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) X-ray detector was used. The total mean glandular dose (MGD) and entrance surface dose (ESD) from the LE and HE images were constrained to typical levels (MGD=1.62 mGy and ESD=1.92 mGy). On average, the CNR of hydroxyapatite calcifications was 1.4 times that of calcite calcifications and 2.5 times that of calcium oxalate calcifications. The higher CNR values of hydroxyapatite are attributed to its attenuation properties compared to the other calcification materials, leading to higher contrast in the dual energy image. This work was supported by Grant Ε.040 from the Research Committee of the University of Patras (Programme K. Karatheodori).

Keywords: X-rays, calcification materials, CNR, dual energy

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1 Adobe Attenuation Coefficient Determination and Its Comparison with Other Shielding Materials for Energies Found in Common X-Rays Procedures

Authors: Camarena Rodriguez C. S., Portocarrero Bonifaz A., Palma Esparza R., Romero Carlos N. A.


Adobe is a construction material that fulfills the same function as a conventional brick. Widely used since ancient times, it is present in an appreciable percentage of buildings in Latin America. Adobe is a mixture of clay and sand. The interest in the study of the properties of this material arises due to its presence in the infrastructure of hospital´s radiological services, located in places with low economic resources, for the attenuation of radiation. Some materials such as lead and concrete are the most used for shielding and are widely studied in the literature. The present study will determine the mass attenuation coefficient of Adobe. The minimum required thicknesses for the primary and secondary barriers will be estimated for the shielding of radiological facilities where conventional and dental X-rays are performed. For the experimental procedure, an X-ray source emitted direct radiation towards different thicknesses of an Adobe barrier, and a detector was placed on the other side. For this purpose, an UNFORS Xi solid state detector was used, which collected information on the difference of radiation intensity. The initial parameters of the exposure started at 45 kV; and then the tube tension was varied in increments of 5 kV, reaching a maximum of 125 kV. The X-Ray tube was positioned at a distance of 0.5 m from the surface of the Adobe bricks, and the collimation of the radiation beam was set for an area of 0.15 m x 0.15 m. Finally, mathematical methods were applied to determine the mass attenuation coefficient for different energy ranges. In conclusion, the mass attenuation coefficient for Adobe was determined and the approximate thicknesses of the most common Adobe barriers in the hospital buildings were calculated for their later application in the radiological protection.

Keywords: X-rays, Radiological Protection, shielding, attenuation coefficient, adobe

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