Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Wood Related Abstracts

14 Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future

Authors: Aysin Sev, Meltem Ezel

Abstract:

Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forces for the sustainability of construction industry are explained. Then, the term NT is defined, and significance of innovations in NT for a sustainable construction industry is revealed. After presenting the application areas of NT and nanomaterials for buildings with a number of cases, challenges in the adoption of this technology are put forward, and finally the impacts of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on human health and environment are discussed.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, Wood, steel, Self-Healing Concrete, Aerogel, self cleaning sensor, nanosensor, flexible solar panel

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13 Acoustic Behavior of Polymer Foam Composite of Shorea leprosula after UV-Irradiation Exposure

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, S. Shafizah

Abstract:

This study was developed to compare the behavior and the ability of polymer foam composites towards sound absorption test of Shorea leprosula wood (SL) of acid hydrolysis treatment with particle size < 355µm. Three different weight ratio of polyol to wood particle has been selected which are 10wt%, 15wt%, and 20wt%. The acid hydrolysis treatment is to optimize the surface interaction of a wood particle with polymer foam matrix. In addition, the acoustic characteristic of sound absorption coefficient (Į) was determined. Further treatment is to expose the polymer composite in UV irradiation by using UV-Weatherometer. Polymer foam composite of untreated shorea leprosula particle (SL-B) with respective percentage loading shows uniform pore structure as compared with treated wood particle (SL-A). As the filler percentage loading in polymer foam increases, the Į value approaching 1 for both samples. Furthermore, SL-A shows better Į value at 3500-4500 frequency absorption level(Hz), meanwhile Į value for SL-B is maximum at 4000-5000 Hz. The frequencies absorption level for both SL-B and SL-A after UV exposure was increased with the increasing of exposure time from 0-1000 hours. It is, therefore, concluded that the Į for each sound absorbing material, with or without acid hydrolysis treatment of wood particles and it’s percentages loading in polymer matrix effect the sound absorption behavior.

Keywords: Wood, polymer foam composite, sound absorption coefficient, UV-irradiation

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12 Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Residual Lignin from Areca Nut Shells

Authors: Dipti Yadav, Latha Rangan, Pinakeswar Mahanta

Abstract:

Recent fuel-development strategies to reduce oil dependency, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and utilize domestic resources have generated interest in the search for alternative sources of fuel supplies. Bioenergy production from lignocellulosic biomass has a great potential. Cellulose, hemicellulose and Lignin are main constituent of woods or agrowaste. In all the industries there are always left over or waste products mainly lignin, due to the heterogeneous nature of wood and pulp fibers and the heterogeneity that exists between individual fibers, no method is currently available for the quantitative isolation of native or residual lignin without the risk of structural changes during the isolation. The potential benefits from finding alternative uses of lignin are extensive, and with a double effect. Lignin can be used to replace fossil-based raw materials in a wide range of products, from plastics to individual chemical products, activated carbon, motor fuels and carbon fibers. Furthermore, if there is a market for lignin for such value-added products, the mills will also have an additional economic incentive to take measures for higher energy efficiency. In this study residual lignin were isolated from areca nut shells by acid hydrolysis and were analyzed and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), LCMS and complexity of its structure investigated by NMR.

Keywords: Bioenergy, Wood, Lignin, Areca nut

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11 Determination of Effect Factor for Effective Parameter on Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Material by Concentrated Acid

Authors: Sina Aghili, Ali Arasteh Nodeh

Abstract:

Tamarisk usage as a new group of lignocelluloses material to produce fermentable sugars in bio-ethanol process was studied. The overall aim of this work was to establish the optimum condition for acid hydrolysis of this new material and a mathematical model predicting glucose release as a function of operation variable. Sulfuric acid concentration in the range of 20 to 60%(w/w), process temperature between 60 to 95oC, hydrolysis time from 120 to 240 min and solid content 5,10,15%(w/w) were used as hydrolysis conditions. HPLC was used to analysis of the product. This analysis indicated that glucose was the main fermentable sugar and was increased with time, temperature and solid content and acid concentration was a parabola influence in glucose production.The process was modeled by a quadratic equation. Curve study and model were found that 42% acid concentration, 15 % solid content and 90oC were in optimum condition.

Keywords: Wood, Hydrolysis, saccharification, fermentable sugar

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10 Teaching Timber: The Role of the Architectural Student and Studio Course within an Interdisciplinary Research Project

Authors: Catherine Sunter, Marius Nygaard, Lars Hamran, Børre Skodvin, Ute Groba

Abstract:

Globally, the construction and operation of buildings contribute up to 30% of annual green house gas emissions. In addition, the building sector is responsible for approximately a third of global waste. In this context, the utilization of renewable resources in buildings, especially materials that store carbon, will play a significant role in the growing city. These are two reasons for introducing wood as a building material with a growing relevance. A third is the potential economic value in countries with a forest industry that is not currently used to capacity. In 2013, a four-year interdisciplinary research project titled “Wood Be Better” was created, with the principle goal to produce and publicise knowledge that would facilitate increased use of wood in buildings in urban areas. The research team consisted of architects, engineers, wood technologists and mycologists, both from research institutions and industrial organisations. Five structured work packages were included in the initial research proposal. Work package 2 was titled “Design-based research” and proposed using architecture master courses as laboratories for systematic architectural exploration. The aim was twofold: to provide students with an interdisciplinary team of experts from consultancies and producers, as well as teachers and researchers, that could offer the latest information on wood technologies; whilst at the same time having the studio course test the effects of the use of wood on the functional, technical and tectonic quality within different architectural projects on an urban scale, providing results that could be fed back into the research material. The aim of this article is to examine the successes and failures of this pedagogical approach in an architecture school, as well as the opportunities for greater integration between academic research projects, industry experts and studio courses in the future. This will be done through a set of qualitative interviews with researchers, teaching staff and students of the studio courses held each semester since spring 2013. These will investigate the value of the various experts of the course; the different themes of each course; the response to the urban scale, architectural form and construction detail; the effect of working with the goals of a research project; and the value of the studio projects to the research. In addition, six sample projects will be presented as case studies. These will show how the projects related to the research and could be collected and further analysed, innovative solutions that were developed during the course, different architectural expressions that were enabled by timber, and how projects were used as an interdisciplinary testing ground for integrated architectural and engineering solutions between the participating institutions. The conclusion will reflect on the original intentions of the studio courses, the opportunities and challenges faced by students, researchers and teachers, the educational implications, and on the transparent and inclusive discourse between the architectural researcher, the architecture student and the interdisciplinary experts.

Keywords: Architecture, Interdisciplinary, Research, Wood, students, studio

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9 The Utilization of Bamboo for Wood Bamboo Composite in Lieu of Materials Furniture: Case Study of Furniture Industry in Jepara Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Nurrizka Ramadhan

Abstract:

Today,Demand for wood increase in rapid rate. Wood is widely used for many things range from building materials to furniture materials. This makes the forest area in Indonesia dropped dramatically, it is estimated that the area of Indonesiaan forest in 2020 will be only about 16 million hectares. The more forest in Indonesia loss, people are required to look for another material to subtitute wood for the furniture. Jepara, a city with the largest furniture industry in Indonesia, requires a large supply of wood, it can reach 300.000 – 500.000 cubic meters per year. Most of the furniture in Jepara use teak, mahogany, and rosewood. Though teak wood is a rare species that must be protected. Today the availability of bamboo in Indonesia is very big. With cheap price, and the period of rapid growth makes bamboo can be used as a substitute for wood for the furniture industry in the future. By making use bamboo to make wood bamboo composite to replace the use of wood for furniture material. This paper is about the use of bamboo as a substitute for wood bamboo composite for the furniture industry. Expected in future, wood can be replaced by a wood bamboo composite.

Keywords: Wood, Composite, Furniture, bamboo

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8 Seasons and Saproxylic Beetles Biodiversity in an Urban Park in Tunisia

Authors: Faïek Errouissi, Zina Nasr

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Forest ecosystems are known for its ability to contain a large diversity of fauna especially insects that represent a huge taxonomic group. A portion of forest insects are recognized as saproxylic including the group of organisms that ‘depend on dead or dying wood’ about them, 20% are beetles. We focused our study on saproxylic beetles in an old urban park ‘the park of Belvedere’, located in the north west of Tunis (36° 49'21’ N 10°10'24’ W). The vegetation is dominated by old trees (Eucalyptus, Olea, Aberia, Pinus) and many fallen wood exist. Saproxylic beetles were collected using three interception traps set in the park over one year (from June 2014 to May 2015) and recovered monthly. In total, we collected 189 beetles belonging to 20 families and 57 species. Several saproxylic families (Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Melyridae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae), and well known genus (Rhizopertha, Thrychoplerus, Otiorhychus, Dolichosoma, Epuraea, Anotylus) are recorded. We have retained the largest activity of beetles in spring and a very low richness in winter with zero insect per traps. This result was certainly caused by the variation of meteorological factors that mainly influenced the activity of these organisms. Therefore, we were interested on the saproxylic diversity in an urban ‘forest’, and these results will be more interesting when they are compared in the future with other works from natural forest.

Keywords: Wood, seasons, urban park, saproxylic beetles

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7 Finite Element Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Porous Material

Authors: M. Li, V. D. Thi, M. Khelifa, M. El Ganaoui, Y. Rogaume

Abstract:

This paper presents a two-dimensional model to study the heat and moisture transfer through porous building materials. Dynamic and static coupled models of heat and moisture transfer in porous material under low temperature are presented and the coupled models together with variable initial and boundary conditions have been considered in an analytical way and using the finite element method. The resulting coupled model is converted to two nonlinear partial differential equations, which is then numerically solved by an implicit iterative scheme. The numerical results of temperature and moisture potential changes are compared with the experimental measurements available in the literature. Predicted results demonstrate validation of the theoretical model and effectiveness of the developed numerical algorithms. It is expected to provide useful information for the porous building material design based on heat and moisture transfer model.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Wood, Porous Materials, Finite Element Method, moisture transfer

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6 Adjustments of Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wood Formed under Environmental Stresses

Authors: B. Niez, B. Moulia, J. Dlouha, E. Badel

Abstract:

Trees adjust their development to the environmental conditions they experience. Storms events of last decades showed that acclimation of trees to mechanical stresses due to wind is a very important process that allows the trees to sustain for long years. In the future, trees will experience new wind patterns, namely, more often strong winds and fewer daily moderate winds. Moreover, these patterns will go along with drought periods that may interact with the capacity of trees to adjust their growth to mechanical stresses due to wind. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of wood functional acclimations to environmental conditions in order to predict their behaviour and in order to give foresters and breeders the relevant tools to adapt their forest management. This work aims to study how trees adjust the mechanical and hydraulic functions of their wood to environmental stresses and how this acclimation may be beneficial for the tree to resist to future stresses. In this work, young poplars were grown under controlled climatic conditions that include permanent environmental stress (daily mechanical stress of the stem by bending and/or hydric stress). Then, the properties of wood formed under these stressed conditions were characterized. First, hydraulic conductivity and sensibility to cavitation were measured at the tissue level in order to evaluate the changes in water transport capacity. Secondly, bending tests and Charpy impact tests were carried out at the millimetric scale to locally measure mechanical parameters such as elastic modulus, elastic limit or rupture energy. These experimental data allow evaluating the impacts of mechanical and water stress on the wood material. At the stem level, they will be merged in an integrative model in order to evaluate the beneficial aspect of wood acclimation for trees.

Keywords: Mechanics, Hydraulics, Wood, environmental stresses, acclimation

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5 Wood as a Climate Buffer in a Supermarket

Authors: Kristine Nore, Alexander Severnisen, Petter Arnestad, Dimitris Kraniotis, Roy Rossebø

Abstract:

Natural materials like wood, absorb and release moisture. Thus wood can buffer indoor climate. When used wisely, this buffer potential can be used to counteract the outer climate influence on the building. The mass of moisture used in the buffer is defined as the potential hygrothermal mass, which can be an energy storage in a building. This works like a natural heat pump, where the moisture is active in damping the diurnal changes. In Norway, the ability of wood as a material used for climate buffering is tested in several buildings with the extensive use of wood, including supermarkets. This paper defines the potential of hygrothermal mass in a supermarket building. This includes the chosen ventilation strategy, and how the climate impact of the building is reduced. The building is located above the arctic circle, 50m from the coastline, in Valnesfjord. It was built in 2015, has a shopping area, including toilet and entrance, of 975 m². The climate of the area is polar according to the Köppen classification, but the supermarket still needs cooling on hot summer days. In order to contribute to the total energy balance, wood needs dynamic influence to activate its hygrothermal mass. Drying and moistening of the wood are energy intensive, and this energy potential can be exploited. Examples are to use solar heat for drying instead of heating the indoor air, and raw air with high enthalpy that allow dry wooden surfaces to absorb moisture and release latent heat. Weather forecasts are used to define the need for future cooling or heating. Thus, the potential energy buffering of the wood can be optimized with intelligent ventilation control. The ventilation control in Valnesfjord includes the weather forecast and historical data. That is a five-day forecast and a two-day history. This is to prevent adjustments to smaller weather changes. The ventilation control has three zones. During summer, the moisture is retained to dampen for solar radiation through drying. In the winter time, moist air let into the shopping area to contribute to the heating. When letting the temperature down during the night, the moisture absorbed in the wood slow down the cooling. The ventilation system is shut down during closing hours of the supermarket in this period. During the autumn and spring, a regime of either storing the moisture or drying out to according to the weather prognoses is defined. To ensure indoor climate quality, measurements of CO₂ and VOC overrule the low energy control if needed. Verified simulations of the Valnesfjord building will build a basic model for investigating wood as a climate regulating material also in other climates. Future knowledge on hygrothermal mass potential in materials is promising. When including the time-dependent buffer capacity of materials, building operators can achieve optimal efficiency of their ventilation systems. The use of wood as a climate regulating material, through its potential hygrothermal mass and connected to weather prognoses, may provide up to 25% energy savings related to heating, cooling, and ventilation of a building.

Keywords: Energy, Wood, ventilation, climate buffer, hygrothermal mass, weather forecast

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4 Elastic Constants of Heat Treated Wood

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

Effects of heat treatment on elastic constants of Black pine (Pinus nigra) wood were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures (180 and 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus in three anatomical directions, six Poisson’s ratios and three Shear modulus values associated with the main directions were evaluated by compression tests. Compression strength of the samples in three principal directions was also determined. All of the properties of the specimens tested were altered by heat treatment. The degree of alteration depends on the temperature as well as duration applied. Results indicate that EL and compression strength in L direction were not significantly influenced, compression strength in R direction significantly decreased, ER, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then dropped for 8-hour application of 180 ºC. ER was not significantly affected, compression strength in R direction and EL was significantly decreased, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then decreased for 8-hour application of 210 ºC. The shear modulus of the samples was decreased with application of treatment combinations. Most of the Poisson’s ratios were not affected by heat treatment.

Keywords: Wood, Heat Treatment, elastic constants, black pine

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3 Algae Biomass as Alternatives to Wood Pulp in Handmade Paper Technology

Authors: Piyali Mukherjee, Jai Prakash Keshri

Abstract:

Anticipated shortages of raw materials for paper industry have forged the entry of algae as alternatives to wood pulp. Five algal species: Pithophora sp., Lyngbya sp., Hydrodictyon sp., Cladophora sp. and Rhizoclonium sp. were collected from different parts of Burdwan town, West Bengal, India. Their biomass compositional values were determined with respect to eucalyptus wood pulp. Paper characteristics were studied in terms of breaking length, tensile strength, CI index, pH, brightness, recyclability, and durability. Hydrodictyon sp., besides Rhizoclonium sp. and Cladophora sp. were established as the most suitable candidates for paper pulp formulation in terms of high cellulose, hemicelluloses contents and low lignin and silica contents. Paper from pure Hydrodictyon sp. pulp was found to have statistically significant (p < 0.05) improved breaking-length and tensile strength properties compared to that obtained from Lyngbya sp.

Keywords: biomass, Wood, Pulp, Algae, paper

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2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Liquefaction of Wood and It's Model Components Using a Modified Multistage Shrinking-Core Model

Authors: K. G. R. M. Jayathilake, S. Rudra

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Wood degradation in hot compressed water is modeled with a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code using cellulose, xylan, and lignin as model compounds. Model compounds are reacted under catalyst-free conditions in a temperature range from 250 to 370 °C. Using a simplified reaction scheme where water soluble products, methanol soluble products, char like compounds and gas are generated through intermediates with each model compound. A modified multistage shrinking core model is developed to simulate particle degradation. In the modified shrinking core model, each model compound is hydrolyzed in separate stages. Cellulose is decomposed to glucose/oligomers before producing degradation products. Xylan is decomposed through xylose and then to degradation products where lignin is decomposed into soluble products before producing the total guaiacol, organic carbon (TOC) and then char and gas. Hydrolysis of each model compound is used as the main reaction of the process. Diffusion of water monomers to the particle surface to initiate hydrolysis and dissolution of the products in water is given importance during the modeling process. In the developed model the temperature variation depends on the Arrhenius relationship. Kinetic parameters from the literature are used for the mathematical model. Meanwhile, limited initial fast reaction kinetic data limit the development of more accurate CFD models. Liquefaction results of the CFD model are analyzed and validated using the experimental data available in the literature where it shows reasonable agreement.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Wood, Liquefaction, shrinking-core

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1 Biomass Waste-To-Energy Technical Feasibility Analysis: A Case Study for Processing of Wood Waste in Malta

Authors: G. A. Asciak, C. Camilleri, A. Rizzo

Abstract:

The waste management in Malta is a national challenge. Coupled with Malta’s recent economic boom, which has seen massive growth in several sectors, especially the construction industry, drastic actions need to be taken. Wood waste, currently being dumped in landfills, is one type of waste which has increased astronomically. This research study aims to carry out a thorough examination on the possibility of using this waste as a biomass resource and adopting a waste-to-energy technology in order to generate electrical energy. This study is composed of three distinct yet interdependent phases, namely, data collection from the local SMEs, thermal analysis using the bomb calorimeter, and generation of energy from wood waste using a micro biomass plant. Data collection from SMEs specializing in wood works was carried out to obtain information regarding the available types of wood waste, the annual weight of imported wood, and to analyse the manner in which wood shavings are used after wood is manufactured. From this analysis, it resulted that five most common types of wood available in Malta which would suitable for generating energy are Oak (hardwood), Beech (hardwood), Red Beech (softwood), African Walnut (softwood) and Iroko (hardwood). Subsequently, based on the information collected, a thermal analysis using a 6200 Isoperibol calorimeter on the five most common types of wood was performed. This analysis was done so as to give a clear indication with regards to the burning potential, which will be valuable when testing the wood in the biomass plant. The experiments carried out in this phase provided a clear indication that the African Walnut generated the highest gross calorific value. This means that this type of wood released the highest amount of heat during the combustion in the calorimeter. This is due to the high presence of extractives and lignin, which accounts for a slightly higher gross calorific value. This is followed by Red Beech and Oak. Moreover, based on the findings of the first phase, both the African Walnut and Red Beech are highly imported in the Maltese Islands for use in various purposes. Oak, which has the third highest gross calorific value is the most imported and common wood used. From the five types of wood, three were chosen for use in the power plant on the basis of their popularity and their heating values. The PP20 biomass plant was used to burn the three types of shavings in order to compare results related to the estimated feedstock consumed by the plant, the high temperatures generated, the time taken by the plant to produce gasification temperatures, and the projected electrical power attributed to each wood type. From the experiments, it emerged that whilst all three types reached the required gasification temperature and thus, are feasible for electrical energy generation. African Walnut was deemed to be the most suitable fast-burning fuel. This is followed by Red-beech and Oak, which required a longer period of time to reach the required gasification temperatures. The results obtained provide a clear indication that wood waste can not only be treated instead of being dumped in dumped in landfill but coupled.

Keywords: biomass, Wood, isoperibol calorimeter, waste-to-energy technology

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