Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Wound Healing Related Abstracts

27 In vivo Wound Healing Activity and Phytochemical Screening of the Crude Extract and Various Fractions of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) Leaves in Mice

Authors: Awol Mekonnen, Temesgen Sidamo, Epherm Engdawork, Kaleab Asresb


Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The leaves of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) are used in Ethiopian folk medicine for treatment of evil eye, fractured surface for bone setting and several skin disorders including for the treatment of sores, boils, and malignant wounds. Aim of the Study: In order to scientifically prove the claimed utilization of the plant, the effects of the extracts and the fractions were investigated using in vivo excision, incision and dead space wound models. Materials and Method: Mice were used for wound healing study, while rats and rabbit were used for skin irritation test. For studying healing activity, 80% methanolic extract and the fractions were formulated in strength of 5% and 10%, either as ointment (hydroalcoholic extract, aqueous and methanol fractions) or gel (chloroform fraction). Oral administration of the crude extract was used for dead space model. Negative controls were treated either with simple ointment or sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose xerogel, while positive controls were treated with nitrofurazone (0.2 w/v) skin ointment. Negative controls for dead space model were treated with 1% carboxy methyl cellulose. Parameters, including rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelializtion, hydroxyproline contents and skin breaking strength were evaluated. Results: Significant wound healing activity was observed with ointment formulated from the crude extract at both 5% and 10% concentration (p<0.01) compared to controls in both excision and incision models. In dead space model, 600 mg/kg (p<0.01), but not 300 mg/kg, significantly increased hydroxyproline content. Fractions showed variable effect, with the chloroform fraction lacking any significant effect. Both 5% and 10% formulations of the aqueous and methanolic fractions significantly increased wound contraction, decreased epithelializtion time and increased hydroxyproline content in excision wound model (p<0.05) as compared to controls. These fractions were also endowed with higher skin breaking strength in incision wound model (p<0.01). Conclusions: The present study provided evidence that the leaves of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich possess remarkable wound healing activities supporting the folkloric assertion of the plant. Fractionation revealed that polar or semi-polar compound may play vital role, as both aqueous and methanolic fractions were endowed with wound healing activity.

Keywords: Wound Healing, excision wound, Kalanchoae petitiana, incision wound, dead space model

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26 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Curcuma purpurascens BI. Rhizomes in Rats

Authors: Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Elham Rouhollahi, Salma Baig, Zahurin Mohamed


This study was designed to assess cutaneous wound healing potential of hexane extract of Curcuma purpurascens rhizomes (HECP). Twenty-four rats were divided into 4 groups: 1. Negative, 2. Low dose, 3. High dose and 4. Treatment, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions with a diameter of 2 cm were made on the back of each rat. Rats were topically treated two times a day for 15 days. Group 1-4 were treated with sterile distilled water, 5% and 10% of extract and intrasite gel, respectively. Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin staining techniques are employed for histological analysis revealed strong wound healing potential closer to that of conventional drug intrasite gel. HECP significantly decreased wound area and an increase in hydroxyproline, cellular proliferation, the number of blood vessels and the level of collagen synthesis was observed. Thus, it could be concluded that HECP possesses strong wound healing potential.

Keywords: Histopathology, Wound Healing, Curcuma purpurascens, hematoxylin staining

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25 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Phlomis bovei De Noe in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: W. Khitri, J. Zenaki, A. Abi, N. Lachgueur, A. Lardjem


Healing is a biological phenomenon that is automatically and immediately implemented by the body that is able to repair the physical damage of all tissues except nerve cells. Lot of medicinal plants is used for the treatment of a wound. Our ethnobotanical study has identified 19 species and 13 families of plants used in traditional medicine in Oran-Algeria for their healing activities. The Phlomis bovei De Noe was the species most recommended by herbalists. Its phytochemical study revealed different secondary metabolites such as terpenes, tannins, saponins and mucilage. The evaluation of the healing activity of Phlomis bovei in wistar albinos rats by excision wound model showed a significant amelioration with 5 % increase of the surface healing compared to the control group and a gain of three days of epithelialization time with a scar histologically better.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Phlomis Bovei De Noe, ethnobanical study, wistar albino rats

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24 The Effect of Topically Aloe vera Gel on Cutaneous Wound Healing

Authors: Nasrin Takzaree, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammadreza Rouini


Background: Wound healing and repair is a normal reaction to injury which results in restoration of tissue integrity. Rate of wound healing is affected by various factors, such as nutrition, vitamins, hormones. Method: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera mucilage on wound healing. Mucilage was extracted from leaves, then homogenize, filtered and concentrated. Some creams were prepared with different concentrations of mucilage 95%. In this study 63 male albino rats, weighing 250–300 gr were used. Incision wounds (10 mm) were made on the shaved and cleaned back of rat necks. Wounds of case groups (group I & group II) were treated with aloe vera mucilage which were administered one time daily another group two times daily. Results: In order to evaluate wound healing, various parameters such as wound diameter, percentage of healing, duration of healing. Were considered. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed that aloe vera mucilage is a potent healing and can be used in wound healing process.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Aloe vera, open skin wound, healing process

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23 Development of Biodegradable Wound Healing Patch of Curcumin

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari


The objective of the present research work is to develop a topical biodegradable dermal patch based formulation to aid accelerated wound healing. It is always better for patient compliance to be able to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and overall therapeutic efficacy. In present study optimized formulation using biodegradable components was obtained evaluating polymers and excipients (HPMC K4M, Ethylcellulose, Povidone, Polyethylene glycol and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity, and strength. Molten gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in acidic medium was mixed with stirring to Gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added with the aid of DCM and Methanol in an optimized ratio of 60:40 to get homogenous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in the final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23°C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2°C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2°C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as tested in vivo with correlation factor R2>0.9. In in vivo study administration of one dose in equivalent quantity per 2 days was applied topically. The data demonstrated a significant improvement with percentage wound contraction in contrast to control and plain drug respectively in given period. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and in vivo performance.

Keywords: Polymers, Wound Healing, biodegradable, patch

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22 The Healing Effect of Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells Loaded in Collagen-Modified Nanofibrous PHBV Scaffold on Full-Thickness Skin Defects

Authors: Hadi Rad


Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) loaded in nanofibrous PHBV scaffold can be used for skin regeneration when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rats. Nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds were designed using electrospinning method and then, modified with the immobilized collagen via the plasma method. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, physical and mechanical assays. In this study; nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds loaded with and without USSCs were grafted into the skin defects. The wounds were subsequently investigated at 21 days after grafting. Results of mechanical and physical analyses showed good resilience and compliance to movement as a skin graft. In animal models; all study groups excluding the control group exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen on post-operative Day 21. Histological and immunostaining examinations of healed wounds from all groups, especially the groups treated with stem cells, showed a thin epidermis plus recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer. Thus, the graft of collagen-coated nanofibrous PHBV scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat model.

Keywords: Wound Healing, collagen, nanofibrous PHBV scaffold, unrestricted somatic stem cells

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21 The Use of a Rabbit Model to Evaluate the Influence of Age on Excision Wound Healing

Authors: I. Hussain, S. Bilal, S. A. Bhat, J. D. Parrah, S. P. Ahmad, M. R. Mir


Background: The wound healing involves a highly coordinated cascade of cellular and immunological response over a period including coagulation, inflammation, granulation tissue formation, epithelialization, collagen synthesis and tissue remodeling. Wounds in aged heal more slowly than those in younger, mainly because of comorbidities that occur as one age. The present study is about the influence of age on wound healing. 1x1cm^2 (100 mm) wounds were created on the back of the animal. The animals were divided into two groups; one group had animals in the age group of 3-9 months while another group had animals in the age group of 15-21 months. Materials and Methods: 24 clinically healthy rabbits in the age group of 3-21 months were used as experimental animals and divided into two groups viz A and B. All experimental parameters, i.e., Excision wound model, Measurement of wound area, Protein extraction and estimation, Protein extraction and estimation and DNA extraction and estimation were done by standard methods. Results: The parameters studied were wound contraction, hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein, and DNA. A significant increase (p<0.005) in the hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA and a significant decrease in wound area (p<0.005) was observed in the age group of 3-9 months when compared to animals of an age group of 15-21 months. Wound contraction together with hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA estimations suggest that advanced age results in retarded wound healing. Conclusion: The decrease wound contraction and accumulation of hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA in group B animals may be associated with the reduction or delay in growth factors because of the advancing age.

Keywords: age, Wound Healing, excision wound, hydroxyproline, glucosamine

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20 Wound Healing Dressing and Some Composites Such as Zeolite, TiO2, Chitosan and PLGA as New Alternative for Melanoma Therapy: A Review

Authors: L. Almeida, L. B. Naves


The development of Drugs Delivery System (DDS), has been wildly investigated in the last decades. In this paper, first a general overview of traditional and modern wound dressing is presented. This is followed by a review of what scientist have done in the medical environment, focusing the possibility to develop a new alternative for DDS through transdermal pathway, aiming to treat melanoma skin cancer.

Keywords: Melanoma, Wound Healing, Cancer Therapy, dressing polymers

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19 Effect of Falcaria vulgaris in Wound Healing and Immune Response of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Authors: N. Choobkar, M. Rezaeimanesh, A. M. Emami Rad, M. Ghaeni, H. Norouzi, S. Pahlavani, M. S. Tamasoki, E. Nezafatian


Antibiotics are used to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals . But due to the residual effects of a drug , researchers sought to replace them with natural materials such as Plant extracts. Falcaria vulgaris is the most attractive sources of the new drugs. Falcaria vulgaris (locally named Ghazzyaghi/Poghazeh) is a member of Umbelliferae family which grows near farmlands and is consumed as a vegetable in some regions of Iran. In the West of the country, in the wound healing and irregularities in the digestive system is also used. There were no scientific reports available in literature in support of the traditional claims of F. vulgaris in fish. The present study is therefore an attempt to assess the efficacy of this indigenous herb for its healing effect in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10 % with Lophag foods used on wound healing of common carp and immune response, and weight grow and survival during periods of 21 days with feeding 2 times per day on the basis of body weight. The results showed that, compared with the control group, using of concentration 10 % F. vulgaris have significant effect on wound healing and stimulates the immune system by increasing white blood cells (WBC) and weight grow and survival of carp. The herb can used in wound healing, increased resistance to disease and weight grow in fish and the beneficial effects of this combination goes back to man.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Common carp, Immune response, falcaria vulgaris

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18 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent


Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: Diabetes, Morphology, Wound Healing, body weight, piper betel

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17 Antiinflammatory and Wound Healing Activity of Sedum Essential Oils Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin


The last decade the growth of severe and disseminated forms of inflammatory diseases is observed in Kazakhstan, in particular, septic shock, which progresses on 3-15% of patients with infectious complications of postnatal period. In terms of the rate of occurrence septic shock takes third place after hemorrhagic and cardiovascular shock, in terms of lethality it takes first place. The structure of obstetric sepsis has significantly changed. Currently the first place is taken by postabortive sepsis (40%) that is connected with usage of imperfect methods of artificial termination of pregnancy in late periods (intraamnial injection of sodium chloride, glucose). The second place is taken by postnatal sepsis (32%); the last place is taken by septic complications of caesarean section (28%). In this connection, search for and assessment of effectiveness of new medicines for treatment of postoperative infectious complications, having biostimulating effect and speeding up regeneration processes, is very promising and topical. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Sedum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Pilot batch of plant medicinal product based on Sedum essential oils was produced by Chimpharm JSC, Santo Member of Polpharma Group (Kazakhstan). During clinical test of the plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils 37 female patients at the age from 35 to 57 with clinical signs of complicated postoperative processes and 12 new mothers with clinical signs of inflammatory process on sutures on anterior abdominal wall after caesarean section and partial disruption of surgical suture line on perineum were examined. Medicine usage methods - surgical wound treatment 2 times a day, treatment with other medicines of local action was not performed. Before and after treatment general clinical test, determination of immune status, bacterioscopic test of wound fluid was performed to all women, medical history data was taken into account, wound cleansing and healing time, full granulations, side effects and complications, satisfaction with the used medicine was assessed. On female patients with inflammatory infiltration and partial disruption of surgical suture line anesthetic wound healing effect of plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils was observed as early as on the second day after beginning of using it, wound cleansing took place, as a rule, within the first row days. Hyperemia in the area of suture line also was not observed for 2-3-d day of usage of medicine, good constant course was observed. The absence of clinical effect on this group of patients was not registered. The represented data give evidence of that clinical effect was accompanied with normalization of changed laboratory findings. No allergic responses or side effects were observed during usage of the plant medicinal products based on Sedum L. essential oils.

Keywords: Isolation, essential oils, Wound Healing, Bioactive Substances, antiinflammatory, sedum L

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16 New Approach for Melanoma Skin Cancer Controled Releasing Drugs for Neutron Capture Therapy: A Review

Authors: Lucas Bernardes Naves, Luis Almeida


The paper includes a review concerning the use of some composites including poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PGLA), zeolite and Gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA) loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) in order to establish a new alternative for the treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer. The main goal of this paper it to make a review of what scientist have done in the last few years, as well as to propose a less invasive therapy for skin cancer, by using Hydrocolloid, based on PLGA coated with Gd-nanoCPs for Neutron Capture Therapy.

Keywords: Melanoma, Wound Healing, Cancer Therapy, dressing polymers

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15 Formulation and in Vitro Characterization of Bioactives Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticle Incorporated into Multiphase Hydrogel System for the Treatment of Infected Burn Wound

Authors: Deependra Singh, Rajni Kant Panik, Manju Singh


Despite significant advances in the treatment of severe burn injury, infection and sepsis persist as frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for burn victims due to extensive compromise of the skin and contiguous tissue that serve as a protective barrier against microbial invasion. In the setting of a burn wound infection, Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated pathogens from bloodstream infections in burn care hospitals. We aimed to develop a biocompatible system of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate hydrogel carrying multiple drugs- catalase and mupirocin in controlled manner for effective and complete burn wound healing. PLGA nanoparticles of Catalase and mupirocin were prepared by homogenization method and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-sodium alginate slurry. PVA-sodium alginate hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. The study clearly showed the beneficial effect of antioxidant enzyme and antibiotic in the treatment of infected burn wound, as evidenced by the reduced incidence of wound infection and the shortening of healing time.

Keywords: Wound Healing, catalase, burn wound, mupirocin

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14 Polymeric Sustained Biodegradable Patch Formulation for Wound Healing

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Gyati Shilakari Asthana


It’s the patient compliance and stability in combination with controlled drug delivery and biocompatibility that forms the core feature in present research and development of sustained biodegradable patch formulation intended for wound healing. The aim was to impart sustained degradation, sterile formulation, significant folding endurance, elasticity, biodegradability, bio-acceptability and strength. The optimized formulation was developed using component including polymers including Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin, and Citric Acid PEG Citric acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers and active Curcumin. Polymeric mixture dissolved in geometric order in suitable medium through continuous stirring under ambient conditions. With continued stirring Curcumin was added with aid of DCM and Methanol in optimized ratio to get homogenous dispersion. The dispersion was sonicated with optimum frequency and for given time and later casted to form a patch form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The formulations obtained in the acceptable working range were decided based on thickness, uniformity of drug content, smooth texture and flexibility and brittleness. The patch kept on stability using butter paper in sterile pack displayed folding endurance in range of 20 to 23 times without any evidence of crack in an optimized formulation at room temperature (RT) (24 ± 2°C). The patch displayed acceptable parameters after stability study conducted in refrigerated conditions (8±0.2°C) and at RT (24 ± 2°C) upto 90 days. Further, no significant changes were observed in critical parameters such as elasticity, biodegradability, drug release and drug content during stability study conducted at RT 24±2°C for 45 and 90 days. The drug content was in range 95 to 102%, moisture content didn’t exceeded 19.2% and patch passed the content uniformity test. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2>0.9. The biodegradable patch based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: Polymers, Stability, Wound Healing, sustained biodegradation

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13 Optical Coherence Tomography in Differentiation of Acute and Non-Healing Wounds

Authors: Ananya Barui, Provas Banerjee, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee


Application of optical technology in medicine and biology has a long track-record. In this endeavor, OCT is able to attract both engineers and biologists to work together in the field of photonics for establishing a striking non-invasive imaging technology. In contrast to other in vivo imaging modalities like Raman imaging, confocal imaging, two-photon microscopy etc. which can perform in vivo imaging upto 100-200 micron depth due to limitation in numerical aperture or scattering, however, OCT can achieve high-resolution imaging upto few millimeters of tissue structures depending on their refractive index in different anatomical location. This tomographic system depends on interference of two light waves in an interferometer to produce a depth profile of specimen. In wound healing, frequent collection of biopsies for follow-up of repair process could be avoided by such imaging technique. Real time skin OCT (the optical biopsy) has efficacy in deeper and faster illumination of cutaneou tissue to acquire high resolution cross sectional images of their internal micro-structure. Swept Source-OCT (SS-OCT), a novel imaging technique, can generate high-speed depth profile (~ 2 mm) of wound at a sweeping rate of laser with micron level resolution and optimum coherent length of 5-6 mm. Normally multi-layered skin tissue depicts different optical properties along with variation in thickness, refractive index and composition (i.e. keratine layer, water, fat etc.) according to their anatomical location. For instance, stratum corneum, the upper-most and relatively dehydrated layer of epidermis reflects more light and produces more lucid and a sharp demarcation line with rest of the hydrated epidermal region. During wound healing or regeneration, optical properties of cutaneous tissue continuously altered with maturation of wound bed. More mature and less hydrated tissue component reflects more light and becomes visible as a brighter area in comparison to immature region which content higher amount water or fat that depicts as a darker area in OCT image. Non-healing wound possess prolonged inflammation and inhibits nascent proliferative stage. Accumulation of necrotic tissues also prevents the repair of non-healing wounds. Due to high resolution and potentiality to reflect the compositional aspects of tissues in terms of their optical properties, this tomographic method may facilitate in differentiating non-healing and acute wounds in addition to clinical observations. Non-invasive OCT offers better insight regarding specific biological status of tissue in health and pathological conditions, OCT images could be associated with histo-pathological ‘gold standard’. This correlated SS-OCT and microscopic evaluation of the wound edges can provide information regarding progressive healing and maturation of the epithelial components. In the context of searching analogy between two different imaging modalities, their relative performances in imaging of healing bed were estimated for probing an alternative approach. Present study validated utility of SS-OCT in revealing micro-anatomic structure in the healing bed with newer information. Exploring precise correspondence of OCT images features with histo-chemical findings related to epithelial integrity of the regenerated tissue could have great implication. It could establish the ‘optical biopsy’ as a potent non-invasive diagnostic tool for cutaneous pathology.

Keywords: Wound Healing, OCT, histo-pathology, non invasive imaging

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12 Radiofrequency Ablation: A Technique in the Management of Low Anal Fistula

Authors: R. Suresh, C. B. Singh, A. K. Sarda


Background: Over the decades, several surgical techniques have been developed to treat anal fistulas with variable success rates and complications. Large amount of work has been done in radiofrequency excision of the fistula for several years but no work has been done for ablating the tract. Therefore one can consider for obliteration ofanal fistula by Radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Material and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at Lok Nayak Hospital, where a total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study and they were randomly assigned to Group I (fistulectomy)(n=20) and Group II (RFA) (n=20). Aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of RFA of fistula versus fistulectomy in the treatment of a low anal fistula and to evaluate RFA as an effective alternative to fistulectomy with respect to time taken for wound healing as primary outcome and post-operative pain, time taken to return to work as secondary outcomes. Patients with simple low anal fistulas, single internal and external opening, not more than two secondary tracts were included. Patients with high complex fistula, fistulas communicating with cavity, fistula due to condition like tuberculosis, Crohn's, malignancy were excluded from the study. Results: Both groups were comparable with respect to age, sex ratio, type of fistula. Themean healing time was significantly shorter in group II (41.02 days) than in group I(62.68 days).The mean operative time was significantly shorter in groupII (21.40 min) than in group I(28.50 min). The mean time taken to return to work was significantly shorter in group II(8.30 days)than in group I(12.01 days).There was no significant difference in the post operative hospital stay, mean postoperative pain score, wound infection and recurrence between the two groups. Conclusion: The patients who underwent RFA of fistula had shorter wound healing time, operative time and time taken to return to work when compared to those who underwent fistulectomy and therefore RFA shows outcome comparable to fistulectomy in the treatment of low anal fistula.

Keywords: Wound Healing, fistulectomy, low anal fistula, radio frequency ablation

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11 Wound Healing Process Studied on DC Non-Homogeneous Electric Fields

Authors: Marisa Rio, Sharanya Bola, Richard H. W. Funk, Gerald Gerlach


Cell migration, wound healing and regeneration are some of the physiological phenomena in which electric fields (EFs) have proven to have an important function. Physiologically, cells experience electrical signals in the form of transmembrane potentials, ion fluxes through protein channels as well as electric fields at their surface. As soon as a wound is created, the disruption of the epithelial layers generates an electric field of ca. 40-200 mV/mm, directing cell migration towards the wound site, starting the healing process. In vitro electrotaxis, experiments have shown cells respond to DC EFs polarizing and migrating towards one of the poles (cathode or anode). A standard electrotaxis experiment consists of an electrotaxis chamber where cells are cultured, a DC power source and agar salt bridges that help delaying toxic products from the electrodes to attain the cell surface. The electric field strengths used in such an experiment are uniform and homogeneous. In contrast, the endogenous electric field strength around a wound tend to be multi-field and non-homogeneous. In this study, we present a custom device that enables electrotaxis experiments in non-homogeneous DC electric fields. Its main feature involves the replacement of conventional metallic electrodes, separated from the electrotaxis channel by agarose gel bridges, through electrolyte-filled microchannels. The connection to the DC source is made by Ag/AgCl electrodes, incased in agarose gel and placed at the end of each microfluidic channel. An SU-8 membrane closes the fluidic channels and simultaneously serves as the single connection from each of them to the central electrotaxis chamber. The electric field distribution and current density were numerically simulated with the steady-state electric conduction module from ANSYS 16.0. Simulation data confirms the application of nonhomogeneous EF of physiological strength. To validate the biocompatibility of the device cellular viability of the photoreceptor-derived 661W cell line was accessed. The cells have not shown any signs of apoptosis, damage or detachment during stimulation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining, namely by vinculin and actin labelling, allowed the assessment of adhesion efficiency and orientation of the cytoskeleton, respectively. Cellular motility in the presence and absence of applied DC EFs was verified. The movement of individual cells was tracked for the duration of the experiments, confirming the EF-induced, cathodal-directed motility of the studied cell line. The in vitro monolayer wound assay, or “scratch assay” is a standard protocol to quantitatively access cell migration in vitro. It encompasses the growth of a confluent cell monolayer followed by the mechanic creation of a scratch, representing a wound. Hence, wound dynamics was monitored over time and compared for control and applied the electric field to quantify cellular population motility.

Keywords: Wound Healing, DC non-homogeneous electric fields, electrotaxis, microfluidic biochip

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10 Development and Characterization of Multiphase Hydrogel Systems for Wound Healing

Authors: Deependra Singh, Rajendra Jangde


Present work was based with objective to release of the antimicrobial and debriding agent in sustained manner at the wound surface. In order to provide a long-lasting antimicrobial action and moist environment on wound space, Biocompatible moist system was developed for complete healing. In the present study, a biocompatible moist system of PVA-gelatin hydrogel was developed capable of carrying multiple drugs- Quercetin and Cabopol in controlled manner for effective and complete wound healing. Carbopol and Quercetin were prepared by thin film hydration techniques and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-Gelatin slurry. PVA-Gelatin hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. Results revealed the uniform dispersion of microspheres in a three-dimensional matrix of the PVA-Gelatin hydrogel observed at different magnifications. The in vitro release data showed typical biphasic release pattern, i.e., a burst release followed by a slower sustained release for 5 days. Prepared system was found to be stable under both normal and accelerated conditions. Histopathological study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibres and blood vessels formation. All parameters such as wound contraction, tensile strength, histopathological and biochemical parameters- hydroxyproline content, protein level, etc. were observed significant (p<0.05) in comparison to control group. Present results suggest an accelerated re-epithelialization under moist wound environment with delivery of multiple drugs effective at different stages of wound healing cascade with minimum disturbance of wound bed.

Keywords: Wound Healing, multiphase hydrogel, optimization quercetin

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9 Preparation and In vitro Characterization of Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing

Authors: Rajni Kant Panik


The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate mupirocin loaded nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel as an infected wound healer. Incorporated Nanoparticle in hydrogel provides a barrier that effectively prevents the contamination of the wound and further progression of infection to deeper tissues. Hydrogel creates moist healing environment on wound space with good fluid absorbance. Nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method using different ratios of PLGA polymer and the hydrogels was developed using sodium alginate and gelatin. Further prepared nanoparticles were then incorporated into the hydrogels. The formulations were characterized by FT-IR and DSC for drug and polymer compatibility and surface morphology was studied by TEM. Nanoparticle hydrogel were evaluated for their size, shape, encapsulation efficiency and for in vitro studies. The FT-IR and DSC confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The average size of Nanoparticle was found to be in range of 208.21-412.33 nm and shape was found to be spherical. The maximum encapsulation efficiency was found to be 69.03%. The in vitro release profile of Nanoparticle incorporated hydrogel formulation was found to give sustained release of drug. Antimicrobial activity testing confirmed that encapsulated drug preserve its effectiveness. The stability study confirmed that the formulation prepared were stable. Present study complements our finding that mupirocin loaded Nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel has the potential to be an effective and safe novel addition for the release of mupirocin in sustained manner, which may be a better option for the management of wound. These finding also supports the progression of antibiotic via hydrogel delivery system is a novel topical dosage form for the management of wound.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Wound Healing, Hydrogel, PLGA

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8 Influence of an Octenidine Based Wound Gel on Postoperative Wound Healing and Scarring after Abdominoplasty

Authors: Johannes Matiasek


Introduction and Aims: Octenidine is a common antiseptic agent in the area of surgical interventions because of its antimicrobial efficacy and outstanding biocompatibility index. We investigate the direct postoperative application of octenilin® on typical procedures in the field of plastic surgery in a prospective, randomized controlled intervention study. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of a direct postoperative application of an octenidine-containing wound gel on wound healing and scarring after abdominoplasty. Material and Methods: In this study, we enrolled 33 patients who underwent abdominoplasty because of medical indications (e.g. Cutis laxa abdominis). To ensure an intraindividual comparison, each patient received both dressings (study-group: octenilin® wound gel; control-group: Omnistrip® dry plaster) immediately after surgery. We evaluate wound-healing tendency, pain during dressing changes and scar formation after two weeks, three, six and twelve months. Regarding scar-evaluation skin-elasticity, sebum on the skin, transepidermal waterloss, skin hydration, melanin content and erythema level were determined with special probes. Furthermore the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and pain level during dressing change are determined. Results: At the time of surgery the mean patient’s age was 44.1 years. On average 5.6 dressing changes were necessary. Wound healing disorders occurred more often in the control-group. In the control-group (dry plaster Omnistrip®) patients reported significantly more pain and superficial skin injuries during dressing changes occurred. Objective scar-evaluation after 3, 6 and 12 months resulted in a significant higher skin-elasticity and significant lower transepidermal water loss in the octenilin® group which is confirmed in the VSS. Conclusion: The immediate postoperative application of the octenidine-containing hydrogel octenilin® after abdominoplasty results in favoured scar formation compared to our actual standard therapy. Less hypertrophic scar formation was observed in the study-group.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Abdominoplasty, scarring, octenidine

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7 The Extent of Proliferation, Apoptosis and Angiogenesis at the Site of Injury Determine the Course of Healing Either as Scar Free or as Scarred One in the Appendages of Lizard

Authors: Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Suresh Balakrishnan


It has been observed that in lizards wound can be healed by either a scar free mechanism or by scarring. The animal model used to study both these healing processes was Northern House Gecko. In lizard, the tail when amputated heals by scar free mechanism which allows it to regenerate, the same is not seen when the limb is amputated. Proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis are the main events which succeed an injury. We observed that proliferation of the cells beneath the wound epidermis was much higher in case of wound healing in tail. This could be because after the wound gets covered by the epithelium, it enters in to a cross-talk with the underlying mesenchyme to recruit a pool of blastemal cells which proliferate and later differentiate to form the lost part through epimorphic regeneration. This was substantiated by mRNA expression levels of various FGFs which facilitate the cross-talk and also by PCNA which is a marker for proliferation. Western blot result reaffirms the same notion. However, in case of the limb, the rate of apoptosis was more than proliferation as there are a lot of debris that needs to be removed. We came to this conclusion as we observed that p53 the apoptotic gene was highly upregulated in case of the scarred tissue. Further, we confirmed this result by checking the anti-apoptotic gene bcl2 and found it to be significantly down-regulated. As we noticed heightened proliferation in the case of scar-free wound healing in tail, angiogenesis was targeted for the study. This is because, when the cells are proliferating they require constant supply of blood and hence neo-vascularization is inevitable. It was observed that the marker of angiogenesis, VEGF, was expressed more during wound healing as compared to the resting stage of tail. Moreover, a high up-regulation was seen in KDR, a receptor of VEGF. Thus, this study reveals how proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis play a key role in the scar-free as well as scarred wound healing.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Injury, epimorphic regeneration, northern house gecko

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6 Clay Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Controlled Small Molecule Release

Authors: Xiaolin Li, Bryce Feltis, Terence Turney, John Forsythe, Paul Wright, Vinh Truong, Will Gates


Clay-hydrogel nanocomposites have attracted great attention recently, mainly because of their enhanced mechanical properties and ease of fabrication. Moreover, the unique platelet structure of clay nanoparticles enables the incorporation of bioactive molecules, such as proteins or drugs, through ion exchange, adsorption or intercalation. This study seeks to improve the mechanical and rheological properties of a novel hydrogel system, copolymerized from a tetrapodal polyethylene glycol (PEG) thiol and a linear, triblock PEG-PPG-PEG (PPG: polypropylene glycol) α,ω-bispropynoate polymer, with the simultaneous incorporation of various amounts of Na-saturated, montmorillonite clay (MMT) platelets (av. lateral dimension = 200 nm), to form a bioactive three-dimensional network. Although the parent hydrogel has controlled swelling ability and its PEG groups have good affinity for the clay platelets, it suffers from poor mechanical stability and is currently unsuitable for potential applications. Nanocomposite hydrogels containing 4wt% MMT showed a twelve-fold enhancement in compressive strength, reaching 0.75MPa, and also a three-fold acceleration in gelation time, when compared with the parent hydrogel. Interestingly, clay nanoplatelet incorporation into the hydrogel slowed down the rate of its dehydration in air. Preliminary results showed that protein binding by the MMT varied with the nature of the protein, as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was more strongly bound than bovine serum albumin. The HRP was no longer active when bound, presumably as a result of extensive structural refolding. Further work is being undertaken to assess protein binding behaviour within the nanocomposite hydrogel for potential diabetic wound healing applications.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Wound Healing, Hydrogel, small molecule

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5 Sirt1 Activators Promote Skin Cell Regeneration and Cutaneous Wound Healing

Authors: Hussain Mustatab Wahedi, Sun You Kim


Skin acts as a barrier against the harmful environmental factors. Integrity and timely recovery of the skin from injuries and harmful effects of radiations is thus very important. This study aimed to investigate the importance of Sirt1 in the recovery of skin from UVB-induced damage and cutaneous wounds by using natural and synthetic novel Sirt1 activators. Juglone, known as a natural Pin1 inhibitor, and NED416 a novel synthetic Sirt1 activator were checked for their ability to regulate the expression and activity of Sirt1 and hence photo-damage and wound healing in cultured skin cells (NHDF and HaCaT cells) and mouse model by using Sirt1 siRNA knockdown, cell migration assay, GST-Pulldown assay, western blot analysis, tube formation assay, and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, Sirt1 knockdown inhibited skin cell migration in vitro. Juglone up regulated the expression of Sirt1 in both the cell lines under normal and UVB irradiated conditions, enhanced Sirt1 activity and increased the cell viability by reducing reactive oxygen species synthesis and apoptosis. Juglone promoted wound healing by increasing cell migration and angiogenesis through Cdc42/Rac1/PAK, MAPKs and Smad pathways in skin cells. NED416 upregulated Sirt1 expression in HaCaT and NHDF cells as well as increased Sirt1 activity. NED416 promoted the process of wound healing in early as well as later stages by increasing macrophage recruitment, skin cell migration, and angiogenesis through Cdc42/Rac1 and MAPKs pathways. So, both these compounds activated Sirt1 and promoted the process of wound healing thus pointing towards the possible role of Sirt1 in skin regeneration and wound healing.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Sirt1, skin regeneration, UVB light

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4 Polymer Nanocomposite Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing

Authors: Patrícia Severino, Luciana Nalone, Daniele Martins, Marco Chaud, Classius Ferreira, Cristiane Bani, Ricardo Albuquerque


Hydrogels produced with polymers have been used in the development of dressings for wound treatment and tissue revitalization. Our study on polymer nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles shows antimicrobial activity and applications in wound healing. The effects are linked with the slow oxidation and Ag⁺ liberation to the biological environment. Furthermore, bacterial cell membrane penetration and metabolic disruption through cell cycle disarrangement also contribute to microbial cell death. The silver antimicrobial activity has been known for many years, and previous reports show that low silver concentrations are safe for human use. This work aims to develop a hydrogel using natural polymers (sodium alginate and gelatin) combined with silver nanoparticles for wound healing and with antimicrobial properties in cutaneous lesions. The hydrogel development utilized different sodium alginate and gelatin proportions (20:80, 50:50 and 80:20). The silver nanoparticles incorporation was evaluated at the concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM. The physico-chemical properties of the formulation were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The morphological characterization was made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Human fibroblast (L2929) viability assay was performed with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment as well as an in vivo cicatrizant test. The results suggested that sodium alginate and gelatin in the (80:20) proportion with 4 mM of AgNO₃ in the (UV-Vis) exhibited a better hydrogel formulation. The nanoparticle absorption spectra of this analysis showed a maximum band around 430 - 450 nm, which suggests a spheroidal form. The TG curve exhibited two weight loss events. DSC indicated one endothermic peak at 230-250 °C, due to sample fusion. The polymers acted as stabilizers of a nanoparticle, defining their size and shape. Human fibroblast viability assay L929 gave 105 % cell viability with a negative control, while gelatin presented 96% viability, alginate: gelatin (80:20) 96.66 %, and alginate 100.33 % viability. The sodium alginate:gelatin (80:20) exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, with minimal bacterial growth at a ratio of 1.06 mg.mL⁻¹ in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 0.53 mg.mL⁻¹ in Staphylococcus aureus. The in vivo results showed a significant reduction in wound surface area. On the seventh day, the hydrogel-nanoparticle formulation reduced the total area of injury by 81.14 %, while control reached a 45.66 % reduction. The results suggest that silver-hydrogel nanoformulation exhibits potential for wound dressing therapeutics.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Wound Healing, Hydrogel, silver nanoparticle

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3 Stimuli-Responsive Zwitterionic Dressings for Chronic Wounds Management

Authors: Margarita Gabrashanska, Konstans Ruseva, Kristina Ivanova, Katerina Todorova, Tzanko Tzanov, Elena Vassileva


Zwitterionic polymers (ZP) are well-known with their ultralow biofouling. They are successfully competing with poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG), which are considered as the “golden standard” in this respect. These unique properties are attributed to their strong hydration capacity, defined by the dipole-dipole interactions, arising between the ZP pendant groups as well as to the dipoles interaction with water molecules. Beside, ZP are highly resistant to bacterial adhesion thus ensuring an excellent anti-biofilm formation ability. Moreover, ZP are able to respond upon external stimuli such as temperature, pH, salt concentration changes which in combination with their anti-biofouling effect render this type of polymers as materials with a high potential in biomedical applications. The present work is focused on the development of zwitterionic hydrogels for efficient treatment of highly exudating and hard-to-heal chronic wounds. To this purpose, two types of ZP networks with different crosslinking degree were synthesized - polysulfobetaine (PSB) and polycarboxybetaine (PCB) ones. They were characterized in terms of their physico-mechanical properties, e.g. microhardness, swelling ability, smart behaviour. Furthermore, the potential of ZP networks to resist biofilm formation towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied. Their ability to reduce the high levels of myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase, two enzymes that are part of the chronic wounds enviroenment, was revealed. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic assessment of PSB and PCB networks along with their in vivo performance in rats was also studied to reveal their high biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Wound Healing, absorption properties, enzymatic inhibition activity, zwitterionic polymers

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2 Effectiveness of Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Angioplasty: Wound Healing in Critically Limb Ischemic

Authors: Patrianef Darwis, M. Wisnu Pamungkas


Introduction: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a vascular disease that has a significant amputation and mortality risk with diabetes mellitus, the most significant risk factor in CLI, is very common among Indonesian. Endovascular intervention (EVI) is preferred in treating CLI because it is noninvasive and effective. Balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are the most common method of EVI in Indonesia. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty on wound healing in CLI. Method: A cross-sectional study enrolled 90 subjects of CLI who underwent endovascular intervention using balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty from January 2013 to July 2017 in dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The wound healing period between balloon angioplasty dan stent angioplasty was analyzed using unpaired T-test with p<0,05 considered as statistically significant. Data of intervention method wound healing period, and subjects characteristic data (age, amputation, BMI, smoking habit, DM, occlusion site, and blood profile) were obtained. Result: The wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty distributed normally. Mean value of wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are 84,8+/-2,423 and 59,93 +/- 2,423 days with a mean difference of 25 days. The difference in wound healing period in both groups is statically significant (p<0,05). The amputation event in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty is 22 and 16 event with no difference statistically. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty is a better method than balloon angioplasty for wound healing in patients with CLI.

Keywords: Endovascular Intervention, Wound Healing, angioplasty, critical limb ischemia

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1 Development of a Wound Dressing Material Based on Microbial Polyhydroxybutyrate Electrospun Microfibers Containing Curcumin

Authors: Ariel Vilchez, Francisca Acevedo, Rodrigo Navia


The wound healing process can be accelerated and improved by the action of antioxidants such as curcumin (Cur) over the tissues; however, the efficacy of curcumin used through the digestive system is not enough to exploit its benefits. Electrospinning presents an alternative to carry curcumin directly to the wounds, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is proposed as the matrix to load curcumin owing to its biodegradable and biocompatible properties. PHB is among 150 types of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) identified, it is a natural thermoplastic polyester produced by microbial fermentation obtained from microorganisms. The proposed objective is to develop electrospun bacterial PHB-based microfibers containing curcumin for possible biomedical applications. Commercial PHB was solved in Chloroform: Dimethylformamide (4:1) to a final concentration of 7% m/V. Curcumin was added to the polymeric solution at 1%, and 7% m/m regarding PHB. The electrospinning equipment (NEU-BM, China) with a rotary collector was used to obtain Cur-PHB fibers at different voltages and flow rate of the polymeric solution considering a distance of 20 cm from the needle to the collector. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the diameter and morphology of the obtained fibers. Thermal stability was obtained from Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was carried out in order to study the chemical bonds and interactions. A preliminary curcumin release to Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) pH = 7.4 was obtained in vitro and measured by spectrophotometry. PHB fibers presented an intact chemical composition regarding the original condition (dust) according to FTIR spectra, the diameter fluctuates between 0.761 ± 0.123 and 2.157 ± 0.882 μm, with different qualities according to their morphology. The best fibers in terms of quality and diameter resulted in sample 2 and sample 6, obtained at 0-10kV and 0.5 mL/hr, and 0-10kV and 1.5 mL/hr, respectively. The melting temperature resulted near 178 °C, according to the bibliography. The crystallinity of fibers decreases while curcumin concentration increases for the studied interval. The curcumin release reaches near 14% at 37 °C at 54h in PBS adjusted to a quasi-Fickian Diffusion. We conclude that it is possible to load curcumin in PHB to obtain continuous, homogeneous, and solvent-free microfibers by electrospinning. Between 0% and 7% of curcumin, the crystallinity of fibers decreases as the concentration of curcumin increases. Thus, curcumin enhances the flexibility of the obtained material. HPLC should be used in further analysis of curcumin release.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Curcumin, antioxidant, polyhydroxybutyrate

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