Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Working conditions Related Abstracts

7 Working Conditions, Motivation and Job Performance of Hotel Workers

Authors: Thushel Jayaweera

Abstract:

In performance evaluation literature, there has been no investigation indicating the impact of job characteristics, working conditions and motivation on the job performance among the hotel workers in Britain. This study tested the relationship between working conditions (physical and psychosocial working conditions) and job performance (task and contextual performance) with motivators (e.g. recognition, achievement, the work itself, the possibility for growth and work significance) as the mediating variable. A total of 254 hotel workers in 25 hotels in Bristol, United Kingdom participated in this study. Working conditions influenced job performance and motivation moderated the relationship between working conditions and job performance. Poor workplace conditions resulted in decreasing employee performance. The results point to the importance of motivators among hotel workers and highlighted that work be designed to provide recognition and sense of autonomy on the job to enhance job performance of the hotel workers. These findings have implications for organizational interventions aimed at increasing employee job performance.

Keywords: Motivation, Working conditions, Job Performance, hotel workers, job characteristics

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6 Effect of Cutting Tools and Working Conditions on the Machinability of Ti-6Al-4V Using Vegetable Oil-Based Cutting Fluids

Authors: S. Gariani, I. Shyha

Abstract:

Cutting titanium alloys are usually accompanied with low productivity, poor surface quality, short tool life and high machining costs. This is due to the excessive generation of heat at the cutting zone and difficulties in heat dissipation due to relatively low heat conductivity of this metal. The cooling applications in machining processes are crucial as many operations cannot be performed efficiently without cooling. Improving machinability, increasing productivity, enhancing surface integrity and part accuracy are the main advantages of cutting fluids. Conventional fluids such as mineral oil-based, synthetic and semi-synthetic are the most common cutting fluids in the machining industry. Although, these cutting fluids are beneficial in the industries, they pose a great threat to human health and ecosystem. Vegetable oils (VOs) are being investigated as a potential source of environmentally favourable lubricants, due to a combination of biodegradability, good lubricous properties, low toxicity, high flash points, low volatility, high viscosity indices and thermal stability. Fatty acids of vegetable oils are known to provide thick, strong, and durable lubricant films. These strong lubricating films give the vegetable oil base stock a greater capability to absorb pressure and high load carrying capacity. This paper details preliminary experimental results when turning Ti-6Al-4V. The impact of various VO-based cutting fluids, cutting tool materials, working conditions was investigated. The full factorial experimental design was employed involving 24 tests to evaluate the influence of process variables on average surface roughness (Ra), tool wear and chip formation. In general, Ra varied between 0.5 and 1.56 µm and Vasco1000 cutting fluid presented comparable performance with other fluids in terms of surface roughness while uncoated coarse grain WC carbide tool achieved lower flank wear at all cutting speeds. On the other hand, all tools tips were subjected to uniform flank wear during whole cutting trails. Additionally, formed chip thickness ranged between 0.1 and 0.14 mm with a noticeable decrease in chip size when higher cutting speed was used.

Keywords: Working conditions, Turning, vegetable oils, Ti-6Al-4V, cutting fluids

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5 Working Hours of Nurses in Public Hospitals: An Analyse Based on Working Schedules

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Arzu K. Harmanci Seren

Abstract:

The problems about the working hours of nursing personnel, such as overworking, numbers of night or daytime shifts, is stated one of the most complained issues by nurses. Otherwise, besides of nursing shortage, absenteeism of nurses because of sickness, some other health problems, or other reasons enforces nurse managers to make working schedules. In this study, it was aimed to analyse and evaluate the working schedules of nurses working in public hospitals. Working schedule lists of nursing personnel for the months of October and November in two public hospitals were analysed and evaluated. Approvals were acquired from the head nurse managers. Descriptive and comparative analyses were used. Totally 36 lists were analysed from two hospitals. There were totally 416 nurses (manager nurse: 25, nurse: 391) and 6-28 (12.6, SD=5.34) nurses in each list. It was found that nurses were working 8 (42.5%), 12 (27.9%) and 16 (20%) hours, in inpatient clinics (74.8%). Totally 20.2% of the nurses were absent during analysing time due to the annual, paid or unpaid leaves. Nurses were generally working 20-112 hours (80.27, SD=11.92). Most of the nurses over worked 1.5-443 hours (47.436, SD=60.78) the year before that year. It was determined that 11.8% of the nurses (n: 49) were working only night shifts and 42.1% (n: 175) of the nurses were working only daytime shifts. It was found that there were inequities in the working hours of nurses.

Keywords: Working conditions, nurse, public hospitals, working schedules

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4 To Be a Nurse in Turkey: A Comparison Based on International Labour Organization's Nursing Personnel Recommendation

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Arzu K. Harmanci Seren

Abstract:

The shortage of nursing personnel is considered one of the most important labour force issues in health sector of developed countries since early 1970s. International Labour Organization developed standards for working conditions of nurses in collaboration with World Health Organization with the aim of helping to solve nursing shortage problem all over the world. As a result of this collaboration, ILO Nursing Personnel Convention (C. 149), and the accompanying Recommendation (R. 157) were adopted in 1977. Turkey as a country that has a serious nurse shortage problem, has been a member of ILO since 1932, and has not signed this convention yet. This study was planned to compare some of the working standards in Convention with the present working conditions of nurses in Turkey. The data were collected by an on line survey between 19 January-16 February 2015 for this cross-sectional study. Participants were reached through social network accounts in collaboration with nursing associations. Totally 828 nurses from the 57 provinces of Turkey participated in the study. Survey was consisted of 14 open ended questions related to working conditions of nurses and 34 Likert statements related to nursing policies of the facilities they are working in. The data were analysed using the IBM SPSS 21.0 (licensed to Istanbul University) software. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Most of the participants (81.5%) were staff and 18.5% of them were manager nurses. Most of them had baccalaureate (57.9%) or master (27.4%) degree in nursing. 18.5% of the participants were working in private hospitals, 34.9% of them in university hospitals and 46.6% of them were in Ministry of Health Hospitals. It was found that monthly working schedules were announced mostly 7 days ago (18%), working time of nurses was at least 8 hours (41.5%) and at most 24 hours (22.8%) in a day and had time for lunch or dinner 25.18 (SD=16.66), for resting 21.02 (SD=29.25) minutes. On the other hand, it was determined that 316 (43.2%) nurses did not have time for lunch and 61 (7.9%) of them could not find time for eating anything. It was also explored they were working 15-96 hours in a week (mean=48.28, SD=8.89 hours), 4-29 days in a month (mean=19.29, SD=5.03 days) and 597 (72%) nurses overworked changing form 1 hour to 150 hours (32.80, SD=23.42 hours) before the month in which surveys were filled. Most of the participants did not leave the job due to the sickness (47.5%) even if they felt sick. Also most of them did not leave the job due to any excuse (67.2%) or education (57.3%). This study has significance because of nurses from different provinces participated in and it provides brief information about the working conditions of nurses nationwide. It was explored that nurses in Turkey were working at worse conditions according the International Labour Organization’s recommendations.

Keywords: Working conditions, nurse, international labour organization, recommendations for nurses

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3 The Role and Challenges of Social Workers in Child Protection: The Case of Indonesia

Authors: B. Rusyidi

Abstract:

Since 2009, the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs has been implementing Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak (PKSA) (Child Welfare Program) a conditional cash transfer program that targets neglected children, children with disabilities, street children, children in conflict with the law, and children in need of special protection, all from poor households. PKSA integrates three elements: Transfer of cash, care and social services through social workers, and institutional childcare assistance. This qualitative study analyzed the roles and the challenges of social workers in implementing PKSA and lays out recommendations to inform policy changes. Data were collected in late 2014 from national and local government and non-government child welfare agencies, social workers, and childcare institution representatives through interviews and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs). Field work took place in six districts in the provinces of Jakarta, Central Java and South Sulawesi. The study found that the social workers’ role was significant in facilitating cash transfer, providing education and guidance, and linking children and families to basic social services. This improved utilization of basic social services enhanced children and families’ behaviors and contributed to the well being of the children. However, only a small number of childcare institutions have social workers, leaving many children and families without care and social service linkages, depriving them of rehabilitative components to help them regain their social functions. Some social workers reported their struggles with heavy workloads, lack of professional competencies and training, limited job security, and inadequate professional acknowledgment from other professions. Parts of those challenges were due to the centralized nature of the program and the lack of shared vision and commitment about the child protection system among related government agencies both at the national and local levels. The study highlights the necessity to implement an integrated child protection system, decentralize the PKSA program, and increase the number, competence, case management, and management and monitoring of social workers. The most recent progress of the program and its impacts on social workers are also discussed.

Keywords: Working conditions, Child Protection, social worker, conditional cash transfer, program decentralization

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2 Towards Achieving Total Decent Work: Occupational Safety and Health Issues, Problems and Concerns of Filipino Domestic Workers

Authors: Ronahlee Asuncion

Abstract:

The nature of their work and employment relationship make domestic workers easy prey to abuse, maltreatment, and exploitation. Considering their plight, this research was conceptualized and examined the: a) level of awareness of Filipino domestic workers on occupational safety and health (OSH); b) their issues/problems/concerns on OSH; c) their intervention strategies at work to address OSH related issues/problems/concerns; d) issues/problems/concerns of government, employers, and non-government organizations with regard to implementation of OSH to Filipino domestic workers; e) the role of government, employers and non-government organizations to help Filipino domestic workers address OSH related issues/problems/concerns; and f) the necessary policy amendments/initiatives/programs to address OSH related issues/problems/concerns of Filipino domestic workers. The study conducted a survey using non-probability sampling, two focus group discussions, two group interviews, and fourteen face-to-face interviews. These were further supplemented with an email correspondence to a key informant based in another country. Books, journals, magazines, and relevant websites further substantiated and enriched data of the research. Findings of the study point to the fact that domestic workers have low level of awareness on OSH because of poor information drive, fragmented implementation of the Domestic Workers Act, inactive campaign at the barangay level, weakened advocacy for domestic workers, absence of law on OSH for domestic workers, and generally low safety culture in the country among others. Filipino domestic workers suffer from insufficient rest, long hours of work, heavy workload, occupational stress, poor accommodation, insufficient hours of sleep, deprivation of day off, accidents and injuries such as cuts, burns, slipping, stumbling, electrical grounding, and fire, verbal, physical and sexual abuses, lack of medical assistance, none provision of personal protective equipment (PPE), absence of knowledge on the proper way of lifting, working at heights, and insufficient food provision. They also suffer from psychological problems because of separation from one’s family, limited mobility in the household where they work, injuries and accidents from using advanced home appliances and taking care of pets, low self-esteem, ergonomic problems, the need to adjust to all household members who have various needs and demands, inability to voice their complaints, drudgery of work, and emotional stress. With regard to illness or health problems, they commonly experience leg pains, back pains, and headaches. In the absence of intervention programs like those offered in the formal employment set up, domestic workers resort to praying, turn to family, relatives and friends for social and emotional support, connect with them through social media like Facebook which also serve as a means of entertainment to them, talk to their employer, and just try to be optimistic about their situation. Promoting OSH for domestic workers is very challenging and complicated because of interrelated factors such as cultural, knowledge, attitudinal, relational, social, resource, economic, political, institutional and legal problems. This complexity necessitates using a holistic and integrated approach as this is not a problem requiring simple solutions. With this recognition comes the full understanding that its success involves the action and cooperation of all duty bearers in attaining decent work for domestic workers.

Keywords: Occupational Safety and Health, Working conditions, decent work, Filipino domestic workers

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1 The Influence of Construction Workers Wages and Working Conditions on Productivity in Ghana

Authors: Emmanuel Donkor

Abstract:

Aim/Purpose – This paper examines the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Design/methodology/Approach - The study adopted a quantitative research approach with purposive sampling techniques where data was collected using surveys. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0, which enables the findings of the study to be examined under thematic areas.Findings: - The study revealed that good wages and working condition of workers have a positive correlation on productivity in the construction industry. Increase and improved wages and working conditions can results in higher productivity in the construction industry.Originality/value - This paper is exceptional in the sense that, it does examine the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Social value/implications - The paper concludes that workers’ wages and their conditions have a high influence on productivity. It is then recommended that government should train, educate, give good wages to workers and improve on their working condition, give incentives and reduce tax importation on building or construction materials to aid in good productivity of construction firms.

Keywords: Productivity, construction industry, Working conditions, construction firms, workers’ wages

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