Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Work Related Abstracts

9 Contextual Meaning of Work and its Sociological Significance among the Yoruba People in Nigeria

Authors: Aroge Stephen Talabi

Abstract:

Work is a term that appears to be very common in usage and occurrence the world over. The meanings attached to it and what it implies equally appears to be that common and somewhat similar in description by individuals and groups as derivatives of their contexts. Work is generally seen as the exertion of efforts and the application of knowledge and skills to achieve different purposes comprising of earning a living, making money, prestige, achievement, recognition, companionship and other satisfactions. The paper examined the general meanings of work from the perspectives of various religions. It situated these meanings by drawing on the sociological significance of work among the Yoruba. It established work as social control for a reorientation in peoples approach to work. The Yoruba people of the Western Nigeria share, to a great extent, in common conceptualization and application of work as they believe and understand that their individual and community existence and living are contingent on work participation. The contextual meaning and sociological significance of work as investigated in this paper show that the Yorubas concept of work is daily applied variously in both their material and non-material cultural undertakings to influence individual and group for effective participation in productive ventures for overall social well-being. The Yoruba use all forms of training method which could be adopted by adult educators as pathways to increase individual’s work participation and to improve productivity in work organizations.The paper found out that in the Yoruba socio cultural milieu, the meanings, conceptions and the importance attached to work are used as method of inculcating in members of society the spirit of commitment and hard-work and the advantages thereof. Yoruba contexts of work are geared towards enhancement of commitment, diligence and improved productivity on-the-job behaviour. The paper, therefore, submits that using the Yoruba’s conceptions of work could enhance commitment on the parts of all those engaged in production of goods and services. The paper also suggests that the Yoruba principle and perception and application of work could be used as one of the training techniques in industrial education, which is a major aspect of adult education programmes for inculcating ethics in the workplace. Thus, effort should be made to embrace the Yoruba conception and tenet of work by all stakeholders such as the workers, group (Union), managers and the society at large. Such principles and tenet of work should be included in industrial education curriculum.

Keywords: Productivity, Work, contextual meaning, sociological significance, Yoruba-people, social milieu

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8 A Comprehensive Study of Accounting for Growth in China and India

Authors: Yousef Rostami Gharainy

Abstract:

We look at the late financial exhibitions of China and India utilizing a simple growth accounting framework that creates assessments of the commitment of work, capital, training, and aggregate variable profitability for the three parts of agribusiness, industry, and administrations and in addition for the total economy. Our examination consolidates late information updates in both nations and incorporates broad examination of the basic information arrangement. The development records demonstrate a generally square with division in each nation between the commitments of capital gathering and TFP to development in yield every specialist over the period 1980-2007, and an increasing speed of development when the period is separated at 1993. Be that as it may, the size of yield development in China is generally twofold that of India at the total level, and additionally higher in each of the three segments in both sub-periods. In China the post-1993 increasing speed was amassed generally in industry, which contributed about 61 percent of China’s total efficiency development. Interestingly, 48 percent of the development in India in the second sub-period came in administrations. Reallocation of specialists from farming to industry and administrations has contributed 1.3 rate focuses to efficiency development in every nation.

Keywords: capital, training, Work, China, India, growth accounting framework, aggregate variable profitability

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7 Ergonomics Aspects of Work with Computers

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba

Abstract:

This paper is based on a large questionnaire study. The paper presents how all participants and subgroups (upper- and lower-level white-collar workers) answered the question, “Have you had an ache, pain, or numbness, which you associate with desktop computer use, in the different body parts during the last 12 months?’ 14.6% of participants (19.4% of women and 8.2% of men) reported that they had often or very often physical symptoms in the neck. Even if our results cannot prove a causal relation of symptoms with computer use, show that workers believe that computer use can influence their wellbeing: This is important when devising treatment modalities to decrease these physical symptoms.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Computer, Work, symptoms

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6 Youth and Employment: An Outlook on Challenges of Demographic Dividend

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

India’s youth bulge is now sharpest at the critical 15-24 age group, even as its youngest, and oldest age groups begin to narrow. As the ‘single year, age data’ for the 2011 Census releases the data on the number of people at each year of age in the population. The data shows that India’s working age population (15-64 years) is now 63.4 percent of the total, as against just short of 60 percent in 2001. The numbers also show that the ‘dependency ratio’ the ratio of children (0-14) and the elderly (65 above) to those in the working age has shrunk further to 0.55. “Even as the western world is in ageing situation, these new numbers show that India’s population is still very young”. As the fertility falls faster in urban areas, rural India is younger than urban India; while 51.73 percent of rural Indians are under the age of 24 and 45.9 percent of urban Indians are under 24. The percentage of the population under the age of 24 has dropped, but many demographers say that it should not be interpreted as a sign of the youth bulge is shrinking. Rather it is because of “declining fertility, the number of infants and children reduces first, and this is what we see with the number of under age 24. Indeed the figure shows that the proportion of children in the 0-4 and 5-9 age groups has fallen in 2011 compared to 2001. For the first time, the percentage of children in the 10-14 age group has also fallen, as the effect of families reducing the number of children they have begins to be felt. The present paper key issue is to examine that “whether this growing youth bulge has the right skills for the workforce or not”. The study seeks to examine the youth population structure and employment distribution among them in India during 2001-2011 in different industrial category. It also tries to analyze the workforce participation rate as main and marginal workers both for male and female workers in rural and urban India by utilizing an abundant source of census data from 2001-2011. Result shows that an unconscionable number of adolescents are working when they should study. In rural areas, large numbers of youths are working as an agricultural labourer. Study shows that most of the youths working are in the 15-19 age groups. In fact, this is the age of entry into higher education, but due to economic compulsion forces them to take up jobs, killing their dreams of higher skills or education. Youths are primarily engaged in low paying irregular jobs which are clearly revealed by census data on marginal workers. That is those who get work for less than six months in a year. Large proportions of youths are involved in the cultivation and household industries works.

Keywords: Work, Youth, main, marginal

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5 The Professional Rehabilitation of Workers Affected by Chronic Low Back Pain in 'Baixada Santista' Region, Brazil

Authors: Maria Do Carmo Baracho De Alencar

Abstract:

Back pain is considered a worldwide public health problem and has led to numerous work-related absence from work and public spending on rehabilitation, as well as difficulties in the process of professional rehabilitation and return to work. Also, the rehabilitation of workers is one of the great challenges today and for the field of Workers' Health in Brazil. Aim: To investigate the procedures related to the professional rehabilitation of insured workers affected by chronic low back pain, based on the perceptions of professional counselors. Methods: A list of related professional counselors was obtained from the Professional Rehabilitation Coordination of the Baixada Santista (SP) region, and from the Social Security National Institute of Brazil, and in which cities they worked. Semistructured and individual interview was scheduled, based on a pre-elaborated script, containing questions about procedures, experiences at work and feelings. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full for content analysis. Results: Ten (10) professional counselors of both genders and from nine (9) cities from the Baixada Santista region participated in the study. Aged between 31 and 64 years, and time in service between 4 and 38 years. Only one of the professionals was graduaded in Psychology. Among the testimonies emerged the high demand of work, the lack of interest of companies, medical authority, the social helplessness after rehabilitation process, difficulty in assessing invisible pain, and suffering, anguish, and frustration at work, between others. Conclusion: The study contributes to reflections about the importance of interdisciplinary actions and the Psychology in the processes of professional rehabilitation and readaptation in the process of return to work.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, low back pain, Occupational Health, Work

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4 Gathering Space after Disaster: Understanding the Communicative and Collective Dimensions of Resilience through Field Research across Time in Hurricane Impacted Regions of the United States

Authors: Jack L. Harris, Marya L. Doerfel, Hyunsook Youn, Minkyung Kim, Kautuki Sunil Jariwala

Abstract:

Organizational resilience refers to the ability to sustain business or general work functioning despite wide-scale interruptions. We focus on organization and businesses as a pillar of their communities and how they attempt to sustain work when a natural disaster impacts their surrounding regions and economies. While it may be more common to think of resilience as a trait possessed by an organization, an emerging area of research recognizes that for organizations and businesses, resilience is a set of processes that are constituted through communication, social networks, and organizing. Indeed, five processes, robustness, rapidity, resourcefulness, redundancy, and external availability through social media have been identified as critical to organizational resilience. These organizing mechanisms involve multi-level coordination, where individuals intersect with groups, organizations, and communities. Because the nature of such interactions are often networks of people and organizations coordinating material resources, information, and support, they necessarily require some way to coordinate despite being displaced. Little is known, however, if physical and digital spaces can substitute one for the other. We thus are guided by the question, is digital space sufficient when disaster creates a scarcity of physical space? This study presents a cross-case comparison based on field research from four different regions of the United States that were impacted by Hurricanes Katrina (2005), Sandy (2012), Maria (2017), and Harvey (2017). These four cases are used to extend the science of resilience by examining multi-level processes enacted by individuals, communities, and organizations that together, contribute to the resilience of disaster-struck organizations, businesses, and their communities. Using field research about organizations and businesses impacted by the four hurricanes, we code data from interviews, participant observations, field notes, and document analysis drawn from New Orleans (post-Katrina), coastal New Jersey (post-Sandy), Houston Texas (post-Harvey), and the lower keys of Florida (post-Maria). This paper identifies an additional organizing mechanism, networked gathering spaces, where citizens and organizations, alike, coordinate and facilitate information sharing, material resource distribution, and social support. Findings show that digital space, alone, is not a sufficient substitute to effectively sustain organizational resilience during a disaster. Because the data are qualitative, we expand on this finding with specific ways in which organizations and the people who lead them worked around the problem of scarce space. We propose that gatherings after disaster are a sixth mechanism that contributes to organizational resilience.

Keywords: Communication, Disaster Management, Resilience, Work, coordination, Information and Communication Technologies, interorganizational relationships

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3 Theory and Reality on Working Life of People with Disability: The Case in Poland

Authors: Dorota Kobus-Ostrowska

Abstract:

Work for everyone, especially for person with disability is a condition in independence; it secures basic needs and develops manual and intellectual capabilities. The work is a source of income, and it builds and strengthens of self-esteem and competence. The purpose of this article is to identify work as an important factor in everyone’s life, despite Polish disabled persons rarely having the chance to undertake a job. In order to achieve this purpose, two methods were used: comparative and qualitative. The theoretical part of this article is based on studies of a wide range of Polish and foreign literature devoted to the issue of the occupational development of people with disabilities. The article was also enriched with the institutional and legal analysis types of support for people with disabilities in Poland. Currently, a Polish person with disability who wants to enter or return to the labor market is under a special protection. Those entities employing workers with disabilities may obtain a subsidy for the salary of a person with disabilities. Unfortunately, people with disability in Poland rarely participate in the workforce. The factors that contribute to this include the difficulty in obtaining work, the uncertainty of keeping it, and the low salary offered. Despite that domestic and foreign literature highlight the important role of disabled people as a workforce, very few people with disability in Poland are economically active.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Work, employer, disabled person

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2 Disentangling the Sources and Context of Daily Work Stress: Study Protocol of a Comprehensive Real-Time Modelling Study Using Portable Devices

Authors: Larissa Bolliger, Junoš Lukan, Mitja Lustrek, Dirk De Bacquer, Els Clays

Abstract:

Introduction and Aim: Chronic workplace stress and its health-related consequences like mental and cardiovascular diseases have been widely investigated. This project focuses on the sources and context of psychosocial daily workplace stress in a real-world setting. The main objective is to analyze and model real-time relationships between (1) psychosocial stress experiences within the natural work environment, (2) micro-level work activities and events, and (3) physiological signals and behaviors in office workers. Methods: An Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol has been developed, partly building on machine learning techniques. Empatica® wristbands will be used for real-life detection of stress from physiological signals; micro-level activities and events at work will be based on smartphone registrations, further processed according to an automated computer algorithm. A field study including 100 office-based workers with high-level problem-solving tasks like managers and researchers will be implemented in Slovenia and Belgium (50 in each country). Data mining and state-of-the-art statistical methods – mainly multilevel statistical modelling for repeated data – will be used. Expected Results and Impact: The project findings will provide novel contributions to the field of occupational health research. While traditional assessments provide information about global perceived state of chronic stress exposure, the EMA approach is expected to bring new insights about daily fluctuating work stress experiences, especially micro-level events and activities at work that induce acute physiological stress responses. The project is therefore likely to generate further evidence on relevant stressors in a real-time working environment and hence make it possible to advise on workplace procedures and policies for reducing stress.

Keywords: Real-time, Work, stress, ecological momentary assessment

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1 Saudi Women Facing Challenges in a Mixed-Gender Work Environment

Authors: A. Aldawsari

Abstract:

The complex issue of women working in a mixed-gender work environment has its roots in social and cultural factors. This research was done to identify and explore the social and cultural challenges Saudi women face in a mixed-gender work environment in Saudi Arabia. Over the years, Saudi women in mixed-gender work environments in Saudi Arabia have been of interest in various research areas, especially within the context of a hospital work environment. This research, which involves a female researcher interacting one-on-one with Saudi women, will address this issue as well as the effect of the 2030 Vision in Saudi Arabia, and it will aim to include several new fields of work environments for women in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this research is to examine the perceptions of Saudi women who work in a mixed gender environment regarding the general empowerment of women in these settings. The objective of this research is to explore the cultural and social challenges that influence Saudi women's rights to work in a mixed-gender environment in Saudi Arabia. The significance of this research lies in the fact that there is an urgency to resolve issue of female employment in Saudi Arabia, where Saudi women still suffer from inequality in employment opportunity. Although the Saudi government is seeking to empower women by integrating them into a mixed-gender work environment, which is a key goal and prominent social change advocated for in the 2030 Vision, this same goal is one of the main challenges in the face of achieving female empowerment. The methodology section focuses on appropriate methods that can be used to study the effect of social and cultural challenges on the employment of women. It then determines the conditions and limitations of the research by applying a qualitative research approach to the investigation and analysing the data collected from the interviews. A statistical analysis tool, such as NVivo, will be used for the qualitative analysis of the interviews. The study found that the factor most responsible for creating social and cultural challenges is family—whether close family or distant family—more so than tribe or community.

Keywords: Environment, Women, Work, mixed-gender

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