Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

WLAN Related Abstracts

12 Analyzing the Impact of DCF and PCF on WLAN Network Standards 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g

Authors: Amandeep Singh Dhaliwal


Networking solutions, particularly wireless local area networks have revolutionized the technological advancement. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have gained a lot of popularity as they provide location-independent network access between computing devices. There are a number of access methods used in Wireless Networks among which DCF and PCF are the fundamental access methods. This paper emphasizes on the impact of DCF and PCF access mechanisms on the performance of the IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards. On the basis of various parameters viz. throughput, delay, load etc performance is evaluated between these three standards using above mentioned access mechanisms. Analysis revealed a superior throughput performance with low delays for 802.11g standard as compared to 802.11 a/b standard using both DCF and PCF access methods.

Keywords: WLAN, DCF, PCF, IEEE

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11 Relay Node Selection Algorithm for Cooperative Communications in Wireless Networks

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple transmission rates. Even though the use of multiple transmission rates increase the WLAN capacity, this feature leads to the performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication was introduced to relieve the performance anomaly problem. Data packets are delivered to the destination much faster through a relay node with high rate than through direct transmission to the destination at low rate. In the legacy cooperative protocols, a source node chooses a relay node only based on the transmission rate. Therefore, they are not so feasible in multi-flow environments since they do not consider the effect of other flows. To alleviate the effect, we propose a new relay node selection algorithm based on the transmission rate and channel contention level. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and delay.

Keywords: cooperative communications, WLAN, MAC protocol, relay node

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10 Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based on Opnet

Authors: Adnane Latif, Wafa Benaatou


In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS and WiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.

Keywords: Heterogeneous, WLAN, WiMAX, vertical handoff, UMTS

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9 Performance Evaluation of Vertical Handover on Silom Line BTS

Authors: Silumpa Suboonsan, Suwat Pattaramalai


In this paper, the performance of internet usage by using Vertical Handover (VHO) between cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) on Silom line Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) is evaluated. In the evaluation model, there is the WLAN on every BTS station and there are cellular base stations along the BTS path. The maximum data rates for cellular network are 7.2, 14.4, 42, and 100Mbps and for WLAN are 54, 150, and 300Mbps. The simulation are based on users using internet, watching VDOs and browsing web pages, on the BTS train from first station to the last station (full time usage) and on the BTS train for traveling some number of stations (random time). The results shows that VHO system has throughput a lot more than using only cellular network when the data rate of WLAN is more than one of cellular network. Lastly, the number of watching HD VDO and Full HD VDO is higher on VHO system on both regular time and rush hour of BTS travelling.

Keywords: cellular, WLAN, vertical handover, silom line BTS

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8 Data Rate Based Grouping Scheme for Cooperative Communications in Wireless LANs

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards provide multiple transmission rates, which can be changed dynamically according to the channel condition.Cooperative communications we reintroduced to improve the overallperformance of wireless LANs with the help of relay nodes with higher transmission rates. The cooperative communications are based on the fact that the transmission is much faster when sending data packets to a destination node through a relay node with higher transmission rate, rather than sending data directly to the destination node at low transmission rate. To apply the cooperative communications in wireless LAN, several MAC protocols have been proposed. Some of them can result in collisions among relay nodes in a dense network. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new protocol. Relay nodes are grouped based on their transmission rates. And then, relay nodes only in the highest group try to get channel access. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and collision probability.

Keywords: cooperative communications, WLAN, MAC protocol, relay node

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7 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, WLAN, dual-band E, dual-band L, compact radiator

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6 Impact of Capture Effect on Receiver Initiated Collision Detection with Sequential Resolution in WLAN

Authors: Sethu Lekshmi, Shahanas, Prettha P.


All existing protocols in wireless networks are mainly based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision avoidance. By applying collision detection in wireless networks, the time spent on collision can be reduced and thus improves system throughput. However in a real WLAN scenario due to the use of nonlinear modulation techniques only receiver can decided whether a packet loss take place, even there are multiple transmissions. In this proposed method, the receiver or Access Point detects the collision when multiple data packets are transmitted from different wireless stations. Whenever the receiver detects a collision, it transmits a jamming signal to all the transmitting stations so that they can immediately stop their on-going transmissions. We also provide preferential access to all collided packet to reduce unfairness and to increase system throughput by reducing contention. However, this preferential access will not block the channel for the long time. Here, an in-band transmission is considered in which both the data frames and control frames are transmitted in the same channel. We also provide a simple mathematical model for the proposed protocol and give the simulation result of WLAN scenario under various capture thresholds.

Keywords: WLAN, collision detection, capture effect, collision resolution, receiver initiated

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5 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, LTE, WLAN, slot antenna

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4 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar


This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.


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3 A Compact Ultra-Wide Band Antenna with C-Shaped Slot for WLAN Notching

Authors: Maryam Rasool, Farhan Munir, Fahad Nawaz, Saad Ahmad


A patch antenna operating in the Ultra-Wide Band of frequency (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) is designed with enhanced security from interference from other applications by incorporating the notching technique. Patch antennas in the Ultra-Wide Band are becoming widely famous due to their low power, light weight and high data rate capability. Micro strip patch antenna’s patch can be altered to increase its bandwidth and introduce UWB character in it. The designed antenna is a patch antenna consisting of a conductive sheet of metal mounted over a large sheet of metal called the ground plane with a substrate separating the two. Notched bands are public safety WLAN, WLAN and FSS. Different techniques used to implement the UWB antenna were individually implemented and there results were examined. V shaped patch was then chosen and modified to an arrow shaped patch to give the optimized results operating on the entire UWB region with considerable return loss. The frequency notch prevents the operation of the antenna at a particular range of frequency, hence minimizing interference from other systems. There are countless techniques for introducing the notch but we have used inverted C-shaped slots in the UWB patch to get the notch characteristics as output and also wavelength resonators to introduce notch in UWB band. The designed antenna is simulated in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) 13.0 by Ansoft.

Keywords: WLAN, uwb, notch, HFSS

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2 Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications

Authors: Ahmed Boutejdar, Bishoy I. Halim, Soumia El Hani, Larbi Bellarbi, Amal Afyf


In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.

Keywords: WLAN, WiMAX, HFSS, planar monopole antenna, FR4 substrate, C and Ku

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1 Isolation Enhancement of Compact Dual-Band Printed Multiple Input Multiple Output Antenna for WLAN Applications

Authors: Adham M. Salah, Tariq A. Nagem, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, James M. Noras


Recently, the demand for wireless communications systems to cover more than one frequency band (multi-band) with high data rate has been increased for both fixed and mobile services. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology is one of the significant solutions for attaining these requirements and to achieve the maximum channel capacity of the wireless communications systems. The main issue associated with MIMO antennas especially in portable devices is the compact space between the radiating elements which leads to limit the physical separation between them. This issue exacerbates the performance of the MIMO antennas by increasing the mutual coupling between the radiating elements. In other words, the mutual coupling will be stronger if the radiating elements of the MIMO antenna are closer. This paper presents a low–profile dual-band (2×1) MIMO antenna that works at 2.4GHz, 5.3GHz and 5.8GHz for wireless local area networks (WLAN) applications. A neutralization line (NL) technique for enhancing the isolation has been used by introducing a strip line with a length of λg/4 at the isolation frequency (2.4GHz) between the radiating elements. The overall dimensions of the antenna are 33.5 x 36 x 1.6 mm³. The fabricated prototype shows a good agreement between the simulated and measured results. The antenna impedance bandwidths are 2.38–2.75 GHz and 4.4–6 GHz for the lower and upper band respectively; the reflection coefficient and mutual coupling are better than -25 dB in both lower and higher bands. The MIMO antenna performance characteristics are reported in terms of the scattering parameters, envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), total active reflection coefficient, capacity loss, antenna gain, and radiation patterns. Analysis of these characteristics indicates that the design is appropriate for the WLAN terminal applications.

Keywords: WLAN, ECC, neutralization line, MIMO antenna, multi-band, mutual coupling

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