Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Women Empowerment Related Abstracts

16 Preparing Entrepreneurial Women: A Challenge for Indian Education System

Authors: Dinesh Khanduja, Pardeep Kumar Sharma


Education as the most important resource in any country has multiplying effects on all facets of development in a society. The new social realities, particularly, the interplay between democratization of education; unprecedented developments in the IT sector; emergence of knowledge society, liberalization of economy, and globalization have greatly influenced the educational process of all nations. This turbulence entails upon education to undergo dramatic changes to keep up with the new expectations. Growth of entrepreneurship among Indian women is highly important for empowering them and this is highly essential for the socio-economic development of a society. Unfortunately, in India, there is poor acceptance of entrepreneurship among women as unfounded myths and fears restrain them to be enterprising. To remove these inhibitions, the education system needs to be re-engineered to make entrepreneurship more acceptable. This paper empirically analyses the results of a survey done on around 500 female graduates in North India to measure and evaluate various entrepreneurial traits present in them. A formative model has been devised in this context, which should improve the teaching-learning process in our education system, which can lead to a sustainable growth of women entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Development, Women Empowerment, women entrepreneurship, education system

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15 Self Help Groups among the Ao Nagas : A Case Study of Alongkima of Nagaland, NorthEast India

Authors: Imkongtenla Pongen


Self Help Groups (SGHs) are socio-commercial instruments in addressing urban poverty and strengthening livelihoods. Being a member of Self Help Group helped in mutual exchanges of ideas, develop risk taking behaviour, learns flexibility in planning of a programme, and interpersonal communication within the group. In the present study, an attempt has been made to examine the functions, characteristics and practices of Self Help Groups and its impact on sustainable development among the Ao Nagas of Alongkima, Nagaland, NorthEast India. They are a tribal group and racially belong to the Mongoloid stock and linguistically to the Tibeto-Burman group. They follow endogamous, patriarchal, and patrilineal system. Major characteristics of Self Help groups in this study are found to be team spirit and group cohesiveness. Such groups are found to be geared towards a number of self-sufficiency based business ventures. The problems faced in normal functioning of the groups are unpunctuality and the inability to attend a meeting by all the members .Participation in such groups has increased women’s influence over the economic resources and decision making in the household, improved self-confidence and living standard, capacity building, self- dependent and self-reliant with no educational and entrepreneurial background, generate savings and hone their skills as motivators and leaders. All these has enhanced her status in every sphere of life in par with the opposite gender. In a nutshell, we can say that what she cannot achieve as an individual, she can achieve as a member of a Self Help Group. Hence, we should try to develop mechanisms to guarantee the sustainability of Self Help Groups which depends on the way they can deal with both internal and external conflicts like globalization and competition from new markets.

Keywords: Microfinance, Women Empowerment, Ao nagas, self help group

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14 Factors Determining the Women Empowerment through Microfinance: An Empirical Study in Sri Lanka

Authors: Y. Rathiranee, D. M. Semasinghe


This study attempts to identify the factors influencing on women empowerment of rural area in Sri Lanka through micro finance services. Data were collected from one hundred (100) rural women involving self employment activities through a questionnaire using direct personal interviews. Judgment and Convenience Random sampling technique was used to select the sample size from three Divisional Secretariat divisions of Kandawalai, Poonakari and Karachchi in Kilinochchi District. The factor analysis was performed on fourteen (14) variables for screening and reducing the variables to identify the influencing factors on empowerment. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between the three empowerment factors and the impact of micro-finance on overall empowerment of rural women. The result of this study summarized the variables into three factors namely decision making, freedom to mobility and family support and which are positively associated with empowerment. In addition to this the value of adjusted R2 is 0.248 indicates that all the variables extracted can be explained 24.8% of the variation in the women empowerment through microfinance. Independent variables of these three factors have a positive correlation with women empowerment as well as significant values at 5 percent level.

Keywords: Micro Finance, Women Empowerment, rural women, influencing factors

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13 Women Empowerment and Sustainable Community Development: Understanding the Challenges for Responsive Action

Authors: Albert T. Akume, Ankama G. Rosecana, Micheal Solomon


Every citizen has rights that must be respected by others in the community. Ironically however, women in most communities are not accorded some of those rights as the male folks. This has not only facilitated their disempowerment but inhibited them from being treated with equal dignity that they deserve as their male counterpart; despite their valuable contribution to the society. Those forces against women empowerment are not limited to socio-cultural practices alone, but the character and nature of the state in Nigeria point to indicators of systemic and structural exclusion embedded in its framework. The consequence of this is that the vital contributions of women to sustainable community development have eluded many communities in Nigeria with adverse tell-tell signs on the environment. It is for this reason that the objective of this study is not only to highlight the causes and challenges associated with women disempowerment, but also to draw attention to the need to correct those anomaly against women in order to genuinely empower them to contribute to sustainable community development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Community, Social Sustainability, Women Empowerment, capacity development

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12 Annual August Meetings as a Stimulator for Female Empowerment: Case Study Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka Evelyn Udeh


Women’s economic participation and empowerment are fundamental to strengthening women’s rights and enabling women to have control over their lives and exert influence in the society. The economic empowerment of women is a prerequisite for sustainable development, pro-poor growth and the achievement of all the millennium development Goals (MDGs). For women to be in development they need to be empowered morally, socially, economically, and financially and this is why women in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria meet every August, the eighth month of the year to discuss matters relating to the pursuit of women empowerment, community welfare, and national development. This exploratory study depicts how annual august meetings serve as a stimulator for female empowerment with a case study Udi Local Government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. The paper finds that ‘August Meeting’ is a regular annual occurrence in Udi Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria particularly for married women and is designed to better the lot of women, the child, family, the church, and the Community. Through this forum, with its seminars and workshops, women have the opportunity to learn everything about womanhood and how to chart new courses of action and sources of empowerment. The gathering gives women the opportunity to be integrated into their community development projects, and having women as stakeholders and not mere observers helps guarantee a speedy and steady community and overall national development progress. Funds are raised for community development projects through annual dues, levies, donations, fines, sales, income from money-yielding ventures, endowment and investiture. Annual August meeting also known as ‘Mothers Summit’ is indeed a powerful stimulator for female empowerment. Support and invigoration of this women initiative is essential for sustainable emancipation of female gender, not just in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria but globally.

Keywords: Sustainability, Emancipation, Women Empowerment, national development, annual august meeting, Udi Lga, mothers' summit, stimulator, community welfare, millennium development goal

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11 The Pitfalls of Empowerment Initiatives in India: Overcoming Male Resistance to Women Empowerment Through Community Outreach, TVET, and Improved Sanitation

Authors: Rao R. Bhavani, Christopher Coley, Srividya Sheshadri


Empowering marginalized populations, especially women, with greater economic, social, and other leadership roles has been shown to have a profound effect on entire communities. There are discernible links between sustainable development, poverty reduction, and skill training for empowerment; however, one of the major challenges with implementing empowerment programs is to establish an understanding within the community that investing in women’s education carries the potential of high return for everyone. Effective strategies that can both empower women, and overcome the complex social issues normally faced, need to be developed and shared across stakeholders. Amrita University’s AMMACHI Labs, a research lab engaged in women empowerment through Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), has launched a new initiative, WE: Sanitation, a project aiming to train women to build their own toilets and promote healthy sanitation practices in rural villages across India. While in some cases, the community has come together and toilets are being built, there has been resistance by the community, especially men, in many places. This paper will explore the experiences of field workers and the initial results of the WE: Sanitation project, including observations on the trends of community dynamics, raise important questions for the direction of development work in general, and especially for sanitation projects in rural India.

Keywords: Women Empowerment, community-based development, gender dynamics, Indian sanitation, TVET

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10 Fijian Women’s Role in Disaster Risk Management: Climate Change

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Priyatma Singh


Climate change is progressively being identified as a global crisis and this has immediate repercussions for Fiji Islands due to its geographical location being prone to natural disasters. In the Pacific, it is common to find significant differences between men and women, in terms of their roles and responsibilities. In the pursuit of prudent preparedness before disasters, Fijian women’s engagement is constrained due to socially constructed roles and expectation of women here in Fiji. This vulnerability is aggravated by viewing women as victims, rather than as key people who have vital information of their society, economy, and environment, as well as useful skills, which, when recognized and used, can be effective in disaster risk reduction. The focus of this study on disaster management is to outline ways in which Fijian women can be actively engaged in disaster risk management, articulating in decision-making, negating the perceived ideology of women’s constricted roles in Fiji and unveiling social constraints that limit women’s access to practical disaster management strategic plan. This paper outlines the importance of gender mainstreaming in disaster risk reduction and the ways of mainstreaming gender based on a literature review. It analyses theoretical study of academic literature as well as papers and reports produced by various national and international institutions and explores ways to better inform and engage women for climate change per ser disaster management in Fiji. The empowerment of women is believed to be a critical element in constructing disaster resilience as women are often considered to be the designers of community resilience at the local level. Gender mainstreaming as a way of bringing a gender perspective into climate related disasters can be applied to distinguish the varying needs and capacities of women, and integrate them into climate change adaptation strategies. This study will advocate women articulation in disaster risk management, thus giving equal standing to females in Fiji and also identify the gaps and inform national and local Disaster Risk Management authorities to implement processes that enhance gender equality and women’s empowerment towards a more equitable and effective disaster practice.

Keywords: Climate Change, Disaster Risk Management, Gender Mainstreaming, Women Empowerment

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9 Gender and Sustainable Rural Tourism: A Study into the Experiences and the Roles of Local Women in the Sundarbans Area of Bangladesh

Authors: Jakia Rajoana


The key aim of this research is to achieve Sustainable Rural Tourism (SRT) through women’s empowerment in the Sundarbans area of Bangladesh. Women in rural areas in developing countries depend on biomass for their survival and that of their family. Yet they have an unequal access to resources as well as decision making, thus making them more vulnerable to any changes in the environment. Women in the developing countries experience gender inequality which is culturally embedded resulting into women having less access to and control over financial and material resources, information, and also a lack of recognition of their contribution as compared to men. Their disadvantaged social position is augmented by their extreme poverty, little or no power they have over their own lives vis-à-vis the disproportionate burden they bear in reproduction and child-raising. Despite the significance of the need to pay attention to gender related issues in sustainable rural tourism (SRT), research remains rather scant. For instance, there is very little research that illustrates the role of women in tourism in the Sundarbans area. Thus empirically, this research seeks to fill a significant gap by focusing on rural areas and in particular focus on considerably under-researched area, namely the Sundarbans women’s role in tourism. In order to fully comprehend their experiences and life stories, this research will apply the empowerment theory and consider it along with the research on sustainable rural tourism. Since, women’s empowerment can act as a potential tool for SRT development and also examine the role tourism plays in the lives of Sundarbans’ women. Methodologically, this study will follow a qualitative research design using an ethnographic approach. Participant observation, semi- structured interviews, and documentation will be the primary data collection instruments in four communities – Shayamnagar, Koyra, Mongla and Sarankhola – in the Sundarbans area. It is hoped that by focusing on the life stories of these invisible women, research is better able to engage with nuances inherent in marginal and significantly under-researched communities.

Keywords: Gender, Women Empowerment, sundarbans, sustainable rural tourism

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8 Prospects and Challenges of Sports Culture in India: A Case Study of Gujarat

Authors: Jay Raval


Sports and physical fitness have been a vital component of our civilization. It is such a power which, motivates and inspires every individual, communities and even countries to be aware of the physical and mental health. All though, sports play vital role in the overall development of the nation, but in the developing countries such as India, this culture of sports is yet to be motivated. However, in India lack of sporting culture has held back the growth of a similar industry in the past, despite the growing awareness and interest in various different sports besides cricket. Hence, due to a lack of sporting culture, corporate investments in India’s sports have traditionally been limited to only non-profit corporate social responsibility activities and initiatives. From past couple of years, India has come up with new initiatives such as Indian Premier League (Cricket), Hockey India League, Indian Badminton League, Pro Kabaddi League, and Indian Super League (Football) which help to boost Indian sports culture and thereby increase economy of the country. Out of 29 states of India, among all of those competitive states, Gujarat is showing very rapid increase in sports participation. Khel Mahakumbh, the competition conducted for the last six years has been a giant step in this direction and covers rural and urban areas of Gujarat. The objective of the research is to address the overall development of the sports system. Sports system includes infrastructure, coaches, resources, and participants. The current existing system is not disabled friendly. This research paper highlights adequate steps in order to improve and sort out pressing issues in the sports system. Education system is highly academic-centric with a definite trend towards reducing school sports and extra-curricular sports in the Gujarat state. Constituents of this research work make an attempt to evaluate the framework of the Olympic Charter, the Sports Authority of India, the Indian Olympics Association and the National Sports Federations. It explores the areas that need to be revamped, rejuvenated and reoriented to function in an open, democratic, equitable, transparent and accountable manner. Research is based on mixed method approach. It is used for the data collection which includes the personal interviews, document analysis and the use of news article. Quality assurance is also tested by conducting the trustworthiness of the paper. Mixed method helps to strengthen the analysis part and give strong base for the discussion during the analysis.

Keywords: Physical Development, Women Empowerment, sports authority of India, sports policy

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7 Women Right to Land Entitlement for Gender Equality: Critical Review

Authors: S. Aziz, A. Mir, A. Yousuf, M. Iqbal


This study deals with the women’s right to land for gender equality. Economic Transformation Initiative, Gilgit-Baltistan (ETI-GB), an ambitious program supported by International Fund for Agricultural Development United Nation (IFAD, UN), aims to strengthen land reforms process in disputed area of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) Pakistan, that is taking place first time in the history. This project is a brick to build the foundation of land reforms and land policies in GB. The ETI-GB provides substantive support to government of GB in developing policy measures and initiatives to promote women’s right to have and to own land is kind of unconventional step in a very traditional society. It would be interesting to have discussion and document the people’s response regarding this project. The study has used mixed method for data collection. For qualitative data, content analysis is used to have a thorough understanding of different types of land reforms across the globe particularly in South Asia. Theoretical understanding of the literature is essential which provides the basis why land reforms are important and how far it plays an important role when it comes to eliminating inequality. Focused group discussion was carried out for verification and triangulation of data. For quantitative, survey was conducted to take responses from the people of the region and analyzed. The program is implemented in Ghizer district of GB. 2340 households were identified as beneficiaries of newly developed land. Among them, 2285 were men households, and 55 were women households. There is a significant difference between men and women households. In spite of great difference, it is a great achievement of the donor that in history of GB, first time women are going to be entitled to land ownership. GB is a patriarchal society, many social factors like cultural, religious play role for gender inequality. In developing countries, such as Pakistan, the awareness of land property rights has not been given proper attention to gender equality development frameworks. It is argued that land property rights of women have not been taken into mainstream policymaking in the development of nation building process. Consequently, this has generated deprivation of women’s property rights, low income level, lack of education and poor health. This paper emphasises that there should have proper land property right of women in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan, provided that the gender empowerment could be increased in terms of women’s property rights.

Keywords: Property Rights, Gender equality, Women Empowerment, women right to land ownership

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6 Women Empowerment, Joint Income Ownership and Planning for Building Household Resilience on Climate Change: The Case of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Authors: S. I. Mwasha, Z. Robinson, M. Musgrave


Communities, especially in the global south, have been reported to have low adaptive capacity to cope with climate change impacts. As an attempt to improve adaptive capacity, most studies have focused on understanding the access of the household resources which can contribute to resilience against changes. However, little attention has been shown in uncovering how the household resources could be used and their implications to resilience against weather related shocks. By using a case study qualitative study, this project analyzed the trends in livelihoods practices and their implication to social equity. The study was done in three different villages within Kilimanjaro region. Each in different agro ecological zone. Two focus group discussions in two agro-ecological zones were done, one for women and another one for men except in the third zone where focus group participant were combined together (due to unforeseen circumstances). In the focus group discussion, several participatory rural appraisal tools were used to understand trend in crops and animal production and the use in which it is made: climate trends, soil fertility, trees and other livelihoods resources. Data were analyzed using thematic network analysis. Using an amalgam of magnitude (to note weather comments made were positive or negative) and descriptive coding (to note the topic), six basic themes were identified under social equity: individual ownership, family ownership, love and respect, women no education, women access to education as well as women access to loans. The results implied that despite mum and dad in the family providing labor in the agro pastoral activities, there were separations on who own what, as well as individual obligations in the family. Dad owned mostly income creating crops and mum, food crops. therefore, men controlled the economy which made some of them become arrogant and spend money to meet their interests sometimes not taking care of the family. Separation in ownership was reported to contribute to conflicts in the household as well as causing controversy on the use income is spent. Men were reported to use income to promote matriarchy system. However, as women were capacitated through access to education and loans they become closer to their husband and get access to own and plan the income together for the interest of the family. Joint ownership and planning on the household resources were reported to be important if families have to better adapt to climate change. The aim of this study is not to show women empowerment and joint ownership and planning as only remedy for low adaptive capacity. There is the need to understand other practices that either directly or indirectly impacts environmental integrity, food security and economic development for household resilience against changing climate.

Keywords: Climate Change, Resilience, Adaptive Capacity, Women Empowerment

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5 Women Trainees' Perception on Non-Formal Educational Workshops in Improving Their Socio-Economic Status in Algeria and Costa Rica

Authors: Bahia Braktia, S. Anna Marcela Montenegro, Imene Abdessemed


Adult education is still considered a crucial area of education. In a developing framework, it is regarded as a practical approach for social inclusion and poverty reduction. They are also perceived as a way to serve adults who did not have the chance to education in their early ages by providing them knowledge, skills and values. Non-formal adult education and trainings are critical means in a society to break poverty and unemployment, and to decrease the social inequality. This paper investigates the perception of women trainees about a series of workshops in natural beauty products, held in Algeria and Costa Rica and organized by a non-profit educational organization, to improve their socio-economic status. This research seeks to explore ways of empowering women by assessing their needs and providing them with skills to start their own business. A questionnaire is administered before the workshops and focus groups are held at the end. A qualitative research method is employed to analyze the data. Preliminary results show that the trainees aspire to create their businesses with the objectives of poverty reduction and social inclusion. The findings also reveal the need for small business funding programs and entrepreneurial training programs.

Keywords: Adult Education, socio-economic status, Non-Formal Education, Women Empowerment

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4 The New Family Law in Kuwait: A Step Towards International Standards

Authors: Dina Hadad


Women empowerment in the Arab world remains a central issue in the context of development and human rights. Akin to many societies around the globe, gender equality is yet to be achieved. This research will provide an introduction into the current legal stand of some Arab countries in terms of gender equality and women rights in the context of family law. It will look specifically into the recent family law in Kuwait and why many women consider it a positive step towards affirming their rights and their needs. Depending on comparative material from the area, the research argues that whilst some countries made efforts to promote women’s empowerment as a concept and practice throughout its policies, others have indeed some unique journeys that reflect organic and from within evolutions. Nonetheless, these efforts are yet to reflect a comprehensive structure that addresses women legal and political empowerment let alone social status. A contradiction in the realities of different Arab states is nothing new since the lack of comprehensive rights-based policy making in Arab countries has contributed to the disconnect between economic growth and development challenges.

Keywords: Islamic Law, Family Law, Gender equality, International Standards, Women Empowerment, cultural challenges

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3 A Geographical Study of Women Status in an Emerging Urban Industrial Economy: Experiences from the Asansol Sub-Division and Durgapur Sub-Division of West Bengal, India

Authors: Mohana Basu, Snehamanju Basu


Urbanization has an immense impact on the holistic development of a region. In that same context, the level of women empowerment plays a significant role in the development of any region, particularly a region belonging to a developing country. The present study investigates the status of women empowerment in the Asansol Durgapur Planning Area of the state of West Bengal, India by investigating the status of women and their access to various facilities and awareness about the various governmental and non-governmental schemes meant for their elevation. Through this study, an attempt has been to made to understand the perception of the respondents on the context of women's empowerment. The study integrates multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data collected from various reports, field-based measurements, questionnaire survey and community based participatory appraisals. Results reveal that women of the rural parts of the region are relatively disempowered due to the various restrictions imposed on them and enjoy lower socioeconomic clout than their male counterparts in spite of the several remedial efforts taken by the government and NGOs to elevate their position in the society. A considerable gender gap still exists regarding access to education, employment and decision-making power in the family and significant differences in attitude towards women are observable in the rural and urban areas. Freedom of women primarily vary according to their age group, educational level, employment and income status and also on the degree of urbanization. Asansol Durgapur Planning Area is primarily an industrial region where huge employment generation scope exists. But these disparities are quite alarming and indicate that economic development does not always usher in socially justifiable rights and access to resources for both men and women alike in its awake. In this backdrop, this study will attempt to forward relevant suggestions which can be followed for betterment of the status of women.

Keywords: Development, Economic Development, Urbanization, Women Empowerment, disempowered

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2 The Impact of Social Enterprises on Women Empowerment in South Asia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Saba Aziz


Social enterprises are playing a growing role in transforming the lives of individuals and communities around the world, providing innovative solutions to critical social and environmental issues such as education, job creation, and health care. Women are increasingly utilising services of these enterprises to overcome socio-economic constraints and increase their access to business and market. This article systematically reviews the available literature on the role of social enterprises on women's empowerment in South Asia. Twelve key terms were specified and researched on five databases. Some of the literature was excluded based on the lack of evidence on the involvement of social enterprises. Remaining literature was rated according to the quality; due to methodological inconsistency, the findings are presented in a descriptive form. The relevant studies review the impact of social enterprises on women’s economic, social, relational, health, personal and political aspects of empowerment. In discussion, we outline areas for further research on social enterprises activity that impacts women’s overall empowerment specifically in South Asia.

Keywords: Micro Finance, Well-being, Social Enterprise, Pakistan, Social impact, Women Empowerment, south asia, systematic review

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1 Fear of Gender-Based Crime and Women Empowerment: An Empirical Study among the Urban Residents of Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Biro Judit


Fear of gender-based crime and fear of crime victimization for women is a major concern in the urban areas of Bangladesh. Based on the recent data from various human rights organizations and international literature the study found that gender-based crime especially sexual assault and rape are increasing in Bangladesh at a significant rate in comparison to other countries. The major focus of the study was to identify the relationship between fear of gender-based crime and women empowerment. To explore the fact the study followed the mixed methodological approach comprising with quantitative and qualitative methods and used secondary information from national and international sources. Corresponding global pictures the present study found that gender, age, complexion, social position, and ethnicity were more common factors of sexual assault and victimization in Bangladesh which lead to women become more fearful about crime victimization than men. Fear of gender-based crime traumatizes women which leads to withdrawal of their non-essential everyday works and some time from the essential works based on their social position, financial status, and social honor in the society. The increasing crime rate also increases the propensity to fear of criminal victimization, traumatization, and feeling of helplessness which make them vulnerable. The patriarchal culture and practices in Bangladesh based on religious culture and established social norms women always feel defenseless therefore they withdraw themselves from various social activities and own interest. Women who have already victimized feel more fear and become traumatized, and who do not victimize yet but know the severity of victimization from the media and others’ have the feeling of fear of crime. Women who find themselves as weak bonding and low networks with their neighbors and living for a short duration have a feeling of more fear and avoid visiting a certain place in a certain time and avoid some social activities. The study found the young women have more possibilities to become victimized through the feeling of fear of crime is higher among elderly women than young. Though women feel fear of all kinds of crime but usually all aged women are more fearful of sexual assault and rape than other violent crimes. Therefore, elderly women and another person in the family does not allow younger girls to go and involve outside activities to secure their family status. On the other hand, fear of crime in public transport is more common to all aged women at a higher level and sometimes they compromise their freedom, independence, financial opportunities, the job only to avoid the perceived threat, and save their social and cultural honor. The study also explores that fear of crime does not always depend on crime rate but the crime news, the severity of the crime, delay justice, the ineffectiveness of police, bail of criminals, corruption and political favoritism, etc. Finally, the study shows that the fear of gender-based crime and violence is working as a potential barrier to ensuring women's empowerment in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Women Empowerment, fear of crime, sexual assaults, rape, compromise personal freedom, fear of gender-based crime, fear of violent crime victimization, withdrawal from regular activities

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